The Huddersfield line is one of the busiest rail lines on the West Yorkshire MetroTrain network in Northern England. Local services are operated by Northern with longer distance services operated by TransPennine Express; the line connects Huddersfield with Manchester, Manchester Airport and Liverpool. The route travels south-south west from Leeds through Dewsbury. After a short westward stretch through Mirfield, it continues south west through Huddersfield, using the River Colne valley to its headwaters; the long Standedge Tunnel just after Marsden crosses under the watershed and the majority of the run down to Manchester is in the Tame valley. After Manchester, the line reaches the Liverpool and Manchester Railway line over Chat Moss to Liverpool; the Government announced in November 2011 that this route would be electrified, electrification is scheduled to be completed by 2022, though not all the route will now be electrified. At the time of the 1923 Grouping most of the route followed by the line was over London and North Western Railway metals, the exception being a short stretch around Mirfield, the property of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway.
The first section of the line, between Huddersfield and Stalybridge, was opened by the Manchester and Leeds Railway on 1 August 1849. The line became part of the London and Scottish Railway after 1923; the route was furnished with an additional two tracks in 1894, thus giving four tracks between Stalybridge and Leeds. The loss of traffic through the second half of the 20th century saw these cut back to just two lines and the closure of the Micklehurst loop; the length of the line between Manchester Victoria and Holbeck Junction at Leeds is 49 miles, though the Transpennine upgrade work covers the additional section to York which accounts for 76 miles. Metro pre-paid tickets and concessionary fares are available between Marsden. Transport for Greater Manchester fares are available for the Greenfield-Manchester section. Several of the intermediate stations listed were closed in the 1960s. All stations that are still open are in bold: Leeds Copley Hill Goods Farnley and Wortley Cottingley Churwell Morley Batley Staincliffe & Batley Carr Dewsbury: Dewsbury Ravensthorpe was named Ravensthorpe and Thornhill here is Dewsbury Junction with the L&YR.
Trains from Wakefield join the Huddersfield line here, giving connections from the Pontefract and Wakefield lines. Mirfield L&YR junctions here to Low Moor and Halifax: the service from the Huddersfield Line operates to Brighouse Heaton Lodge/Heckmondwike Junctions return the route to the ex-LNWR line Bradley Deighton Huddersfield: served by the Caldervale and Penistone lines; the railway station here was YR joint owned. Here is Springwood Tunnel and Springwood Junction for the trains on the Penistone line Longwood and Milnsbridge Golcar Slaithwaite Marsden Standedge Tunnel: three parallel tunnels, two single-line, one double, 5,340 yards in length Diggle Diggle Junction with line to Stalybridge via Friezland Saddleworth Moorgate Greenfield Mossley Stalybridge Ashton-under-Lyne Manchester Victoria Manchester Piccadilly Manchester Airport Irlam Manchester Oxford Road Birchwood Warrington Central Hunts Cross Liverpool Lime Street TransPennine Express operate the majority of the passenger services over the line as it is the core line linking the North West with Yorkshire and the North East.
Since privatisation in the 1990s, local services on the route have been operated by the Northern franchise. The first incarnation, Arriva Trains Northern operated the express services between Liverpool, Leeds, York and Newcastle before the Strategic Rail Authority spun the express train services off into a separate franchise, now run by TransPennine Express. At the May 2018 timetable change, the Northern services calling at the smaller stations on the section between Greater Manchester and Huddersfield, were transferred to TPE and combined into an hourly Manchester Piccadilly to Leeds service; this saw many of the TPE services diverted away from the Guide Bridge to Manchester Piccadilly corridor, so that through trains could use the newly opened Ordsall Chord. However, Northern still operate local services from Huddersfield to Sheffield and Wakefield. Due to the change of line on the through Manchester services, the Liverpool trains no longer run on the line through Warrington Central, but instead travel via Newton-le-Willows.
