Punk ideologies are a group of varied social and political beliefs associated with the punk subculture and punk rock. In its original incarnation, the punk subculture originated out of working class angst and the frustrations many youth were feeling about economic inequality and the bourgeois hypocrisy and neglect of working people and their struggles, it was concerned with concepts such as mutual aid, against selling out, humanitarianism, anti-authoritarianism, anti-consumerism, anti-corporatism, anti-war, anti-conservatism, anti-liberal, anti-globalization, anti-gentrification, anti-racism, anti-sexism, gender equality, racial equality, health rights, civil rights, animal rights, disability rights, free-thought and non-conformity. One of its main tenets was a rejection of corporate mass culture and its values, it continued to evolve its ideology as the movement spread throughout North America from its origins in England and New York and embrace a range anti-racist and anti-sexist belief systems.
Punk ideologies range from left wing views to apolitical. Punk ideologies are expressed through punk rock music and lyrics, punk literature such as amateur fanzines, spoken word performances or recordings, punk fashion, or punk visual art; some punks have participated in direct action, such as protest or demonstration disruption, political violence, street barricades, pirate radio, off-grid energy, graffiti and public and business property destruction. Indirect action through counter-propaganda, protests or boycotts, they squat in urban and rural collective house's with held group funds in common. Punk fashion was an expression of nonconformity, as well as opposition to both mainstream culture and the status quo. Punk fashion displays aggression and individualism; some punks have tattoos that express sociopolitical messages. They stage Punk Rock Food Drives such as D. O. A's Unity for Freedom. Punk visual art often includes political messages. Many punks wear second-hand clothing as an anti-consumerist statement.
An attitude common in the punk subculture is the opposition to selling out, which refers to abandoning of one's values and/or a change in musical style toward pop and embracing anything in mainstream capitalist culture or more radio-friendly rock in exchange for wealth, status, or power. Selling out has the meaning of adopting a more mainstream lifestyle and ideology; the issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term poseur is applied to those who try to associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying core values or philosophy. Because anti-establishment attitudes are such an important part of the punk subculture, a network of independent record labels and distributors has developed; some punk bands have chosen to break from this independent system and work within the established system of major labels. The do it yourself ideal is common in the punk scene in terms of music recording and distribution, concert promotion, photocopying magazines and flyers.
The expression DIY was coined by commentators after the fact. On religious issues, punk is atheist or skeptic, but some punk bands are theist and have promoted religions or spirituality such as Christianity, Umbanda, the Rastafari movement, Neo-Paganism, Vedanta or Krishna; the following include some of the most common ideologies and philosophies within the punk subculture. There is a complex and worldwide underground of punks committed to anarchism as a serious political ideology, sometimes termed "peace punks" or "anarcho-punks." While some well-known punk bands such as the Sex Pistols and The Exploited had songs about anarchy, notably the Pistols' Anarchy in the UK, they did not embrace anarchism as a disciplined ideology. As such, these bands are not considered part of the anarcho-punk scene. Anarcho-punks believe in direct action. Many anarcho-punks are pacifists and therefore believe in using non-violent means of achieving their aims; these include peaceful protest, legal graffiti, culture jamming, freeganism, civil disobedience and subvertising.
Some anarcho-punks believe that violence or property damage is an acceptable way of achieving social change. This manifests itself as rioting, illegal graffiti, wire cutting, hunt sabotage, participation in Class War-style activities, melee weapons and in extreme cases, bombings. Notable anarchist punk artists include: Aus-Rotten, Dave Insurgent, Subhumans, Colin Jerwood, Dave Dictor. In the 1980s, both straight edge hardcore punk in the United States and anarcho-punk in the United Kingdom became associated with animal rights. Vegetarianism and veganism became a feature of the punk subculture; this association continues on into the 21st century, as evidenced by the prominence of vegan punk events such as Fluff Fest in Europe. Some punks claim to be non-political, such as the band Charged GBH and the singer G. G. Allin, although some socio-political ideas have appeared in their lyrics; some Charged GBH songs have discussed social issues, a few have expressed anti-war views. G. G. Allin expressed a vague desire to kill the United States president and destroy the political system in his song "Violence Now".
