The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology on Beaumont Street, England, is the world's first university museum. Its first building was erected in 1678–1683 to house the cabinet of curiosities that Elias Ashmole gave to the University of Oxford in 1677; the present building was erected 1841–1845. The museum reopened in 2009 after a major redevelopment. In November 2011, new galleries focusing on Egypt and Nubia were unveiled. In May 2016, the museum opened new galleries of 19th-century art; the museum opened on 24 May 1683, with naturalist Robert Plot as the first keeper. The building on Broad Street, which became known as the Old Ashmolean, is sometimes attributed to Sir Christopher Wren or Thomas Wood. Elias Ashmole had acquired the collection from the gardeners and collectors John Tradescant the Elder and his son, John Tradescant the Younger, it included antique coins, engravings, geological specimens, zoological specimens—one of, the stuffed body of the last dodo seen in Europe. The present building dates from 1841 to 1845.
It was designed as the University Galleries by Charles Cockerell in a classical style and stands on Beaumont Street. One wing of the building is occupied by the Taylor Institution, the modern languages faculty of the university, standing on the corner of Beaumont Street and St Giles' Street; this wing of the building was designed by Charles Cockerell, using the Ionic order of Greek architecture. Sir Arthur Evans, appointed keeper in 1884 and retired in 1908, is responsible for the current museum. Evans found that the Keeper and the Vice-Chancellor had managed to lose half of the Ashmole collection and had converted the original building into the Examination Rooms. Charles Drury Edward Fortnum had offered to donate his personal collection of antiques on condition that the museum was put on a sound footing. A donation of £10,000 from Fortnum enabled Evans to build an extension to the University Galleries and move the Ashmolean collection there in 1894. In 1908, the Ashmolean and the University Galleries were combined as the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology.
The museum became a depository for some of the important archaeological finds from Evans' excavations in Crete. After the various specimens had been moved into new museums, the "Old Ashmolean" building was used as office space for the Oxford English Dictionary. Since 1924, the building has been established as the Museum of the History of Science, with exhibitions including the scientific instruments given to Oxford University by Lewis Evans, amongst them the world's largest collection of astrolabes. Charles Buller Heberden left £1,000 to the University, used for the Coin Room at the museum. In 2012, the Ashmolean was awarded a grant of $1.1m by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to establish the University Engagement Programme or UEP; the programme employs three Teaching Curators and a Programme Director to develop the use of the museum's collections in the teaching and research of the University. The interior of the Ashmolean has been extensively modernised in recent years and now includes a restaurant and large gift shop.
In 2000, the Chinese Picture Gallery, designed by van Heyningen and Haward Architects, opened at the entrance of the Ashmolean and is integrated into the structure. It was inserted into a lightwell in the Grade 1 listed building, was designed to support future construction from its roof. Apart from the original Cockerell spaces, this gallery was the only part of the museum retained in the rebuilding; the gallery houses the Ashmolean's own collection and is used from time to time for the display of loan exhibitions and works by contemporary Chinese artists. It is the only museum gallery in Britain devoted to Chinese paintings; the Sackler Library, incorporating the older library collections of the Ashmolean, opened in 2001 and has allowed an expansion of the book collection, which concentrates on classical civilization and art history. Between 2006 and 2009, the museum was expanded to the designs of architect Rick Mather and the exhibition design company Metaphor, supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund.
The $98.2 million rebuilding resulted in five floors instead of three, with a doubling of the display space, as well as new conservation studios and an education centre. The renovated museum re-opened on 7 November 2009. On 26 November 2011, the Ashmolean opened to the public the new galleries of Ancient Egypt and Nubia; this second phase of major redevelopment now allows the museum to exhibit objects that have been in storage for decades, more than doubling the number of coffins and mummies on display. The project received lead support from Lord Sainsbury's Linbury Trust, along with the Selz Foundation, Mr Christian Levett, as well as other trusts and individuals. Rick Mather Architects led the redesign and display of the four previous Egypt galleries and the extension to the restored Ruskin Gallery occupied by the museum shop. In May 2016, the museum opened new galleries dedicated to the display of its collection of Victorian art; this development allowed for the return to the Ashmolean of the Great Bookcase, designed by William Burges, described as "the most important example of Victorian painted furniture made.".
The main museum contains huge collections of fine art. It has one of the best collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings, majolica pottery, English silver; the archaeology department includes the bequest of Arthur Evans and so has an excellent collection of Greek and Minoan pott
Activated on 15 April 2008, 357th Air & Missile Defense Detachment was a brigade level air defense unit of the United States Army. Based in Kaiserslautern, Germany, it was a subordinate unit of United States Army Europe. 5th Battalion, 7th Air Defense Artillery Regiment Constituted 17 June 1944 in the Army of the United States as the 357th Coast Artillery Transport Detachment Activated 5 July 1944 in Australia Inactivated 1 April 1946 in Japan Redesignated 19 November 1948 as the 357th Antiaircraft Artillery Operations Detachment and allotted to the Organized Reserve Corps Activated 14 December 1948 at East Orange, New Jersey Inactivated 30 June 1950 at East Orange, New Jersey Withdrawn 1 February 1955 from the Army Reserve and allotted to the Regular Army. S. Army Artillery Detachment Activated 20 December 1961 at Fort Bliss, Texas Inactivated 15 September 1966 in Germany Redesignated 1 October 2007 as the 357th Air Defense Artillery Detachment Activated 16 April 2008 in Germany Inactivated 17 October 2011 in Kaiserslautern, Germany World War IINew Guinea Luzon This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army Center of Military History document "357th AMD-D Lineage".
357th AMD-D Kaiserslautern Garrison Official Site for the Headquarters of United States Army Europe
Seed is an upcoming massively multiplayer sandbox simulation video game in development by Klang Games, which began initial production in October 2016. According to Klang Games, the game is not connected to, or a remake of, developed by Runestone Game Development, which closed in 2006. Players are tasked with colonizing a large-scale, exoplanet through collaboration and other player-to-player interaction. Players must manage multiple colonists and create their routines, allowing them to develop their community and progress on their own organically; each AI-controlled colonist can be given various tasks for survival. Players can collaborate with one other to form larger colonies; these large colonies can form their own governments, rules, or taxes, become cities. When a player is logged off, their colonists will still function within the game. However, players will have the ability to defer the control of their characters to other players. In May 2016, it was announced that the Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, Lawrence Lessig, is working with Klang to create the game's political structure.
Professor Lessig is creating a platform where players can choose from different forms of governance to apply to a player colony. The options range from simple forms of government to a monarchy or different forms of complex democracies. Lessig noted. In addition, Lessig noted. Klang is utilizing the cloud-based operating system created by Improbable, SpatialOS, which allows Seed to be a persistent, continuously running simulation, with all Seed game logic running and living on a single shard server; the game's low polygon art style direction is led by 3D animator Eran Hilleli. Seed has been described by Rock, Shotgun as “'RimWorld but multiplayer or maybe'The Sims but on another planet where the other Sims families don’t like you'.” Official website