World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time. Climate change may refer to a change in weather conditions. Climate change is caused by such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics. Certain human activities have identified as significant causes of recent climate change. Scientists actively work to understand past and future climate by using observations, more recent data are provided by the instrumental record. The most general definition of change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Niño, the term climate change is often used to refer specifically to anthropogenic climate change. Anthropogenic climate change is caused by activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earths natural processes.
In this sense, especially in the context of environmental policy, within scientific journals, global warming refers to surface temperature increases while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas levels affect. A related term is climatic change, in 1966, the World Meteorological Organization proposed the term climatic change to encompass all forms of climatic variability on time-scales longer than 10 years, regardless of cause. Change was a given and climatic was used as an adjective to describe this kind of change, when it was realized that human activities had a potential to drastically alter the climate, the term climate change replaced climatic change as the dominant term to reflect an anthropogenic cause. Climate change was incorporated in the title of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate change, used as a noun, became an issue rather than the technical description of changing weather. On the broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the Sun and this energy is distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, and other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions.
Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcings or forcing mechanisms, there are a variety of climate change feedbacks that can either amplify or diminish the initial forcing. Some parts of the system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond more slowly in reaction to climate forcings. There are key factors which when exceeded can produce rapid change. Forcing mechanisms can be internal or external. Internal forcing mechanisms are natural processes within the system itself
The interests of the employees are commonly presented by representatives of a trade union to which the employees belong. The union may negotiate with an employer or may negotiate with a group of businesses, depending on the country. A collective agreement functions as a contract between an employer and one or more unions. The parties often refer to the result of the negotiation as a bargaining agreement or as a collective employment agreement. The term collective bargaining was first used in 1891 by Beatrice Webb and it refers to the sort of collective negotiations and agreements that had existed since the rise of trade unions during the 18th century. In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 made it illegal for any employer to deny rights to an employee. The issue of unionizing government employees in a trade union was much more controversial until the 1950s. In 1962 President John F Kennedy issued an order granting Federal employees the right to unionize. The right to bargain is recognized through international human rights conventions.
Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights identifies the ability to trade unions as a fundamental human right. In June 2007 the Supreme Court of Canada extensively reviewed the rationale for regarding collective bargaining as a human right, Collective bargaining permits workers to achieve a form of workplace democracy and to ensure the rule of law in the workplace. Workers gain a voice to influence the establishment of rules that control an aspect of their lives. Union members and other covered by collective agreements get, on average. Such a markup is typically 5 to 10 percent in industrial countries, unions tend to equalize the income distribution, especially between skilled and unskilled workers. The welfare loss associated with unions is 0.2 to 0.5 of GDP, in the United States, the National Labor Relations Act covers most collective agreements in the private sector. It is illegal to require any employee to join a union as a condition of employment, unions are exempt from antitrust law in the hope that members may collectively fix a higher price for their labour.
Once the workers committee and management have agreed on a contract, if approved, the contract is usually in force for a fixed term of years, and when that term is up, it is renegotiated between employees and management. Sometimes there are disputes over the contract, this particularly occurs in cases of workers fired without just cause in a union workplace
A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels. It is a form of carbon pricing, Carbon is present in every hydrocarbon fuel and converted to carbon dioxide and other products when combusted. In contrast, non-combustion energy sources—wind, geothermal, hydropower, CO2 is a heat-trapping greenhouse gas which represents a negative externality on the climate system. Carbon tax offers social and economic benefits and it is a tax that increases revenue without significantly altering the economy while simultaneously promoting objectives of climate change policy. Carbon taxes offer a potentially cost-effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, from an economic perspective, carbon taxes are a type of Pigovian tax. They help to address the problem of emitters of greenhouse gases not facing the full social cost of their actions, Carbon taxes can be a regressive tax, in that they may directly or indirectly affect low-income groups disproportionately. The regressive impact of taxes could be addressed by using tax revenues to favour low-income groups. A number of countries have implemented carbon taxes or energy taxes that are related to carbon content, most environmentally related taxes with implications for greenhouse gas emissions in OECD countries are levied on energy products and motor vehicles, rather than on CO2 emissions directly.