Punk subgenres that are apolitical include: glam punk, horror punk, punk pathetique and pop punk. Many of the bands credited with starting the pun
The Fall (band)
The Fall were an English post-punk band, formed in 1976 in Prestwich, Greater Manchester. They underwent many line-up changes, with vocalist and founder Mark E. Smith as the only constant member; the Fall's long-term musicians included drummers Paul Karl Burns. First associated with the late 1970s punk movement, the Fall's music underwent numerous stylistic changes concurrently with changes in the group's lineup. Nonetheless, their music has been characterised by an abrasive, repetitive guitar-driven sound, tense bass and drum rhythms, Smith's caustic lyrics, described by critic Simon Reynolds as "a kind of Northern English magic realism that mixed industrial grime with the unearthly and uncanny, voiced through a unique, one-note delivery somewhere between amphetamine-spiked rant and alcohol-addled yarn." While the Fall never achieved widespread success beyond minor hit singles in the late 1980s and early 1990s, they have maintained a strong cult following. The Fall have been called "the most prolific band of the British post-punk movement."
From 1979 to 2017, they released thirty-two studio albums, more than three times that number when live albums and compilations are taken into account. They were long associated with BBC disc jockey John Peel, who championed them from early on in their career and described them as his favourite band, famously explaining, "they are always different. Smith's death in 2018 put an end to the group; the Fall were formed in Prestwich, Greater Manchester, in 1976 by Mark E. Smith, Martin Bramah, Una Baines and Tony Friel; the four friends would meet to take drugs. Their musical influences included Can, the Velvet Underground, Captain Beefheart and garage rock bands like the Monks and the Stooges; the members were devoted readers, with Smith citing H. P. Lovecraft, Raymond Chandler and Malcolm Lowry among his favourite writers. After seeing the Sex Pistols play Manchester's Lesser Free Trade Hall in June 1976, they decided to start a group. Smith wanted to name the group "the Outsiders", but Friel came up with the name "the Fall" after a 1956 novel by Albert Camus.
Smith became the singer, Bramah the guitarist, Friel played bass guitar and Baines bashed biscuit tins instead of drums. Their music was intentionally repetitive; the song "Repetition", declaring that "we've repetition in the music, we're never going to lose it", served as a manifesto for the Fall's musical philosophy. The group played their first concert on 23 May 1977, at the North West Arts basement, their first drummer was remembered only as "Dave" or "Steve" for thirty-four years, until music writer Dave Simpson discovered that he had certainly been a man named Steve Ormrod. Ormrod lasted just one show, at least in part due to political differences with the other members of the group, he was replaced by Karl Burns. The Fall soon caught the attention of Buzzcocks manager Richard Boon, who funded their first recording session, in November 1977 they recorded material for their debut EP, Bingo-Master's Break-Out! Boon planned to release the EP on his New Hormones label, but after discovering that he could not afford to do so he gave the tapes back to the group.
Thus, the Fall's debut on vinyl came in June 1978 when "Stepping Out" and "Last Orders" were released by Virgin Records on Short Circuit: Live at the Electric Circus, a compilation of live recordings made at the Manchester venue The Electric Circus in October 1977 just before it was closed. The Fall's line-up underwent its first drastic changes in 1977–78. Kay Carroll, Una Baines's friend and colleague at the psychiatric hospital, became the group's manager and occasional backing vocalist, as well as Smith's girlfriend. Friel, unhappy with Carroll's management, left in December 1977, he was replaced by Jonnie Brown, by Eric McGann. The Fall were filmed on 13 February 1978 for the Granada TV show What's On, hosted by Tony Wilson, performing "Psycho Mafia", "Industrial Estate" and "Dresden Dolls", featuring the brief line-up of Smith, Burns, Baines and McGann. Baines left in March 1978 after a drug overdose and subsequent nervous breakdown, was replaced by Yvonne Pawlett. Martin Bramah blamed the dissolution of the original line-up on Smith's style of leadership, together with Carroll's favouring of her partner: "The break-up wasn't so much about the music, though.
