click links in text for more info

Article XV squadrons

Article XV squadrons were Australian and New Zealand air force squadrons formed from graduates of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan during World War II. These units complemented another feature of the BCATP, under which personnel from the Royal Air Force, Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force were placed in a common pool, assigned to Article XV and RAF squadrons – in Europe, the Mediterranean Theatre and South-East Asia – according to operational needs; the RAAF, RCAF and RNZAF formed non-Article XV squadrons, which performed home defence duties and saw active service in various parts of the Pacific Theatre. Negotiations regarding the BCATP, between the four governments concerned, took place in Ottawa, Canada during late 1939; the Air Training Agreement was signed on 17 December 1939. Under Article XV of the Agreement, graduates from Dominion air forces were to be assigned to squadrons either formed by their own air forces, or with a specific national designation, under the operational control of a local air force, in most cases the RAF.

These became known as "Article XV squadrons." In addition, Articles XVI and XVII stipulated that the UK government would be responsible for the pay and entitlements of aircrews trained under the BCATP. These personnel and any squadrons formed for service with the RAF, under Article XV, would belong to the three Dominion air forces; this was an initiative of the Canadian Prime Minister, Mackenzie King, during the negotiations with Riverdale. During the war, 44 Canadian, 17 Australian and six New Zealand Article XV squadrons were formed. In practice – and technically in contravention of Article XV – most personnel from Dominion air forces, while they were under RAF operational control, were assigned to British units; this was due to practical staffing considerations. Many of the Article XV squadrons contained few airmen from their nominal air force when they were first formed. However, by the end of the war this had been rectified. Canada made a greater insistence on its airmen going to RCAF operational units overseas, ensuring that the identity of its national squadrons was preserved.

In January 1943 Canada was able to form their bomber squadrons into a separate wholly RCAF formation within Bomber Command, commanded by a Canadian air vice-marshal. This was something. Several other RAAF and RCAF units, which were not covered by Article XV, were under RAF operational control. There was no cross-posting of personnel to or from these squadrons by the RAF and other Dominion air forces, although this requirement was relaxed in the war; the remaining dominion, South Africa, was not a signatory to the BCATP and the South African Air Force did not form any Article XV squadrons. However, South Africa provided training facilities for some Article XV personnel, many SAAF units took part in the East African, North African and Italian Campaigns. Furthermore, as the war progressed, personnel from other Dominion air forces were transferred to SAAF units and vice versa, in North Africa, the Mediterranean and Italy. Southern Rhodesia was not technically a Dominion and was therefore not a signatory to the BCATP, although aircrews from other dominions were trained there.

In 1940, the small Southern Rhodesia Air Force was designated No. 237 Squadron RAF. Two other RAF squadrons, No. 44 Squadron RAF and No. 266 Squadron RAF were formed. No. 75 Squadron RAF had a status similar to the Rhodesian squadrons, was not an Article XV squadron, although it was staffed by RNZAF aircrew during the war and was transferred to the RNZAF in late 1945. While RAF units were not covered by Article XV, three British squadrons had a similar status: they were stationed in Australia, under RAAF operational control, for part of the war; these units were: No. 54 Squadron RAF, No. 548 Squadron RAF, No. 549 Squadron RAF and No. 618 Squadron RAF. A further four squadrons served outside North America during the war: No. 162 Squadron RCAF, which in 1944 was transferred from RCAF Eastern Air Command to RAF Coastal Command, from airfields in Iceland and Scotland and. Some non-Article XV RCAF squadrons were re-numbered to become Article XV squadrons when they were transferred from North America to Europe.

These were: No. 1 Squadron. However, most of the RCAF Article XV squadrons were formed overseas. Domestically the Home War Establishment of the RCAF, which consisted of Eastern and Western Air Commands, had at its peak 37 squadrons. Following the end of the war and termination of the BCATP, the RCAF squadrons covered by Article XV retained their numbers. Furthermore, home-ba

St. Mary's Park, Northumberland

St Mary’s Park is a housing estate, being developed in the civil parish of Stannington near Morpeth, England. It is located about 2 miles west of Stannington and 4 miles south or Morpeth and was the location of St Mary's Hospital, a former psychiatric hospital; the hospital was built at the beginning of the 20th century as the county asylum for Northumberland, housed up to 2000 patients at one time, closed in 1996. Most of the hospital buildings have been demolished since in favour of new-built houses, but in the Edwardian administration block of the former hospital a gastropub with bed and breakfast accommodation has been established under the name of St. Mary's Inn. St. Mary's Inn


