Art museum

An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the display of art from the museum's own collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or have restrictions in place. Although concerned with visual art, art galleries are used as a venue for other cultural exchanges and artistic activities, such as performance arts, music concerts, or poetry readings. Art museums frequently host themed temporary exhibitions which include items on loan from other collections. In distinction to a commercial art gallery, run by an art dealer, the primary purpose of an art museum is not the sale of the items on show. Throughout history and expensive works of art have been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as an early form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects donated their collections to temples.

It is unclear. In Europe, from the Late Medieval period onwards, areas in royal palaces and large country houses of the social elite were made accessible to sections of the public, where art collections could be viewed. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to people wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside; the treasuries of cathedrals and large churches, or parts of them, were set out for public display. Many of the grander English country houses could be toured by the respectable for a tip to the housekeeper, during the long periods when the family were not in residence. Special arrangements were made to allow the public to see many royal or private collections placed in galleries, as with most of the paintings of the Orleans Collection, which were housed in a wing of the Palais-Royal in Paris and could be visited for most of the 18th century. In Italy, the art tourism of the Grand Tour became a major industry from the 18th century onwards, cities made efforts to make their key works accessible.

The Capitoline Museums began in 1471 with a donation of classical sculpture to the city of Rome by the Papacy, while the Vatican Museums, whose collections are still owned by the Pope, trace their foundation to 1506, when the discovered Laocoön and His Sons was put on public display. A series of museums on different subjects were opened over subsequent centuries, many of the buildings of the Vatican were purpose-built as galleries. An early royal treasury opened to the public was the Green Vault of the Kingdom of Saxony in the 1720s. Established museums open to the public began to be established from the 17th century onwards based around a collection of the cabinet of curiosities type; the first such museum was the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, opened in 1683 to house and display the artefacts of Elias Ashmole that were given to Oxford University in a bequest. The Kunstmuseum Basel, through its lineage which extends back to the Amerbach Cabinet, a collection of works by Hans Holbein purchased by the city of Basel in 1661, is an early municipally owned museum.

In the second half of the eighteenth century, many private collections of art were opened to the public, during and after the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars many royal collections were nationalized where the monarchy remained in place, as in Spain and Bavaria. In 1753, the British Museum was established and the Old Royal Library collection of manuscripts was donated to it for public viewing. In 1777, a proposal to the British government was put forward by MP John Wilkes to buy the art collection of the late Sir Robert Walpole who had amassed one of the greatest such collections in Europe, house it in a specially built wing of the British Museum for public viewing. After much debate, the idea was abandoned due to the great expense, twenty years the collection was bought by Tsaritsa Catherine the Great of Russia and housed in the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg; the Bavarian royal collection was opened to the public in 1779 and the Medici collection in Florence around 1789.

The opening of the Musée du Louvre during the French Revolution in 1793 as a public museum for much of the former French royal collection marked an important stage in the development of public access to art by transferring the ownership to a republican state. The building now occupied by the Prado in Madrid was built before the French Revolution for the public display of parts of the royal art collection, similar royal galleries were opened to the public in Vienna and other capitals. In Great Britain, the corresponding Royal Collection remained in the private hands of the monarch and the first purpose-built national art galleries were the Dulwich Picture Gallery, founded in 1814 and the National Gallery, London opened to the public a decade in 1824; the National Gallery in Prague was not formed by opening an existing royal or princely art collection to the public but was created from scratch as a joint project of some Czech aristocrats in 1796. University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities.

This phenomenon exists in the East, making it a global practice. Although overlooked, there are over 700 university art

Tiger (1800 ship)

Tiger was launched at Liverpool in 1800 as a West Indiaman. She made one voyage in 1806-1807 as a slave ship, she returned to the West Indies trade. She captured three American merchant vessels in 1813, she wrecked on 30 September 1819 with loss of life. Tiger appears in Lloyd's Register in 1800 with M. Hays, master, W. Goore and trade Liverpool–Jamaica. In 1803 T. Oxton replaced Hays as master. In late March 1805 Tiger, master, put into Savannah, she had grounded while sailing from Jamaica to Liverpool. In late 1805 Gore sold Tiger to Co.. Her master changed from Oxton to Kneal, her trade from Liverpool−Jamaica to Liverpool−Africa. Captain Charles Kneale acquired a letter of marque on 21 April 1806, he sailed from Liverpool on 16 May 1806, bound for the Bight of Gulf of Guinea islands. Tiger arrived at Montego Bay on 5 December, she had embarked 433 slaves and she landed 389, for a loss rate of 10.2%. She arrived back at Liverpool on 16 July, she had left Liverpool with 50 crew members and she suffered one crew death on the voyage.