16-year-old Marc Riley, the group's roadie, was recruited to the group to play bass guitar. Bingo-Master's Break-Out! Was released in August 1978 on Step Forward Records; the single "It's the New Thing" followed in November 1978, in December the Fall recorded their debut album Live at the Witch Trials, released in March 1979. Burns quit the group shortly after the album was recorded, was replaced by Mike Leigh from
Ted Leo and the Pharmacists
Ted Leo and the Pharmacists are an American rock band formed in 1999 in Washington, D. C, they have toured internationally. Though the group's lineup has fluctuated throughout their career, singer/guitarist Ted Leo has remained the band's main songwriter, creative force, only constant member; the group's music combines elements of punk rock, indie rock, art punk, traditional rock, folk music and dub reggae. Their most recent album, The Brutalist Bricks, was released on March 9, 2010. Ted Leo started the Pharmacists as a solo project in 1999, his previous band Chisel had broken up in the late 1990s, after which he spent time with the Spinanes and the Sin Eaters and acted as producer for the Secret Stars. In 1999, he recorded the album tej leo, Rx / pharmacists, a solo effort, experimental and mixed elements of punk rock, reggae and audio experimentation. In 2000, Leo expanded the project to a full band including James Canty on guitar, Jodi V. B. on bass and Amy Farina on drums. He named the backing band the Pharmacists, the group released the EP Treble in Trouble.
The EP moved away from many of the experimental elements of tej leo by relying on more traditional rock structures and instrumentation, though it still explored some non-traditional characteristics. The band signed to Lookout! Records in 2001 and experienced more lineup changes as V. B. and Farina left the group. For the album The Tyranny of Distance and Canty utilized a number of in-studio backing musicians; the album incorporated multiple styles including acoustic folk balladry and pop rock. During the supporting tours for The Tyranny of Distance, bassist Dave Lerner, drummer Chris Wilson and keyboardist Dorien Garry became permanent members of the band; the group's next album, 2003's Hearts of Oak, drew from punk rock and new wave influences. The EP Tell Balgeary, Balgury Is Dead soon followed and featured a number of Leo's solo songs and covers; the band's video documentary Dirty Old Town was released the same year. Prior to the recording of 2004's Shake the Sheets and Canty left the band, reducing the group to a trio.
The album explored social and political topics and experienced some success with the single "Me and Mia". The iTunes-exclusive EP Sharkbite Sessions followed in 2005. In 2006, Ted Leo and the Pharmacists left Lookout! Amidst financial crises within the label, signed a new contract with Chicago-based Touch and Go Records; the band's popularity continued to expand through constant touring and performances at large festivals such as the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival and the Pitchfork Music Festival. Their fourth full-band album, Living with the Living, was released on March 20, 2007. First-run copies of the album included the Mo' Living EP. Former guitarist Canty rejoined them for touring in support of Living with the Living. Bassist Lerner played his last show with the band at McCarren Park Pool in Brooklyn, NY on August 12, 2007. Marty "Violence" Key of the Pioneers replaced him on tour. In April 2008, the band recorded a performance for the Beautiful Noise concert series in Toronto, they performed as openers for six dates of Pearl Jam's 2008 U.
S. tour in June. They toured with Against Me! and Future of the Left in September and October 2008. On September 15, 2008, the band released a surprise digital EP, Rapid Response, in response to the violence at the 2008 Republican National Convention in St. Paul, Minnesota; the EP was made available on the Touch and Go website for a choice of prices with all proceeds going to Democracy Now! and Food Not Bombs of St. Paul. Ted Leo's most recent album, The Brutalist Bricks, was released on March 9, 2010, followed by a tour of the United States and Europe. In September 2011, Key left the band to open a record store; the band has continued as a trio with Canty taking over on bass. In a 2012 interview, Leo alluded to a new album to be released that summer, which has yet to be issued. In 2017, Leo released The Hanged Man under his own name. Ted Leo – vocals, piano James Canty – guitar, backing vocals Chris Wilson – drums Marty Key – bass, backing vocals Adrienne Berry – saxophone, keyboard, backing vocals Ralph Darden – guitar, backing vocals Jodi V.
B – bass Amy Farina – drums Dorien Garry – keyboards Dave Lerner – bass, backing vocals Official website Ted Leo and the Pharmacists collection at the Internet Archive's live music archive
Post-punk is a broad type of rock music that emerged from the punk movement of the 1970s, in which artists departed from the simplicity and traditionalism of punk rock to adopt a variety of avant-garde sensibilities and diverse influences. Inspired by punk's energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches, artists experimented with sources including electronic music and black styles like dub, free jazz, disco. Communities that produced independent record labels, visual art, multimedia performances and fanzines developed around these pioneering musical scenes, which coalesced in cities such as London, New York, Melbourne and San Francisco; the early post-punk vanguard was represented by groups such as Siouxsie and the Banshees, Public Image Ltd, the Pop Group, Cabaret Voltaire, Pere Ubu, Gang of Four, Joy Division, Talking Heads, Throbbing Gristle, the Slits, the Cure, the Fall, Au Pairs. The movement was related to the development of ancillary genres such as gothic rock, neo-psychedelia, no wave, industrial music.