TPE provide six trains per hour in both directions between Leeds. Network rail state that this will include doubling the track in some places and upgrading stations as well as some of the intended Transpennine electrification programme; the electrification has been curtailed in parts and as such, the sections between Stalybridge and Huddersfield, a further section of 12 miles east of Leeds will not be electrified. Emphasis has been placed on the Bi-Modal power of
Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway
The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway was a major British railway company before the 1923 Grouping. It was incorporated in 1847 from an amalgamation of several existing railways, it was the third-largest railway system based in Northern England. The intensity of its service was reflected in the 1,650 locomotives it owned – it was by far the most densely trafficked system in the British Isles with more locomotives per mile than any other company – and that one third of its 738 signal boxes controlled junctions averaging one every 3.5 miles. No two adjacent stations were more than 5.5 miles apart and its 1,904 passenger services occupied 57 pages in Bradshaw, a number exceeded only by the Great Western Railway, the London and North Western Railway, the Midland Railway. It was the first mainline railway to introduce electrification of some of its lines, it ran steamboat services across the Irish Sea and North Sea, being a bigger shipowner than any other British railway company, it amalgamated with the London and North Western Railway on 1 January 1922.
One year the merged company became the largest constituent of the London and Scottish Railway. The L&YR was incorporated in 1847, being an amalgamation of several important lines, the chief of, the Manchester and Leeds Railway; the following companies, in order, were amalgamated into the L&YR. The dates shown are, in most cases, the Acts of Parliament authorising the incorporation and amalgamation of each company. In a few instances the effective date is used. Manchester and Leeds Railway, 4 July 1836 – 9 July 1847 Manchester and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway, 23 August 1831 – 18 July 1846 Huddersfield and Sheffield Junction Railway, 30 June 1845 – 27 July 1846, now the Penistone Line. Liverpool and Bury Railway, 31 July 1845 – 27 July 1846 Preston and Wyre Railway and Dock Company, 1 July 1839 – 3 August 1846 Preston and Wyre Railway and Harbour Company, 3 July 1835 – 1 July 1839 West Riding Union Railway, 18 August 1846 – 17 November 1846 West Yorkshire Railway, 1845 – 18 August 1846 Leeds and West Riding Junction Railway,?
– 18 August 1846 Ashton and Liverpool Junction Railway, 19 July 1844 – 9 July 1847 Wakefield and Goole Railway, 31 July 1845 – 9 July 1847 Manchester and Southport Railway, 22 July 1847 – 3 July 1854 Liverpool and Southport Railway, 2 July 1847 – 14 June 1855 Blackburn Railway, 24 July 1851 – 12 July 1858 Bolton, Blackburn and West Yorkshire Railway, 9 July 1847 – 24 July 1851 Blackburn and Bolton Railway, 30 June 1845 – 9 July 1847 Blackburn and North Western Junction Railway, 27 July 1846 – 9 July 1847 Sheffield, Barnsley, Wakefield and Goole Railway, 7 August 1846 – 2 August 1858 East Lancashire Railway, 21 July 1845 – 13 May 1859 Manchester and Rossendale Railway, 4 July 1844 – 21 July 1845 Blackburn, Burnley and Colne Extension Railway, 30 June 1845 – 21 July 1845 Blackburn and Preston Railway, 6 June 1844 – 3 August 1846 Liverpool and Preston Railway, 18 August 1846 – October 1846 Fleetwood and West Riding Junction Railway, 27 July 1846 – 17 June 1866 Preston and Longridge Railway, 14 July 1836 – 23 June 1856 Blackpool and Lytham Railway, 17 May 1861 – 29 June 1871 Lancashire Union Railway, 25 July 1864 – 16 July 1883 North Union Railway, 22 May 1834 – 26 July 1889 Wigan Branch Railway, 29 May 1830 – 22 May 1834 Preston and Wigan Railway, 22 April 1831 – 22 May 1834 Bolton and Preston Railway, 15 June 1837 – 10 May 1844 Bury and Tottington District Railway, 2 August 1877 – 24 July 1888 West Lancashire Railway, 14 August 1871 – 15 July 1897 Liverpool and Preston Junction Railway, 7 August 1884 – 15 July 1897 The system consisted of many branches and alternative routes, so that it is not easy to determine the location of its main line.
For working purposes the railway was split into three divisions: Western Division: Manchester to Blackpool and Fleetwood. It included the connection to the LNWR at Stockport for through traffic to London. Eastern Division: Todmorden to Halifax, Leeds, Wakefield, Normanton and Doncaster. Whereas there were various lines between the Central and Western Divisions there was only one route between the Eastern and Central Divisions; this line cut through the Pennines between Lancashire and Yorkshire using a number of long tunnels, the longest of, Summit Tunnel near Rochdale. There were six other tunnels each more than 1,000 yards long. Victoria railway station was one of the largest railway stations in the country at the time, was the first of four stations to be named Victoria, pre-dating those in London and Nottingham, it had 17 platforms with a total length of 9,332 feet. After the grouping, a structural change led No. 11 platform to run through and join with No. 3 platform in the adjacent Manchester Exchange railway station, at 2,238 feet between ramps becoming the longest railway platform in Britain.
