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Ashlar

Ashlar is finely dressed stone, either an individual stone, worked until squared or the structure built from it. Ashlar is the finest stone masonry unit rectangular cuboid, mentioned by Vitruvius as opus isodomum, or less trapezoidal. Cut "on all faces adjacent to those of other stones", ashlar is capable of thin joints between blocks, the visible face of the stone may be quarry-faced or feature a variety of treatments: tooled, smoothly polished or rendered with another material for decorative effect. One such decorative treatment consists of small grooves achieved by the application of a metal comb. Used only on softer stone ashlar, this decoration is known as “mason's drag”. Ashlar is in contrast to rubble masonry, which employs irregularly shaped stones, sometimes minimally worked or selected for similar size, or both. Ashlar is related but distinct from other stone masonry, finely dressed but not quadrilateral, such as curvilinear and polygonal masonry. Ashlar may be coursed, which involves lengthy horizontals layers of stone blocks laid in parallel, therefore with continuous horizontal joints.

Ashlar may be random, which involves stone blocks laid with deliberately discontinuous courses and therefore discontinuous joints both vertically and horizontally. In either case, it uses a joining material such as mortar to bind the blocks together, although dry ashlar construction, metal ties, other methods of assembly have been used; the dry ashlar of Inca architecture in Cusco and Machu Picchu is fine and famous. The word is attested in Middle English and derives from the Old French aisselier, from the Latin axilla, a diminutive of axis, meaning "plank". "Clene hewen ashler" occurs in medieval documents. Ashlar blocks have been used in the construction of many buildings as an alternative to brick or other materials. In classical architecture, ashlar wall surfaces were contrasted with rustication; the term is used to describe the dressed stone work of prehistoric Greece and Crete, although the dressed blocks are much larger than modern ashlar. For example, the tholos tombs of Bronze Age Mycenae use ashlar masonry in the construction of the so-called "beehive" dome.

This dome consists of finely cut ashlar blocks that decrease in size and terminate in a central capstone. These domes are constructed using the corbel arch. Ashlar masonry was heavily used in the construction of palace facades on Crete, including Knossos and Phaistos; these constructions date to the MM III-LM Ib period, ca. 1700–1450 BC. In modern European masonry the blocks are about 35 centimetres in height; when shorter than 30 centimetres, they are called small ashlar. In some Masonic groupings, which such societies term jurisdictions, ashlars are used as a symbolic metaphor for how one's personal development relates to the tenets of their lodge; as described in the explanation of the First Degree Tracing Board, in Emulation and other Masonic rituals the rough ashlar is a stone as taken directly from the quarry, allegorically represents the Freemason prior to his initiation. Ablaq Dimension stone Opus quadratum Stone cladding Stone veneer

Mother Up!

Mother Up! is a Canadian/American animated television series starring Eva Longoria, that streamed on Hulu in the United States and aired on City in Canada for a single season from 2013 to 2014. The show chronicles the misguided attempts at parenthood of a disgraced music executive who transitions from the big city to suburbia. After she resigns from her job and her husband leaves her, Rudi Wilson becomes a single mother raising her two children and Dick, must learn mothering duties. Longoria serves as executive producer. Mother Up! Premiered on November 6, 2013, with new episodes released on Wednesdays, it made its Canadian television debut on City on January 23, 2014, with new episodes aired on Saturday nights. The show was developed by Rogers Media and co-produced by Canadian companies Breakthrough Entertainment and Bardel Entertainment, in association with U. S.-based Mass Animation. The show marked Hulu's second foray into animated programming after The Awesomes, it was pitched as "Family Guy for women".

The Mother Up! Theme song, on the Canadian version of the show, was written by Warren Bray & Odario Williams of Grand Analog and Maiko Watson of Sugar Jones. Rudi Wilson - The main character, a former music executive whose reputation is ruined after a scandal involving shooting kids in Central America with her client 2Bit, she preserves her reputation by transferring all of the blame to her boss, yet at the price of her job and her life in the city. Now she must live despite being a terrible one. Dick Wilson - Rudi's son, a loner whose only friend is Agnes Chu, he gets bullied by Travis. In episode 1, Rudi throws him a 10th birthday party although Sarah says Dick and Apple's birthdays aren't for months, so Dick is 9 years old during the first season. Apple Wilson - Rudi's daughter, she is quite imaginative, longs for her mother's attention. In episode 6, Rudi says Apple is 5. Jeffrey Wilson - Rudi's former husband, father of Dick and Apple. Mrs. Suzi Chu - One of the series' other antagonists, she drives her daughter Agnes to excessive studying.

Agnes Chu - A girl in Dick's grade, only she's in the gifted class. She attends sports camp every summer. In episode 6 her mother says she is the youngest female Chess Master in the world and Rudi estimates that Agnes is 10 years old. Sarah - Rudi's friend and neighbor, a married mother of one. Sarah is impressed by Rudi's high-power lifestyle and celebrity friends, is convinced to "pick up the slack" in Rudi's parenting. Rudi plainly takes advantage of Sarah's good nature, but she takes the abuse like a trooper, in the name of friendship and for the good of Apple and Dick. In her heart she admires Rudi's attitude. Fergus - Sarah's son. Greg - Rudi's friend and other neighbor, a widowed father of one. Greg sees himself as a helper and potential suitor to Rudi, who walks all over him, but his eternal optimism fuels their friendship, he likes to do odd jobs for her and the community it implied Greg is scared of his stepson Joel. Joel - Greg's stepson, he hates adults his stepdad Greg because he misses his real dad.

