A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to the International Council of Museums, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2018 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For more figures, see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with five museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts f
The Universal Dictionary of Violin & Bow Makers is a cited reference work providing information on 9,000 violin makers. The work is based on the extensive notes of composer William Henley. Henley had in his youth studied with August Wilhelmj, became a professor of composition and principal of the violin at the Royal Academy in London. Having played violins from many manufacturers, Henley sought to compile a comprehensive list evaluating violin and bow makers. After Henley's death in 1957, dealer Cyril Woodcock completed and published the work based on Henley's unfinished notes; the work was first published in five volumes in 1959 and 1960, republished in a single volume in 1973. The book was the first to include a significant number of American craftsmen. Henley traveled extensively as a performer with his quartet, it was during his trips, including a supposed trip to America during the 1920s, that Henley gathered information for his book. Australian violin maker Alan Coggins and regular contributor to The Strad wrote an article in 2003 challenging the objectivity of Woodcock's editing, among other things and inflated descriptions of luthiers in the United States.
Nonetheless, the dictionary, at the time of publishing, was among several during the decade that complemented a seminal earlier lexicon, The Violin and Lute Makers From the Middle Ages to the Present, by Willibald Leo von Lütgendorff, published in 1922. Others included one by a Belgian musicologist René Vannes, compiled two editions of a Dictionary. Chicago violinist Joseph Roda compiled a seminal book with detailed illustrations by Gladys Mickel Bell about bows and bow makers. German luthier Fridolin Hamma from Stuttgart compiled a book about German-made violins and a similar book about Italian-made violins. Czech author Karel Jalovec compiled a books about Italian violin makers, Bohemian violin makers and Austrian violin makers, an Encyclopedia of violin makers. Dutch luthier Max Möller from Amsterdam published a lexical work about the violin factories. OCLC 301499
The U. S. Small Business Administration Community Advantage Loan program is designed for new and existing businesses that need loans under $250,000; the loan can be used to finance a startup company or expand an existing small business or buy real estate. The SBA guarantees 85 percent of loans up to $150,000 and 75 percent of loans greater than $150,000. Launched in 2011, the Community Advantage program intends to expand access to capital in underserved communities by allowing mission-focused, community-based financial institutions – including a Certified Development Company – to offer this loan to small businesses. Greater access to credit can help spur firms giving the economy a boost; the SBA designates specific lenders throughout the United States to offer Community Advantage loans. The first six lenders selected for the program were: CDC Small Business Finance, California. Thirty-four other lenders have since been approved. Maximum Loan Size: $250,000 Terms: 7–10 years for working capital, business acquisitions, tenant improvements, start-up expenses Terms: 25 years for real estate Interest Rate: up to Prime + 6% No pre-payment penalties There are specific eligibility criteria for the Community Advantage loan, which include credit history, cash flow and industry experience.
A designated Community Advantage lender can help a small business owner determine if they can qualify by reviewing an eligibility form
Luxury Card is a held financial services company owned by Black Card LLC. It provides credit cards and card loyalties to clients through its Mastercard Titanium Card, Mastercard Black Card, Mastercard Gold Card issued by Barclays Bank Delaware, it publishes Luxury Magazine, a members only digital and print publication. Luxury Card was founded as Black Card LLC and launched its first card in 2008. Known as the "Black Card," it was issued as a high-end credit card to provide rewards to consumers with great credit. Luxury Card registered "Black Card" as a U. S. trademark in 2009. American Express sued as the name was similar to its Centurion Card, which it contended was known as "the Black Card." The U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York ruling that Black Card, LLC's trademark of the name "Black Card" should be canceled on grounds that it was descriptive; as of 2019, it uses the registered trademark under license. In 2014, Black Card LLC rebranded as Luxury Card. In 2016, Luxury Card changed its Black Card from Visa to Mastercard.