By the mid-1980s, post-punk had dissipated while providing the impetus for the New Pop movement as well much subsequent alternative and independent music. Post-punk is a diverse genre. Called "new musick", the terms were first used by various writers in the late 1970s to describe groups moving beyond punk's garage rock template and into disparate areas. Sounds writer Jon Savage used "post-punk" in early 1978. NME writer Paul Morley stated that he had "possibly" invented the term himself. At the time, there was a feeling of renewed excitement regarding what the word would entail, with Sounds publishing numerous preemptive editorials on new musick. Towards the end of the decade, some journalists used "art punk" as a pejorative for garage rock-derived acts deemed too sophisticated and out of step with punk's dogma. Before the early 1980s, many groups now categorized as "post-punk" were subsumed under the broad umbrella of "new wave", with the terms being deployed interchangeably. "Post-punk" became differentiated from "new wave".
Nicholas Lezard described the term "post-punk" as "so multifarious that only the broadest use... is possible". Subsequent discourse has failed to clarify whether contemporary music journals and fanzines conventionally understood "post-punk" the way that it was discussed in years. Music historian Clinton Heylin places the "true starting-point for English post-punk" somewhere between August 1977 and May 1978, with the arrival of guitarist John McKay in Siouxsie and the Banshees in July 1977, Magazine's first album, Wire's new musical direction in 1978 and the formation of Public Image Ltd. Simon Reynolds' 2005 book Rip It Up and Start Again is referenced as post-punk doctrine, although he has stated that the book only covers aspects of post-punk that he had a personal inclination toward. Wilkinson characterized Reynolds' readings as "apparent revisionism and'rebranding'". Author/musician Alex Ogg criticized: "The problem is not with what Reynolds left out of Rip It Up... but, that too much was left in".
Ogg suggested that post-punk pertains to a set of artistic sensibilities and approaches rather than any unifying style, disputed the accuracy of the term's chronological prefix "post", as various groups labeled "post-punk" predate the punk rock movement. Reynolds defined the post-punk era as occurring between 1978 and 1984, he advocated that post-punk be conceived as "less a genre of music than a space of possibility", suggesting that "what unites all this activity is a set of open-ended imperatives: innovation. AllMusic employs "post-punk" to denote "a more adventurous and arty form of punk". Many post-punk artists were inspired by punk's DIY ethic and energy, but became disillusioned with the style and movement, feeling that it had fallen into a commercial formula, rock convention, self-parody, they repudiated its populist claims to accessibility and raw simplicity, instead of seeing an opportunity to break with musical tradition, subvert commonplaces and challenge audiences. Artists moved beyond punk's focus on the concerns of a white, working-class population and abandoned its continued reliance on established rock and roll tropes, such as three-chord progressions and Chuck Berry-based guitar riffs.
These artists instead defined punk as "an imperative to constant change", believing that "radical content demands radical form". Though the music varied between regions and artists, the post-punk movement has been characterized by its "conceptual assault" on rock conventions and rejection of aesthetics perceived of as traditionalist, hegemonic or rockist in favor of experimentation with production techniques and non-rock musical styles such as dub, electronic music, noise, free jazz, world music, the avant-garde; some previous musical styles served as touchstones for the movement, including particular brands of krautrock, art rock, art pop and other music from the 1960s. Artists once again approached the studio as an instrument, using new recording methods and pursuing novel sonic territories. Author Matthew Bannister wrote that post-punk artists rejected the high cultural references of 1960s rock artists like the Beatles and Bob Dylan as well as paradigms that defined "rock as progressive, as art, as'sterile' studio perfectionism... by adopting an avant-garde aesth
New York Dolls
The New York Dolls were an American hard rock band formed in New York City in 1971. Along with the Velvet Underground and the Stooges, they were one of the first bands of the early punk rock scenes. Although their original line-up fell apart the band's first two albums—New York Dolls and Too Much Too Soon —became among the most popular cult records in rock; the line-up at this time comprised vocalist David Johansen, guitarist Johnny Thunders, bassist Arthur Kane and pianist Sylvain Sylvain and drummer Jerry Nolan. On stage, they donned an androgynous wardrobe, wearing high heels, eccentric hats, satin. Nolan described the group in 1974 as "the Dead End Kids of today". According to the Encyclopedia of Popular Music, the New York Dolls predated the punk and glam metal movements and were "one of the most influential rock bands of the last 20 years", they influenced rock groups such as the Sex Pistols, the Ramones, Guns N' Roses, the Damned and the Smiths, whose frontman Morrissey organized a reunion show for the New York Dolls' surviving members in 2004.