The station capacity has been reduced to two platforms for Metrolink trams, two bay platforms, four through platforms under the Manchester Evening News Arena, which now replaces a significant area once occupied by the station. The main facade and station building of
London Midland Region of British Railways
The London Midland Region was one of the six regions created on the formation of the nationalised British Railways, consisted of ex-London and Scottish Railway lines in England and Wales. The region was managed first from buildings adjacent to Euston station, from Stanier House in Birmingham, it existed from the creation of BR in 1948, ceased to be an operating unit in its own right in the 1980s, was wound up at the end of 1992. At its inception, the LMR's territory consisted of ex-LMS lines in Wales. LMS lines in Scotland became part of the Scottish Region, whilst those of the Northern Counties Committee in Northern Ireland became part of the Ulster Transport Authority; the Mersey Railway, which had avoided being "Grouped" with the LMS in 1923 joined the LMR. The other regions formed at the same time were the Eastern Region, the North Eastern Region, the Southern Region, the Western Region and the Scottish Region; the LMR's territory principally consisted of the West Coast Main Line, the Midland Main Line south of Carlisle, the ex-Midland Cross Country route from Bristol to Leeds.
During the LMR's existence there were a number of transfers of territory to and from other regions. The major changes were: In 1949 the London and Southend Railway, wholly surrounded by Eastern lines and completely cut off from the rest of the LMR network, was transferred to the Eastern. In 1958 a major re-drawing of the regional boundaries took place. LMR lines in South Wales and south-west of Birmingham were transferred to the Western. In return the London Midland gained the lines of the former Great Central Railway that lay outside Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. In 1974, the Chiltern line from London Marylebone to Banbury and Birmingham Moor Street was transferred to the LMR from the Western Region; the LMR inherited ex-LMS types of steam locomotive. For a few months in early 1948, an M prefix was added to existing LMS locomotive numbers. From mid-1948, 40000 was added, giving numbers of ex-LMS types in the 5XXXX series; some elderly locomotive classes were renumbered in the 58XXX series to make way for new production of LMS designs.
The LMR continued building ex-LMS stock Black Fives, Ivatt 2MT, two Duchesses, rebuilds of Royal Scots and Patriots. Stanier "Period III" carriages continued to be built and were developed into a new style known as "Porthole" stock. Freight stock on order at Nationalisation was completed: some LMS designs were accepted as BR standard designs and continued to be built for the whole network through the 1950s and early 1960s. In 1968 it was the last region of BR to eliminate steam traction under the 1955 Modernisation Plan. In the 1960s, the West Coast Main Line was electrified between London Euston and Crewe, Liverpool and Birmingham; this was extended via Carlisle to Glasgow in the 1970s. Ball, MG. British Railways Atlas Ian Allan Publishing 2004
Ashton Park Parade railway station
Ashton Park Parade railway station was a station on the line between Guide Bridge and Stalybridge in Greater Manchester, England. This station served the town of Ashton-under-Lyne, now served only by Ashton Charlestown, north of this former station; the down platform of Ashton Park Parade station was located on what is now a grass site to the south of Ashton's Park Parade Bypass and before the construction of the Bypass the down platform was approached directly from the end of Warrington Street where there was a large cobbled yard for passenger and parcel vehicles. The up platform stood on the edge of the escarpment, supported by arches and overlooking Lower Wharf Street. To the east of this platform were coal staithes where coal was dropped into vehicles wwaiting below in the coal yard; the lines serving the coal staithes were controlled by a signal box located on the opposite side of the line and just to the east of the down line platform where there was a substantial goods siding. When the sidings were built Ashton’s Old Baronial Hall was demolished to make way for them.