Opposition to increased environmental regulation such as carbon taxes often centers on concerns that firms might relocate and/or people might lose their jobs and it has been argued, that carbon taxes are more efficient than direct regulation and may even lead to higher employment. Many large users of carbon resources in electricity generation, such as the United States, Carbon dioxide is one of several heat-trapping greenhouse gases emitted by humans. The scientific consensus is that human-induced greenhouse gas emissions are the cause of global warming. Worldwide,27 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide are produced by human activity annually, the physical effect of CO2 in the atmosphere can be measured as a change in the Earth-atmosphere systems energy balance – the radiative forcing of CO2. Carbon taxes are one of the policies available to governments to reduce GHG emissions, in the Kyoto Protocol, CO2 emissions are regulated along with other GHGs. A carbon tax is a form of pollution tax, pollution taxes are often grouped with two other economic policy instruments, tradable pollution permits/credits and subsidies.
These three environmental economic policy instruments are built upon a foundation of a command and control regulation, the difference is that classic command-penalty regulations stipulate, through performance or prescriptive standards, what each polluter is required to do to be in compliance with the law. A carbon tax is called an instrument, since it sets a price for carbon dioxide emissions. In economic theory, pollution is considered a negative externality, an effect on a party not directly involved in a transaction. A tax on a negative externality is called a Pigovian tax, within Pigous framework, the changes involved are marginal, and the size of the externality is assumed to be small enough not to distort the rest of the economy
Ryde is an English seaside town and civil parish on the Isle of Wight, with a population of 23,999 at the 2011 Census. It lies on the north-east coast, the town grew in size as a seaside resort after the villages of Upper Ryde and Lower Ryde were merged in the 19th century. The influence of this era is still visible in the towns central. As a resort, the town is noted for its expansive sands, Ryde Pier is a listed structure, and the fourth longest pier in the United Kingdom, as well as the oldest. In 1782 numerous bodies of men and children from HMS Royal George, many were buried on land that is now occupied by the Esplanade. A memorial to them was erected in June 2004, the hovercraft to Southsea is operated by Hovertravel near the Esplanade close to Ryde Esplanade railway station and the bus station. A catamaran service run by Wightlink operates from Ryde Pier to Portsmouth Harbour which connects with both Island Line trains and mainland trains to London Waterloo, the Island Line Trains service runs from Ryde Pier Head via Ryde Esplanade to Shanklin, a distance of 8 1⁄2 miles.
Ryde St Johns Road railway station further south in the town. A major bus interchange is situated between Ryde Pier and the Hover Terminal on the Esplanade with frequent services to many island towns, Ryde is the second busiest place in the Southern Vectis network, smaller only than Newport. The most frequent service is route 9 to Newport, running every 10 minutes in the daytime, other main routes include services 2,3,4,8 and local route 37. An open top bus tour called The Downs Tour is run in the summer, the towns large and long esplanade area has always been an attraction for tourists, especially those day-tripping from the mainland, as the amenities are all available by walking from the pier. A swimming pool, bowls club, ice rink, bowling alley, and boating lake are among the attractions, at one time Ryde had two separate piers, the other being the Victoria Pier, no longer in existence. Ryde has its own rescue service which mostly has to deal with people becoming stranded on sandbanks as the incoming tide cuts them off from the shore.
The pier is a feature of the 67-mile Isle of Wight Coastal Path, Ryde has a small marina located to the east of Ryde Pier. It is tidal and dries out at low water hence it is suitable for smaller sailing. It has provision for up to 200 boats, either on floating pontoons or leaning against the harbour wall, the twin church spires clearly visible from the sea belong to All Saints and Holy Trinity churches. All Saints Church is located in Queens Road on a junction known as Five Ways. It was designed by George Gilbert Scott and completed in 1872, the spire is 177 feet tall
Cuthbert Wilfrid Francis Noyce was an English mountaineer and author. He was a member of the 1953 British Expedition that made the first ascent of Mount Everest, Noyce was born in 1917 in Simla, the British hill station in India. In the Second World War he was initially a conscientious objector, however, he chose to serve as a private in the Welsh Guards, before being commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Kings Royal Rifle Corps on 19 July 1941. He attained the rank of captain in the Intelligence Corps, for a brief period he assisted me in running a similar course for soldiers. He was employed as a code-breaker, managing to break an important Japanese code, after the war, Noyce became a schoolmaster. From 1946 until 1950 he taught languages at Malvern College. Then, following in the footsteps of George Mallory, he returned as a master to his own old school, Charterhouse, on 12 August 1950, between Malvern and Charterhouse, he married Rosemary Campbell Davies, and they had two sons and Jeremy.