After reuniting, they recorded and released three more albums—One Day It Will Please Us to Remember Even This, Cause I Sez So and Dancing Backward in High Heels. The New York Dolls have been inactive following a 2011 British tour with Alice Cooper. Sylvain Sylvain and Billy Murcia, who went to junior high school and high school together, started playing in a band called "the Pox" in 1967. After the frontman quit and Sylvain started a clothing business called Truth and Soul and Sylvain took a job at A Different Drummer, a men's boutique, across the street from the New York Doll Hospital, a doll repair shop. Sylvain said. In 1970 they formed a band again and recruited Johnny Thunders to join on bass, though Sylvain ended up teaching him to play guitar, they called themselves the Dolls. When Sylvain left the band to spend a few months in London and Murcia went their separate ways. Thunders was recruited by Kane and Rick Rivets, playing together in the Bronx. At Thunders' suggestion, Murcia replaced the original drummer.
Thunders sang for the band Actress. An October 1971 rehearsal tape recorded by Rivets was released as Dawn of the Dolls; when Thunders decided that he no longer wanted to be the front man, David Johansen joined the band. The group was composed of singer David Johansen, guitarists Johnny Thunders and Rick Rivets, bass guitarist Arthur "Killer" Kane and drummer Billy Murcia; the original lineup's first performance was on Christmas Eve 1971 at a homeless shelter, the Endicott Hotel. After getting a manager and attracting some music industry interest, the New York Dolls got a break when Rod Stewart invited them to open for him at a London concert. While on a brief tour of England in 1972, Murcia was invited to a party, where he passed out from an accidental overdose, he was put in force-fed coffee in an attempt to revive him. Instead, it resulted in asphyxiation, he was found dead on the morning of November 6, 1972, at the age of 21. Once back in New York, the Dolls auditioned drummers, including Marc Bell, Peter Criscuola, Jerry Nolan, a friend of the band.
They selected Nolan, after US Mercury Records' A&R man Paul Nelson signed them, they began sessions for their debut album. In 1972, the band took on Marty Thau as manager. New York Dolls was produced by singer-songwriter and solo artist Todd Rundgren. In an interview in Creem magazine, Rundgren says he touched the recording. Sales were sluggish in the middle US, a Stereo Review magazine reviewer in 1973 compared the Dolls' guitar playing to the sound of lawnmowers. America's mass rock audience's reaction to the Dolls was mixed. In a Creem magazine poll, they were elected both best and worst new group of 1973; the Dolls toured Europe, while appearing on UK television, host Bob Harris of the BBC's Old Grey Whistle Test derided the group as "mock rock," comparing them unfavorably to the Rolling Stones. For their next album, Too Much Too Soon, the quintet hired producer George "Shadow" Morton, whose productions for the Shangri-Las and other girl-groups in the mid-1960s had been among the band's favorites.
Mercury dropped the Dolls not long after the second album. By 1975 the Dolls were playing smaller venues. Drug and alcohol abuse by Thunders and Kane as well as artistic differences added to the tensions among members. In late February or early March Malcolm McLaren became their informal manager, he got the band red leather outfits to wear on a communist flag as backdrop. The Dolls did a 5-concert tour of New York's five boroughs, supported by Pure Hell; the Little Hippodrome show was recorded and released by Fan Club records in 1982 as Red Patent Leather. It was a bootleg album, remixed by Sylvain, with former manager Marty Thau credited as executive producer. Due to Kane being unable to play that night, roadie Peter Jordan played bass, though he was credited as having played "second bass". Jordan filled in for Kane. In March and April McLaren took the band on a tour of South Florida. Jordan replaced Kane for most of those shows
The Staatliches Bauhaus known as the Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. The Bauhaus was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar; the German term Bauhaus—literally "building house"—was understood as meaning "School of Building", but in spite of its name and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department. Nonetheless, it was founded upon the idea of creating a Gesamtkunstwerk in which all the arts, including architecture, would be brought together; the Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in modern design, Modernist architecture and art and architectural education. The Bauhaus movement had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, typography; the school existed in three German cities—Weimar, from 1919 to 1925. Although the school was closed, the staff continued to spread its idealistic precepts as they left Germany and emigrated all over the world.