These sidings occupied the land where the Bypass runs between the Parish Church and the railway line with the only remaining signs of the sidings being two wooden buildings in Church Street which once served the goods yard. Opened by the Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway, as the Stalybridge branch extension it became part of the Great Central Railway, it became part of the London and North Eastern Railway during the Grouping of 1923; the station passed on to the London Midland Region of British Railways on nationalisation in 1948. It was closed by the British Railways Board. No remains of the former station are evident other than the well preserved flight of stone steps which ascend from Lower Wharf Street and led into the former Station Yard at the down platform entrance; the railway line is still open. The only other clue of its existence is "The Station", a now-closed pub on Warrington Street, near the former station; the building of the Ashton by-pass sealed the fate of this station which cut it off from the towns main shopping street
Guide Bridge railway station
Guide Bridge railway station serves Guide Bridge in Audenshaw, Greater Manchester, is operated by Northern. The station is 4¾ miles east of Manchester Piccadilly on the Glossop Line, it was built by the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway on its new line from Ardwick Junction, near to the Manchester and Birmingham Railway's terminus at Store Street, to Sheffield and opened as Ashton and Hooley Hill on 11 November 1841 when the line opened as far as Godley Toll Bar. It was renamed Ashton in February 1842 and became Guide Bridge on 14 July 1845 when the line was extended to Sheffield; the station had a 4 platform configuration with a large office on the southern side. However, the southern platforms were decommissioned and the tracks lifted in 1984-85 as part of layout alterations associated with the changeover from 1500 V DC to 25 kV AC working on the Hadfield line, with demolition of the buildings following a few years later; the area has been covered, with a section forming part of the car park, but some evidence remains of the previous two tracks.
The junction at the country end of the station was remodelled in 2011 to allow Stalybridge line trains to cross the junction at 30 mph rather than 15 mph as previously. Tickets can be obtained at the ticket office on the former island platform. With the electrification of the Manchester–Sheffield line in the early 1950s, Guide Bridge a major centre of railway operations, increased in importance. Express trains called here, as well as EMU trains between Manchester London Road and the north Derbyshire towns of Glossop and Hadfield. There were Diesel Multiple Unit services from Manchester London Road to Macclesfield, Stockport Edgeley to Stalybridge and to Oldham; the station was where Express Trains to and from Manchester Central on the London Marylebone route, changed locomotive. Drawn by a Bo-Bo or Co-Co Electric Locomotive from Sheffield, a steam or in years diesel Locomotive would take the train the final few miles to Manchester Central and vice versa; the Woodhead Line was busy with goods traffic with coal traffic from South Yorkshire to Lancashire power stations.
The station accepted goods under British Railways "Passenger" freight service and had a licensed Buffet. There was a large marshalling yard about a mile east of Guide Bridge at Dewsnap. There was a stabling point to the east of Guide Bridge station where engines could be fuelled. Guide Bridge was where the local Retail Coal Merchants transferred Coal from British Rail Coal wagons weighed into One Hundredweight sacks for delivery to homes around Ashton and Denton. Express passenger trains via the Woodhead line ceased operation on 5 January 1970, but Dewsnap sidings and Guide Bridge stabling point were busy until the final closure of the Woodhead Line on 20 July 1981; the Class 76 electric locomotives were a frequent sight here, along with Class 25, Class 40 and numerous others classes of diesels. The former TransPennine Express operator, Arriva Trains Northern, had plans to establish Guide Bridge as a major interchange station, coupled with hopes that the Woodhead line might re-open; such aspirations seem to have fallen by the wayside, since First TransPennine Express took over the franchise.
On 22 October 2006, a fire gutted the waiting room and ticket office. The fire has subsequently been attributed to arson and caused around £1m of damage to the station, necessitating the demolition of the footbridge; this has not been rebuilt, necessitating a lengthy walk out of the station and along the adjacent main road to change platforms. A new single-storey ticket office has though been provided as part of a £1.7million revamp of the station, along with improved lighting, an extended car park with 140 spaces, CCTV cameras and cycle storage lockers. The new facilities were commissioned in December 2014, with an official opening attended by the Minister of State for Transport Baroness Kramer. In January 2009, the free car parking was abolished, with a daily charge of £3 being introduced; as a result, the once busy car park fell quiet. A subsequent review was taken, following complaints from neighbouring residents, with backing of local councillors over the re-distribution of cars once parked on the ample station facility to the surrounding residential streets with charging dismissed soon afterwards.