On her return Tiger underwent Barton & Co. purchased her. Captain William Field Porter became her trade became Liverpool -- Barbados. Tiger and Irlam owned by Barton & Co. left Barbados on 12 March 1808 and were reported on 22 April to have arrived at Liverpool. On 24 July, Porter, sailed from Barbados and was reported on 6 September to have arrived back at Liverpool. On 29 November 1811 Captain Porter stood trial at London for having taken on board Tiger at Carlisle Bay, two deserters from the Royal Navy and having concealed them when the Navy sent a Lieutenant to look for them. Porter was found guilty and fined £500 and to be held at Newgate for 12 months or until he had paid his fine. On 11 January 1813, Tiger sailed from Barbados in company with Maxwell, which too belonged to Barton & Co. On their way they captured two American vessels that they sent into Barbados: Lavinia, sailing from Cadiz to Savannah, Rising States, sailing from Salem to St. Jago. Maxwell and Tiger captured a third vessel, sailing from the South Seas to America.

However a British sloop-of-war took Manilla from them near the Western Isles and sent her into Plymouth. Maxwell arrived at Tiger at Tuskar. Lavinia arrived at Barbados on 29 January. Rising States reached Barbados. Manilla, M'Clure, arrived at Plymouth on 23 February; the British government made a cartel of Rising States and sent her to Providence, Rhode Island, with 180 American prisoners from Barbados and St Bartholomews. In 1813 Tiger underwent a large repair; that year her master changed to J. Hull; the next year her master changed from Hull to R. Higgin, her trade returned to Liverpool–Barbados. On 18 April 1816 Tiger grounded at Mockbeggar, she was returned to the River. By the 24th Tiger was on her way to Barbados. In 1818 T. Smith replaced Higgins as master of Tiger. Tiger, master, was lost on 30 September 1819 near the Saltee Islands while returning to Liverpool from Barbados. Only four of the 30 crew and passengers aboard survived

Belyayev DB-LK

The DB-LK was a bomber aircraft designed and built in the USSR in 1939. Viktor Nikolayevich Belyayev had an illustrious early career with TsAGI, AVIAVnito, Aeroflot, OMOS, AGOS, KOSOS and the Tupolev OKB, he designed and built several gliders from 1920, including flying wing designs, in 1934 he designed a transport aircraft with twin tail-booms each accommodating ten passengers. Belalyev developed the twin boom idea into the twin-fuselage DB-LK, which had two short fuselages either side of a long chord wing centre section, with the outer wing sections swept forward 5 deg 42 min, tapering at 7:1 out to raked back tips. A large fin and rudder on a short central boom, carried a small tailplane with large elevators; the airframe was of light alloy stressed skin construction with five spar wings covered with sheet aluminium alloy. Each fuselage pod carried a single M-88 engine in a long chord cowling, driving a three-bladed VISh-23D propeller, as well as a pilot/navigator cockpit and radio operator/gunner station in each of the extensively gazed tail-cones.

The outer wings had slats, ailerons and 45deg Zap flaps, the raked tips had small ailerons. The retractable undercarriage consisted of single main legs in the fuselage pods aft of the engines and a tail-wheel in the base of the fin. Before flight trials began, the test pilot, M. A. Nyukhtikov, carried out many fast taxis to assess the handling of the unconventional DB-LK, one of which ended in an undercarriage collapse. Flight trials got under way early in 1940 revealing an excellent performance, but with a high sensitivity to centre of gravity changes. Production was not authorised. Data from Gunston, Bill. "Encyclopaedia of Russian Aircraft 1875–1995". London:Osprey. 1995. ISBN 1-85532-405-9General characteristics Crew: 4 Length: 9.78 m Wingspan: 21.6 m Height: 3.65 m Wing area: 56.87 m2 Wing profile: max speed Empty weight: 6,004 kg Gross weight: 10,672 kg Powerplant: 2 × M-88, 708.41/745.7 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 488 km/h Range: 2,900 km Service ceiling: 8,500 m Rate of climb: 6.15 m/s Armament 4 × 7.62mm ShKAS machine guns.

2 × 7.62mm ShKAS machine guns. Aircraft of comparable role and era Belyayev Babochka Related lists List of aircraft Gunston, Bill; the Osprey Encyclopaedia of Russian Aircraft 1875–1995 London, Osprey. 1995. ISBN 1-85532-405-9 DB-LK on the Sky Corner DB-LK on Dieselpunks