It added the Titanium Card and Gold Card to its offerings. Luxury card provides three different credit cards labeled as Black Card, Titanium Card, Gold Card. All three cards are made of carbon and stainless steel and the Gold Card is made with 24-karat gold; the Titanium Card is the most affordable of Luxury Card's offerings. The Black Card, is a rewards credit card, the middle-tier offering from Luxury Card; the Gold Card is considered the higher end of the three cards. Benefits for each card vary and can include a 24/7 concierge service, worldwide acceptance, Luxury Magazine, a members-only quarterly magazine in print and digital form. Other benefits can include cash-back bonuses, airport lounge access, travel insurance for luggage, trip interruption/cancellation, rental car damages, ID theft protection, fraud liability protection, it has a mobile app for users to access benefits and services. Luxury Card official website BlackCard.com LuxuryMagazine.com
"She's Gone Gone Gone" is a country music song written by Harlan Howard and recorded by American singer Lefty Frizzell. Frizzell's version of the song reached number 12 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart. An uncredited review in Billboard said that the song has a "catchy rhythm but sad lyric" and that Frizzell "performs in his top fashion". In 1984, Carl Jackson covered the song, his version, released as his debut single for Columbia Records, peaked at number 44 on the same chart. "She's Gone, Gone" was a single by American country music artist Glen Campbell. It was released in September 1989 as the first single from the album Walkin' in the Sun; the song reached number 6 on the Billboard Hot Country Tracks chart. Campbell's version was his last Top 10 hit on this chart, his only release for Jimmy Bowen's short-lived Universal label; the album itself was released via Capitol Records
Damián Ariel Escudero is an Argentine professional footballer who plays for Brazilian club Cuiabá Esporte Clube as a left midfielder. He has had a peripatetic career, playing for a number of clubs in Argentina, Spain and Brazil after starting out at Vélez Sarsfield. Escudero was an Argentina youth international. Escudero was born in Santa Fe. A product of Club Atlético Vélez Sarsfield's youth system, he made his first-team debut in a 0–1 away defeat against Newell's Old Boys on 4 March 2006, he found himself at the centre of a controversy at the end of the year, when the club refused to release him and Mauro Zárate for the 2007 South American Youth Championship. When the 2007 edition of the Copa Libertadores started, Escudero was a dynamic part in the team's attacking movements, he helped Vélez reach the round-of-16 in scoring four goals. Escudero had an irregular 2007–08 season, during which his team failed to qualify for the Copa Sudamericana. However, he did net three times including once against Boca Juniors.
For 2008–09, Escudero was bought by Spanish La Liga side Villarreal CF in a US$12,000,000 move. He was loaned to Real Valladolid because his club's non-EU quota was full, appearing throughout the campaign due to injury. Escudero returned to Villarreal for 2009–10, but continued to be barred by the likes of Robert Pires and Santi Cazorla. Most of his appearances were due to injury problems to the latter, he scored against Xerez CD on 14 March 2010 after only playing six minutes in the game. In June 2010, Escudero was sold to Boca Juniors, with Villarreal retaining 50% of the player's rights; the following year he was loaned to Grêmio Foot-Ball Porto Alegrense and performed solidly but, after the two clubs could not agree on a transfer fee for another loan, he returned to Buenos Aires. In January 2012, Escudero returned to Brazil signing a one-year contract with Clube Atlético Mineiro, who paid Boca US$700.000. Apart from a one-year spell in the Mexican Liga MX with Puebla F. C. he continued to play in the country in the following years, with Esporte Clube Vitória, CR Vasco da Gama and Cuiabá Esporte Clube.
In 2007, Escudero was selected in the Argentina under-20 squad to compete in the FIFA World Cup in Canada, but hardly played due to injury. The following year, he first played for the Olympic side against Guatemala in preparation for the 2008 Summer Olympics, appearing as a left back in the 5–0 rout. Escudero was nicknamed Pichi, the same used by his father Osvaldo, a football player. Atlético Mineiro Campeonato Mineiro: 2012Vitória Campeonato Baiano: 2013Cuiabá Copa Verde: 2019 Argentina FIFA U-20 World Cup: 2007 Argentine League statistics Statistics at Irish Times at Archive.today Damián Escudero at BDFutbol Damián Escudero – FIFA competition record Damián Escudero at Soccerway