By the age of eighteen, Noyce was already a fine climber, before the Second World War, he helped Edwards to produce rock climbing guides to the crags of Tryfan and Lliwedd in Snowdonia. Like other leading British climbers of the period, such as Mallory, Jack Longland, Ivan Waller. Hargreaves, Noyce became a protégé of Geoffrey Winthrop Young, attending his parties at Pen-y-Pass, in the late 1930s, Noyce was one of a small band of Britons climbing at high standards in the Alps. He was well known for his speed and stamina, and in two early alpine seasons,1937 and 1938, climbing with Armand Charlet or Hans Brantschen as his guide, in 1942, in North Wales, he achieved a non-stop solo climb of 1,370 metres. Though I still climbed rock, I preferred to be led at Very Severe standard, the first fall refers to an incident when he was held on the rope by Edwards after falling, despite damage to the rope. Noyce was a member of the 1953 British Expedition to Mount Everest that made the first ascent of the mountain.
In many respects I considered Noyce the most competent British climber I had met, Noyce was in charge of mountaineering equipment on the ascent itself, having been instructed in the repair of high-altitude boots. Together with George Lowe, on 17 May Noyce established Camp VII on the Lhotse face of Everest, on 20 May he radioed to Hunt that many of the oxygen bottles that had been ferried up to Camp VII were leaking. Hunt noted Wilfrid, though gifted in more ways than one, has not a mechanical bent. Tom, had a fear that these very tests, carried out by a possibly anoxic Wilfrid. On 21 May Noyce and the Sherpa Annullu were the first members of the expedition to reach Everests South Col, after what Noyce said was one of the most enjoyable days mountaineering Ive ever had
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight /ˈaɪl əv ˈwaɪt/ is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is located in the English Channel, about 4 miles off the coast of Hampshire, the island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, and is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, and verdant landscape of fields and chines. The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria and it has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat building, sail making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, and Britains space rockets. The island hosts annual festivals including the Isle of Wight Festival. It has well-conserved wildlife and some of the richest cliffs and quarries for dinosaur fossils in Europe, the Isle was owned by a Norman family until 1293 and was earlier a kingdom in its own right. Rural for most of its history, its Victorian fashionability and the affordability of holidays led to significant urban development during the late 19th.
The island was part of Hampshire until 1890 when it became its own administrative county, apart from a shared police force, there is now no administrative link with Hampshire, although a combined local authority with Portsmouth and Southampton is being considered. Until 1995 the island had a governor, the quickest public transport link to the mainland is the hovercraft from Ryde to Southsea, while three ferry and two catamaran services cross the Solent to Southampton and Portsmouth. During the Ice Age, sea levels were lower and the Solent was part of a river flowing south east from current day Poole Harbour towards mid-Channel. As sea levels rose, the valley became flooded. The first inhabitants are assumed to have been hunter-gatherers migrating by land during the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age period, as the ice age began to recede. From the Neolithic era onwards, there are indications that the island had wide trading links, with a port at Bouldnor, evidence of Bronze Age tin trading, caesar reported that the Belgae took the Isle of Wight in about 85 BC and gave its name as Vectis.
The Roman historian Suetonius mentions that the island was captured by the commander Vespasian, the Romans built no towns or roads on the island, but the remains of at least seven Roman villas have been found, indicating the prosperity of local agriculture. During the Dark Ages the island was settled by Jutes as the kingdom of Wihtwara under King Arwald. In 685 it was invaded by Caedwalla, who tried to replace the inhabitants with his own followers and it suffered especially from Viking raids, and was often used as a winter base by Viking raiders when they were unable to reach Normandy. Later, both Earl Tostig and his brother Harold Godwinson held manors on the island, the Norman Conquest of 1066 created the position of Lord of the Isle of Wight, the island being given by William the Conqueror to his kinsman William FitzOsbern. Carisbrooke Priory and the fort of Carisbrooke Castle were founded, allegiance was sworn to FitzOsbern rather than the king, the Lordship was subsequently granted to the de Redvers family by Henry I, after his succession in 1100.
For nearly 200 years the island was a semi-independent feudal fiefdom, the final private owner was the Countess Isabella de Fortibus, who, on her deathbed in 1293, was persuaded to sell it to Edward I
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, often regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Founded in 1209 and given royal status by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople, the two ancient universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as Oxbridge. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges, Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the worlds oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world. The university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridges libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library.