The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique and politics. For example, the pottery shop was discontinued when the school moved from Weimar to Dessau though it had been an important revenue source. After Germany's defeat in World War I and the establishment of the Weimar Republic, a renewed liberal spirit allowed an upsurge of radical experimentation in all the arts, suppressed by the old regime. Many Germans of left-wing views were influenced by the cultural experimentation that followed the Russian Revolution, such as constructivism; such influences can be overstated: Gropius did not share these radical views, said that Bauhaus was apolitical. Just as important was the influence of the 19th-century English designer William Morris, who had argued that art should meet the needs of society and that there should be no distinction between form and function. Thus, the Bauhaus style known as the International Style, was marked by the absence of ornamentation and by harmony between the function of an object or a building and its design.
However, the most important influence on Bauhaus was modernism, a cultural movement whose origins lay as early as the 1880s, which had made its presence felt in Germany before the World War, despite the prevailing conservatism. The design innovations associated with Gropius and the Bauhaus—the radically simplified forms, the rationality and functionality, the idea that mass production was reconcilable with the individual artistic spirit—were partly developed in Germany before the Bauhaus was founded; the German national designers' organization Deutscher Werkbund was formed in 1907 by Hermann Muthesius to harness the new potentials of mass production, with a mind towards preserving Germany's economic competitiveness with England. In its first seven years, the Werkbund came to be regarded as the authoritative body on questions of design in Germany, was copied in other countries. Many fundamental questions of craftsmanship versus mass production, the relationship of usefulness and beauty, the practical purpose of formal beauty in a commonplace object, whether or not a single proper form could exist, were argued out among its 1,870 members.
The entire movement of German architectural modernism was known as Neues Bauen. Beginning in June 1907, Peter Behrens' pioneering industrial design work for the German electrical company AEG integrated art and mass production on a large scale, he designed consumer products, standardized parts, created clean-lined designs for the company's graphics, developed a consistent corporate identity, built the modernist landmark AEG Turbine Factory, made full use of newly developed materials such as poured concrete and exposed steel. Behrens was a founding member of the Werkbund, both Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer worked for him in this period; the Bauhaus was founded at a time when the German zeitgeist had turned from emotional Expressionism to the matter-of-fact New Objectivity. An entire group of working architects, including Erich Mendelsohn, Bruno Taut and Hans Poelzig, turned away from fanciful experimentation, turned toward rational, sometimes standardized building. Beyond the Bauhaus, many other significant German-speaking architects in the 1920s responded to the same aesthetic issues and material possibilities as the school.
They responded to the promise of a "minimal dwelling" written into the new Weimar Constitution. Ernst May, Bruno Taut and Martin Wagner, among others, built large housing blocks in Frankfurt and Berlin; the acceptance of modernist design into everyday life was the subject of publicity campaigns, well-attended public exhibitions like the Weissenhof Estate and sometimes fierce public debate. The Vkhutemas, the Russian state art and technical school founded in 1920 in Moscow, has been compared to Bauhaus. Founded a year after the Bauhaus school, Vkhutemas has close parallels to the German Bauhaus in its intent and scope; the two schools were
Anthony Howard Wilson was a British record label owner and television presenter, nightclub manager and journalist for Granada Television and the BBC. Wilson was the man behind some of Manchester's most successful bands, he was one of the five co-founders of Factory Records and the founder and manager of the Haçienda nightclub. Wilson was known as "Mr Manchester", dubbed as such for his work in promoting the culture of Manchester throughout his career, he was portrayed by Steve Coogan in Michael Winterbottom's 2002 film 24 Hour Party People, by Craig Parkinson in Anton Corbijn's 2007 film Control. Depending in what he was working on, he would switch between alternate versions of his name. For example, when he was being a serious formal and respectable persona, such as certain tv presenting appearances, he would use "Anthony H Wilson", or for example when reporting for "Granada Reports" he was referred to as "Anthony Wilson", otherwise he would go by "Tony Wilson" most while on Factory Records business, all alternate versions being legitimate variants of his full name.