His mother died, so Greg inherited custody of him. Joel is a misanthropic goth/emo with violent and anti-social tendencies, in sharp contrast to his easy-going, gregarious stepfather, he plays violent video games - only banned ones - while wearing diapers so he can play for long periods of time. Principal Moxley - Head of staff at the kids' school. In Episode 6, she threatens to call Child Protective Services because Rudi let Apple walk across the tightrope on school grounds, but backs down after Rudi says she will tell the police, the media, the school's insurance company about the tightrope. Nurse Higgins - The school's nurse and head of the drama department, she enjoys explaining diagnoses and stories with costumes. Miss Belfonte - Apple's teacher. Ernesto - The school janitor. Jenny - Rudi's enemy and one of the series' antagonists, she disapproves of Rudi's parenting, is resentful that Rudi is the only person who stood up to her. Her child attends the same school as Apple. Travis - Son of one of Jenny's friends.

2Bit - A rapper. To sign him with Mass Exploitation Records, Rudi went child-hunting with him, why she had to move to the suburbs. Mother Up! at Hulu Mother Up! on IMDb Mother Up! at Rotten Tomatoes

Many-minds interpretation

The many-minds interpretation of quantum mechanics extends the many-worlds interpretation by proposing that the distinction between worlds should be made at the level of the mind of an individual observer. The concept was first introduced in 1970 by H. Dieter Zeh as a variant of the Hugh Everett interpretation in connection with quantum decoherence, explicitly called a many or multi-consciousness interpretation; the name many-minds interpretation was first used by David Albert and Barry Loewer in 1988. The various interpretations of quantum mechanics involve explaining the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, or to create a physical picture of the theory. While the mathematical structure has a strong foundation, there is still much debate about the physical and philosophical interpretation of the theory; these interpretations aim to tackle various concepts such as: Evolution of the state of a quantum system through the use of the Schrödinger equation. This concept is universally accepted, is put up to debate.

The measurement problem, which relates to what we call wavefunction collapse – the collapse of a quantum state into a definite measurement. The debate on whether this collapse occurs is a central problem in interpreting quantum mechanics; the standard solution to the measurement problem is the "Orthodox" or "Copenhagen" interpretation, which claims that the wave function collapses as the result of a measurement by an observer or apparatus external to the quantum system. An alternative interpretation, the Many-worlds Interpretation, was first described by Hugh Everett in 1957, his formalism of quantum mechanics denied that a measurement requires a wave collapse, instead suggesting that all, necessary of a measurement is that a quantum connection is formed between the particle, the measuring device, the observer. In the original relative state formulation, Everett proposed that there is one universal wavefunction that describes the objective reality of the whole universe, he stated that when subsystems interact, the total system becomes a superposition of these subsystems.

This includes observers and measurement systems, which become part of one universal state, always described via the Schrödinger Equation. That is, the states of the subsystems that interacted become "entangled" in such a way that any definition of one must involve the other. Thus, each subsystem's state can only be described relative to each subsystem with which it interacts; this has some interesting implications. For starters, Everett suggested that the universe is indeterminate as a whole. To see this, consider an observer measuring some particle that starts in an undetermined state, as both spin-up and spin-down, for example - a superposition of both possibilites; when an observer measures that particle's spin, however, it always registers as either down. The problem of how to understand this sudden shift from "both up and down" to "either up or down" is called the Measurement problem. According to the many-worlds interpretation, the act of measurement forced a “splitting” of the universe into two states, one spin-up and the other spin-down, the two branches that extend from those two subsequently independent states.

One branch measures up. The other measures down. Looking at the instrument informs the observer which branch she's on, but the system itself is indeterminate at this and, by logical extension any higher level; the “worlds” in the many worlds theory is just the complete measurement history up until and during the measurement in question, where splitting happens. These “worlds” each describe a different state of the universal wave function and cannot communicate. There is no collapse of the wavefunction into one state or another, but rather you just find yourself in the world leading up to what measurement you have made and are unaware of the other possibilities that are real; the many-minds interpretation of quantum theory is many-worlds with the distinction between worlds constructed at the level of the individual observer. Rather than the worlds that branch, it is the observer’s mind; the purpose of this interpretation is to overcome the fundamentally strange concept of observers being in a superposition with themselves.

In their 1988 paper and Loewer argue that it makes no sense for one to think of the mind of an observer to be in an indefinite state. Rather, when someone answers the question about which state of a system they have observed, they must answer with complete certainty. If they are in a superposition of states this certainty is not possible and we arrive at a contradiction. To overcome this, they suggest that it is the “bodies” of the minds that are in a superposition, that the minds must have definite states that are never in superpositionWhen an observer measures a quantum system and becomes entangled with it, it now constitutes a larger quantum system. In regards to each possibility within the wave function, a mental state of the brain corresponds, and only one mind is experienced, leading the others to branch off and become inaccessible, albeit real. In this way, every sentient being is attributed with an infinity of minds, whose prevalence correspond to the amplitude of the wavefunction; as an observer checks a measurement, the probability of realizing a specific measurement directly correlates to the number of minds they have where they see that measurement.

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