This station was proposed as being a possible stop of the railway company Grand Central service running between London Euston and Bradford Interchange. However, due to the need to rewrite the 2008 West Coast Main Line timetable, in order to accommodate the additional services, the application was withdrawn in August 2008; the levels of service on the Trans-Pennine route are to decrease in the next few years for the new Northern Hub proposals, with most long distance services diverted to run via their pre-1989 route via Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Victoria and the planned Ordsall Chord to reach Manchester Piccadilly. Some trains will though continue to run through Guide Bridge - these will serve the most local stations between Stalybridge and Manchester Piccadilly; the current service at Guide Bridge consists of a half-hourly Manchester Piccadilly-Hadfield EMU service and a half-hourly service between Piccadilly and Rose Hill Marple. There is a
Regional Railways was one of the three passenger sectors of British Rail created in 1982 that existed until 1997, two years after privatisation. The sector was called Provincial. Regional Railways was the most subsidised of the three sectors. Upon formation, its costs were four times its revenue; the sector was broken up into eight franchises during the privatisation of British Rail, ceased to exist on 31 March 1997. Upon sectorisation in 1982, three passenger sectors were created: InterCity, operating principal express services. In the metropolitan counties, local services were managed by the Passenger Transport Executives. Regional Railways inherited a diverse range of routes. Expresses ran to non-principal destinations or on less popular routes, such as Birmingham or Liverpool to Norwich, or Liverpool to Scarborough, were chiefly operated by older locomotives and second-hand InterCity coaches; these services were operated by Sprinter units – Class 158s on express services. There were the internal Scottish Region local services and expresses, the latter including the Edinburgh-Glasgow push-pull service.
Local services ran on both main lines and branch lines, were operated by first generation diesel multiple units dating back to the 1950s. Longer distance trains were formed of older coaches and locomotives of Class 31, Class 40 and Class 45 which were of similar vintage. In the early 1980s, large numbers of diesel multiple unit and locomotive-hauled coaches were found to contain asbestos. Removing this would be a considerable cost and generating no extra revenue, coupled with the unreliabile old locomotives and DMUs prompted BR to look for a new generation of diesel multiple units; the prototype Class 210s, in service on a trial basis since 1981, were considered too expensive to be put into production, so BR looked elsewhere for new designs. The first, used bus technology from the Leyland National, in classes numbered in the 14X range. Not long after introduction to service, large numbers of them suffered from a number of technical problems with their gearboxes. In Cornwall it was found that their long wheelbase caused intolerable squealing noises and high tyre wear on tight curves, they had to be replaced by the old DMUs.
The solution lay elsewhere, although after much modification, the Pacers proved themselves in traffic. BR needed something midway between the Class 210s. In 1984/1985, two experimental DMU designs were put into service: the British Rail Engineering Limited built Class 150 and Metro-Cammell built Class 151. Both of these were less bus-like than the Pacers. After trials, the Class 150 was selected for production, entering service from 1987. Reliability was much improved by the new units, with depot visits being reduced from two or three times a week to fortnightly; the late 1980s and early 1990s saw the development of secondary express services that complemented the mainline Intercity routes. Class 155 and Class 156 Sprinters were developed to replace locomotive-hauled trains on these services, their interiors being designed with longer distance journeys in mind. Key Scottish and Trans-Pennine routes were upgraded with new Class 158 Express Sprinters, while a network of'Alphaline' services was introduced elsewhere in the country.
By the end of the 1980s, passenger numbers had increased and costs had been reduced to two-and-a-half times revenue. The British Rail Class 323 electric multiple units were built by Hunslet Transportation Projects between January 1992 and September 1995, although mock-ups and prototypes were built and tested in 1990 and 1991. Forty-three 3-car units were built for inner-suburban services in and around Birmingham and Manchester, including the Cross-City Line in the Birmingham area and services to the new Manchester Airport railway station. Many vehicles carried standard BR blue livery. From 1986, Provincial adopted a version of the prototype Class 150 livery: "aircraft" blue over white, with a light blue stripe at waist level. All new units, plus a few existing ones, such as selected Class 304 EMUs, received it; some units and coaches received the livery with "Regional Railways" branding. The Class 158s, introduced in 1989, appeared in "Express" livery: dark grey window surrounds over light grey, with light and dark blue stripes at waist level.
This colour scheme was applied to some Class 156 units around privatisation. After privitisation many vehicles continued to carry basic RR colour scheme, but with the addition of different branding, e.g. "Central Trains". The final British railway vehicle to carry Regional Railways livery was a Class 153, repainted in July 2008 into East Midlands Trains livery; as part of the process of privatisation between 1994 and 1997, Regional Railways was split into several different shadow train operating units, which became independent train operating companies: Pettitt, Gordon. The Regional Railways Story. OPC. ISBN 9780860936633. OCLC 921239163
National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were