In Greek mythology, Althaemenes or Althemenes was the only son of Catreus, king of Crete, the brother of Apemosyne and Clymene. Althaemenes mistakenly killed his father thereby fulfilling an oracle. We know of Althaemenes through the accounts of Diodorus Apollodorus. According to the first of these, Althaemenes received an oracle saying that he was destined to kill his father. So to avoid this fate, with many followers, fled Crete for Rhodes, established on Mount Atabyrus an altar to Zeus Atabyrius. Years Catreus sailed the seas searching for his son, heir to his throne. One night, his ship stopped at Rhodes, fighting arose, Althaemenes, unknowingly killed Catreus with his spear; when Althaemenes discovered what he had done, he wandered from place to place, died from grief. After which, commanded by an oracle, the Rhodians honored him as a hero. Apollodorus relates a similar story. In his account, Catreus received an oracle saying, and although Catreus hid the oracles, Althaemenes found out and fled with his sister Apemosyne to Rhodes.

There Apemosyne was seduced by the god Hermes, but when Apemosyne told Althaemenes this, Althaemenes did not believe her and kicked Apemosyne to death. Catreus having set to sea in search of Althaemenes, landed at Rhodes, his company being mistaken for pirates were attacked and as before Althaemenes unknowingly killed his father. In this telling, when Althaemenes realized what had happened he prayed to the gods and fell into a chasm. Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F. B. A. F. R. S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Diodorus Siculus, Diodorus Siculus: The Library of History. Translated by C. H. Oldfather. Twelve volumes. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Online version by Bill Thayer Gantz, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9, ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3. Smith, William.

Online version at the Perseus Digital Library

Thy Majestie

Thy Majestie is an Italian power metal band that formed in 1999. Their music is cinematic, symphonic and darker than typical power metal with symphonic influences, they have released five full-length albums. The band was started by Giuseppe Bondì and Claudio Diprima with the desire to create their own music after playing in a cover band. Maurizio Malta, Giovanni Santini, Dario D'Alessandro and Dario Grillo joined them to form Thy Majestie. After releasing Sword and Shields, a 3-track demo, Thy Majestie composed new material, recorded in March 1999 titled Perpetual Glory, it was praised by Italian metal magazines and they were able to sign a contract with Scarlet Records. In March 2000 they began working on their debut album The Lasting Power, finished in April 2000. On September 2001 LIMB Music took notice of Thy Majestie but could not sign a deal with them because they were signed to Scarlet Music to record two albums. In January 2002 Thy Majestie was contacted by Thomas Youngblood to support him on his European tour with his band Kamelot but they could not afford travel expenses and had to record another album 2 months later.

In 2002, they released the album Hastings 1066, based on the Battle of Hastings. In November 2003, vocalist Dario Grillo left the band to pursue a solo career. In December 2003, Gabriele Grilli joined as his replacement, but in October 2004 he left as well "due to personal reasons", one of them being the distance between Grilli's hometown and Palermo, where the other members of the band live. One song was released with Gabriele on vocals, namely a demo version of The Siege of Paris to appear on the Jeanne d'Arc album. Shortly thereafter, Giulio Di Gregorio was announced as the new singer. 2005 saw the release of the third Thy Majestie album, Jeanne d'Arc, a concept album about the French heroine Jeanne d'Arc. The album was released through Scarlet Records, its style has been compared to that of the Italian band Labyrinth. The 3 of May 2005, Giulio Di Gregorio was expelled from the band due to his poor knowledge of the English language and his numerous health problems which kept him from performing live with the band.

After a short period when USA-based singer Matt Aub had been singing for the band, it was announced that Thy Majestie's first vocalist, Dario Grillo would be returning to the band. His return, caused the same problems experienced four years earlier and lead to a definitive separation. Dario Grillo was replaced by Fingerbang singer Dario Cascio. At the same time guitarist Giovanni Santini decided to leave the band and was replaced by Simone Campione. During the end of year 2007, the other founding member, Giuseppe Bondi, left Thy Majestie due to personal reasons. A new keyboarder, Valerio Castorino, was taken in and the band signed with a new record label, Dark Balance Records. Thy Majestie performed at the Immortal Metal Fest in Finland on 19 April 2008 as well as at Fear Dark in Zwolle, the Netherlands on 24 May 2008 and in Stuttgart, Germany on 1 June 2008; the group released the album Dawn on 1 September 2008, compared to the Swedish metal scene, namely Axenstar and Dragonland. Valerio Castorino, who toured with Thy Majestie during their last gigs in Europe, Dario Cascio left the band because of private matters.