In the year ended 31 July 2015, the university had an income of £1.64 billion. The central university and colleges have an endowment of around £5.89 billion. The university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as Silicon Fen. It is a member of associations and forms part of the golden triangle of leading English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners. As of 2017, Cambridge is ranked the fourth best university by three ranking tables and no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects. Cambridge is consistently ranked as the top university in the United Kingdom, the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. Ninety-five Nobel laureates, fifteen British prime ministers and ten Fields medalists have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty, by the late 12th century, the Cambridge region already had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, and most scholars moved to such as Paris, Reading. After the University of Oxford reformed several years later, enough remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach everywhere in Christendom, the colleges at the University of Cambridge were originally an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself, the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were institutions without endowments, called hostels, the hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some indicators of their time, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridges first college, the most recently established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s
The Cambridge Union
The Cambridge Union Society, commonly referred to as The Cambridge Union, is a debating and free speech society in Cambridge and the largest society at the University of Cambridge. It is the oldest continuously running debating society in the world, the Cambridge Union has served as a model for the foundation of similar societies at several other prominent universities, including the Oxford Union and the Yale Political Union. The Union is a society with membership open to all students of Cambridge University or Anglia Ruskin University. The Union became a charity in May 2010. The Cambridge Union was founded on 13 February 1815, several years after it was founded, on 24 March 1817, the Union was temporarily shut down by the University. In 1821 the Union was allowed to reform, under strict guidelines, the Unions Bridge Street premises were designed by Alfred Waterhouse and formally opened on 30 October 1866. An additional wing was added several decades later, the future radical Liberal politician, Sir Charles Dilke, was the President chiefly responsible for construction.
Included among the many rooms are the debating chamber, a dining room, snooker room. Although Cambridge escaped virtually undamaged from the widespread bombing destruction of World War II, the explosion caused extensive damage to the Unions library. The Union is legally a charity that owns and has full control over its private property. It enjoys strong relations with the university, and allows other student societies to hire rooms for a nominal cost, guests are sometimes admitted to Union events for a charge. After more than 200 years, The Cambridge Union is best known for its debates, the top members of its debating team compete internationally against other top debating societies. The Union organises talks by visiting speakers and an array of events throughout the academic year. Although The Cambridge Union has never functioned as a union in the modern sense. In 2015 the Union celebrated its bicentenary, a composed of former. This included special debates and parties in Cambridge and, for the first time in its history, in January 2015 the Union announced a £9.
The development is to be financed through the leasing of disused parts of its site to Trinity College in a deal worth £4.5 million. A fundraising campaign to cover the remaining cost is to be launched on March 11th with a debate between Jon Snow and Nick Robinson
Alfred Marshall was one of the most influential economists of his time. His book, Principles of Economics, was the dominant economic textbook in England for many years and it brings the ideas of supply and demand, marginal utility, and costs of production into a coherent whole. He is known as one of the founders of neoclassical economics, although Marshall took economics to a more mathematically rigorous level, he did not want mathematics to overshadow economics and thus make economics irrelevant to the layman. His father was a cashier and a devout Evangelical. Marshall experienced a crisis that led him to abandon physics. He began with metaphysics, specifically the philosophical foundation of knowledge and he saw that the duty of economics was to improve material conditions, but such improvement would occur, Marshall believed, only in connection with social and political forces. His interest in Georgism, socialism, trade unions, womens education and progress reflect the influence of his social philosophy on his activities.
Marshall was elected in 1865 to a fellowship at St Johns College at Cambridge, in 1885 he became professor of political economy at Cambridge, where he remained until his retirement in 1908. Over the years he interacted with many British thinkers including Henry Sidgwick, Benjamin Jowett, William Stanley Jevons, Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, John Neville Keynes and John Maynard Keynes. Marshall desired to improve the mathematical rigour of economics and transform it into a more scientific profession, in the 1870s he wrote a small number of tracts on international trade and the problems of protectionism. In 1879, many of these works were compiled into a work entitled The Theory of Foreign Trade, in the same year he published The Economics of Industry with his wife Mary Paley. Although Marshall took economics to a mathematically rigorous level, he did not want mathematics to overshadow economics. Accordingly, Marshall tailored the text of his books to laymen, in a letter to A. L. Bowley, he laid out the following system, Use mathematics as shorthand language, rather than as an engine of inquiry.