Wilson was born 20 February 1950 in Hope Hospital in the Hope area of Pendleton, Lancashire, to Sydney Wilson and Doris Knupfer, moved to Marple, near Stockport in Cheshire, at the age of five. His maternal grandfather was a Jewish German immigrant. After passing his Eleven plus exam, Wilson attended De La Salle Grammar School in Weaste Lane, Salford, he developed a love of literature and language, ignited by a performance of Hamlet at Stratford upon Avon. Wilson started his professional career in 1968 at the age of 17, working as an English and Drama teacher at Blue Coat School in Oldham, he graduated with a degree in English from Jesus College, Cambridge. After his graduation in 1971, Wilson began as a trainee news reporter for ITN, before moving to Manchester in 1973, where he secured a post at Granada Television, he went on to present Granada's culture and events programme, So It Goes. Through the 1970s and 1980s he was one of the main anchors on Granada Reports, a regional evening news programme, where he worked with Richard and Judy among others.
He continued in this line of work at the height of his success in the music industry. He reported for ITV's celebrated current affairs series, World in Action in the early 1980s and from 1987 hosted After Dark, the UK's first open-ended, late night chat show, in which he chaired live discussions in a darkened studio, first on Channel 4 and BBC4. In 1989, Wilson hosted The Other Side of Midnight, another Granada weekly regional culture slot, covering music and the arts in general. Wilson co-presented the BBC's coverage of The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert at Wembley Stadium with Lisa I'Anson in 1992, he hosted the short-lived TV quiz shows Topranko! and MTV Europe's Remote Control in the 1990s, as well as the Manchester United themed quiz, for MUTV. In 2006 he became the regional political presenter for the BBC's The Politics Show, he presented a weekly radio show on Xfm Manchester – Sunday Roast – and a show on BBC Radio Manchester. In October he joined Blur bassist Alex James, Blue Peter presenter Konnie Huq and unknown presenter Emily Rose to host the 21st century version of the iconic 1980s music programme, "The Tube", for Channel 4 Radio which ran until 2 March 2007.
His final music TV show was filmed in December 2006 for Manchester's Channel M. Only one episode, entitled ` The New Friday', was recorded. Wilson's involvement in popular music stemmed from hosting Granada's culture and music programme "So It Goes". Wilson, who intensely disliked the music scene of the mid-1970s, dominated by such genres as progressive rock and arena rock, saw the Sex Pistols at Manchester's Lesser Free Trade Hall, in June 1976, an experience which he described as "nothing short of an epiphany", he booked them for the last episode of the first series the first television showing of their revolutionary British strand of punk rock. He was the manager of many bands, including A Certain Ratio and the Durutti Column, was part owner and manager of Factory Records, home of Happy Mondays, Joy Division and New Order – the band managed by friend and business partner Rob Gretton, he founded and managed the Haçienda nightclub and Dry Bar, together forming a central part of the music and cultural scene of Manchester.
The scene was termed "Madchester" in early 1990s. He made little money from Factory Records or the Haçienda, despite the enormous popularity and cultural significance of both endeavours. Both Factory Records and the Haçienda came to an abrupt end in the late 1990s. A semi-fictionalised version of his life and of the surrounding era was made into the 2002 film, 24 Hour Party People, which stars Steve Coogan as Wilson. After the film was produced, Wilson wrote a novelisation based on the screenplay, he played a minor role in the 2005 film, A Cock and Bull Story, in which his character interviews Steve Coogan. Wilson co-produced the 2007 Ian Curtis biopic, Control, he died a few months before its release. Wilson was a partner in the annual'In the City' and'Interactive City' music festivals and industry conferences, F4 Records, the fourth version of Factory Records, set up to be an online distributor for Wilson's long term protégé Vini Reilly, of the Durutti Column. Wilson refused to pay for private healthcare on principle.
Wilson was an outspoken supporter of regionalism. Along with others including Ruth Turner, he started a campaign for North West England to be allowed a referendum on the creation of a regional assembly, called the "