Giuseppe Carrubba, who plays with Inner Quest, an Italian Progressive metal band, Alessio Taormina replaced him. The band released ShiHuangDi, in 2012 for Scarlet Records. Perpetual Glory The Lasting Power 1066 Hastings 1066 Echoes of War Jeanne d'Arc Dawn ShiHuangDi Giuseppe Carrubba - Keyboards Dario D'Alessandro - Bass Claudio Diprima - Drums Simone Campione - Guitar Alessio Taormina - Vocals Dario Cascio - Vocals Gabriele Grilli - Vocals Giulio Di Gregorio - Vocals Matt Aub - Vocals Giovanni Santini - Guitar Dario Grillo - Vocals Giuseppe Bondì - Keyboards Maurizio Malta - Guitar Valerio Castorino - Keyboards Official Thy Majestie Site

Janak Prakash

Janak Prakash is a player for the Singapore national cricket team. Janak is an all-rounder, he played for the Singapore U'19s at age of 16 in Sri Lanka. In October 2018, he was named in Singapore's squad in the Eastern sub-region group for the 2018–19 ICC World Twenty20 Asia Qualifier tournament; the same month, he was named in Singapore's squad for the 2018 ICC World Cricket League Division Three tournament in Oman. In July 2019, he was named in Singapore's Twenty20 International squad for the Regional Finals of the 2018–19 ICC T20 World Cup Asia Qualifier tournament, he made his T20I debut for Singapore against Qatar on 22 July 2019. In September 2019, he was named in Singapore's squad for the 2019 Malaysia Cricket World Cup Challenge League A tournament. In October 2019, he was named in Singapore's squad for the 2019 ICC T20 World Cup Qualifier tournament in the United Arab Emirates. Http://

Malines Conversations

The Malines Conversations were a series of five informal ecumenical conversations exploring possibilities of corporate reunion between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England. The impetus for the conversations emerged out of the friendship between the high-church Anglican, Charles Lindley Wood, the Second Viscount of Halifax, the French Roman Catholic priest, Fernand Portal. Although the ultramontanist attitudes of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in Great Britain made direct talks between British Anglicans and British Roman Catholics infeasible, the Lambeth Appeal of 1920 opened doors to Roman Catholics on the continent. Désiré Joseph Cardinal Mercier, Archbishop of Malines, agreed to host the private ecumenical discussions desired by Lord Halifax and Abbé Portal; the conversations were held in the Belgian primatial see of Malines from 1921 to 1927 with tacit support from the Vatican and the Archbishops of Canterbury and York Randall Davidson and Cosmo Gordon Lang. The number of participants varied but included on the Anglican side Lord Halifax, Bishops Frere and Gore and Armitage Robinson.

The Catholic participants included Mercier himself, Hemmer and Mercier's successor van Roey, who wound up the conversations in 1927. A consensus emerged during the five conversations, of which only the first four proved substantial, that the Anglican Church should be “reunited” with—not “subsumed” by—the Roman Church. Dom Lambert Beauduin's 1925 paper L'église anglicane unie, mais non absorbée was remarked. Van Roey was less favourable to the idea of unity than his predecessor, Cardinal Bourne, Archbishop of Westminster urged the Vatican to withdraw its encouragement, in line with Leo XIII's bull Apostolicae curae, which had denied validity to Anglican orders. Although the conversations provoked controversy in both churches and failed to produce concrete results, they did pave the way toward future ecumenical discussions between Roman Catholics and Anglicans. Walter Howard Frere, Recollections of Malines, 1935. George Bell, Life of Randall Davidson, 1935. Bernard Barlow, ‘A Brother Knocking at the Door’ The Malines Conversations 1921-1925.

Norwich: The Canterbury Press, 1996. Balthasar Fischer, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, Band 2, 1994, p. 110. John A. Dick, The Malines Conversations Revisited. Leuven: University Press, 1989