Keep to them till you have done, illustrate by examples that are important in real life Burn the mathematics. If you cant succeed in 4, burn 3 and he became the first principal at University College, which was the institution that became the University of Bristol, again lecturing on political economy and economics. He perfected his Economics of Industry while at Bristol, and published it more widely in England as an economic curriculum, its simple form stood upon sophisticated theoretical foundations. Marshall achieved a measure of fame from this work, and upon the death of William Jevons in 1882, Marshall became the leading British economist of the scientific school of his time. Marshall returned to Cambridge, via a brief period at Balliol College, Oxford during 1883–4, at Cambridge he endeavoured to create a new tripos for economics, a goal which he would only achieve in 1903
A conscientious objector is an individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion. In general, conscientious objector status is considered only in the context of military conscription and is not applicable to military forces. In some countries, conscientious objectors are assigned to a civilian service as a substitute for conscription or military service. Some conscientious objectors consider themselves pacifist, non-interventionist, non-resistant, non-aggressionist and this was re-affirmed in 1998, when resolution 1998/77 recognized that persons performing military service may develop conscientious objections. A number of organizations around the world celebrate the principle on May 15 as International Conscientious Objectors Day, the term has been extended to objecting to working for the military–industrial complex due to a crisis of conscience. Historically, many conscientious objectors have been executed, imprisoned, or otherwise penalized when their beliefs led to conflicting with their societys legal system or government.
The legal definition and status of conscientious objection has varied over the years, Religious beliefs were a starting point in many nations for legally granting conscientious objector status. An early recognition of conscientious objection was granted by William the Silent to the Dutch Mennonites in 1575 and they could refuse military service in exchange for a monetary payment. Formal legislation to exempt objectors from fighting was first granted in mid-18th century Great Britain following problems with attempting to force Quakers into military service. In the United States, conscientious objection was permitted from the countrys founding, in 1948, the issue of the right to conscience was dealt with by the United Nations General Assembly in Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The proclamation was ratified during the General Assembly on 10 December 1948 by a vote of 48 in favour,0 against and it is The Right to Refuse to Kill. In 1976, the United Nations treaty the International Covenant on Civil and it was based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and was originally created in 1966.
Nations that have signed this treaty are bound by it and its Article 18 begins, Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought and religion. Some states argue that such limitations would permit them to make conscientious objection during time of war a threat to public safety, even that it is a moral duty to serve the state in its military. In 2006, the Committee has found for the first time a right to conscientious objection under article 18, in 1998, the Human Rights Commission reiterated previous statements and added states should. Refrain from subjecting conscientious objectors. to repeated punishment for failure to perform military service, the Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees states,171. Not every conviction, genuine though it may be, will constitute a sufficient reason for claiming refugee status after desertion or draft-evasion and it is not enough for a person to be in disagreement with his government regarding the political justification for a particular military action.
Air Commodore Lionel Charlton, of the British Royal Air Force, in 1923 he selectively refused to serve in the RAF Iraq Command
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. Economists often urge governments to adopt policies that internalize an externality, if external costs exist, such as pollution, the producer may choose to produce more of the product than would be produced if the producer were required to pay all associated environmental costs. Because responsibility or consequence for self-directed action lies partly outside the self, if there are external benefits, such as in public safety, less of the good may be produced than would be the case if the producer were to receive payment for the external benefits to others. For the purpose of these statements, overall cost and benefit to society is defined as the sum of the monetary value of benefits and costs to all parties involved. Two British economists are credited with having initiated the study of externalities, or spillover effects, Henry Sidgwick is credited with first articulating.
Pigou is credited with formalizing the concept of externalities, suppose that there are K different possible allocations and N different agents, where K, N < ∞ and N ≥2. Suppose that each agent has a type θ i ∼ F i and that each agent gets payoff v i + t i, a map f = is a social choice function if ∑ i =1 N t i ≤0 for all θ ∈ N. An allocation κ, N → K is ex-post efficient if ∑ i =1 N v i ≥ ∑ i =1 N v i for all θ = ∈ N and all k ∈ K. Let κ ∗ denote an ex-post efficient allocation and let κ i ~ denote an ex-post efficient allocation without agent i. Then the externality imposed by agent i on the agents is ∑ j ≠ i v j − ∑ j ≠ i v j. Voluntary exchange is considered beneficial to both parties involved, because buyers or sellers would not trade if either thought it detrimental to themselves. However, a transaction can cause effects on third parties. From the perspective of those affected, these effects may be negative, neoclassical welfare economics asserts that, under plausible conditions, the existence of externalities will result in outcomes that are not socially optimal.
Those who suffer from external costs do so involuntarily, whereas those who enjoy external benefits do so at no cost, a voluntary exchange may reduce societal welfare if external costs exist. The externality may even be seen as a trespass on their lungs, thus, an external cost may pose an ethical or political problem. Alternatively, it might be seen as a case of poorly defined property rights, as with, for example, on the other hand, a positive externality would increase the utility of third parties at no cost to them. Since collective societal welfare is improved, but the providers have no way of monetizing the benefit, Goods with positive externalities include education, public health initiatives and law enforcement. Positive externalities are often associated with the free rider problem, there are a number of potential means of improving overall social utility when externalities are involved