Gabriel Péri (Paris Métro)
Gabriel Péri is a station on the north-western branch of Line 13 of the Métro in Paris, France. The station is situated under Rue des Bas on the boundary of the communes of Gennevilliers and Asnières-sur-Seine; the station opened on 3 May 1980 upon completion of the extension of Line 13 from Porte de Clichy, was the terminal station until 2008 when the extension to Les Courtilles opened. At that time, its name was changed from Gabriel Péri - Asnières - Gennevilliers to its present name. List of stations of the Paris Métro
Boat building is the design and construction of boats and their systems. This includes at a minimum a hull, with propulsion, navigation and other systems as a craft requires. Wood is the traditional boat building material used for spar construction, it is buoyant available and worked. It is a popular material for small boats, its abrasion resistance varies according to the hardness and density of the wood and it can deteriorate if fresh water or marine organisms are allowed to penetrate the wood. Woods such as Teak and some cedars have natural chemicals which prevent rot whereas other woods, such as Pinus radiata, will rot quickly; the hull of a wooden boat consists of planking fastened to frames and a keel. Keel and frames are traditionally made of hardwoods such as oak while planking can be oak but is more softwood such as pine, larch or cedar. Plywood is popular for amateur construction but only marine ply using waterproof glues and laminates should be used. Cheap construction plywood has voids in the interior layers and is not suitable to boat building as the voids trap moisture and accelerate rot as well as physically weaken the plywood.
No plywood should be coated with epoxy resin and/or a good paint system. Varnish and Linseed oil should not be used on the exterior of a hull for waterproofing. Varnish has about 60% of the water resistance of a good paint system. Only boiled linseed oil should be used on a boat and only in the interior as it has little water resistance but it is easy to apply and has a pleasant smell. Note that used linseed rags should not be left in a pile as they can catch fire. A valuable 200-year-old waka caught fire in New Zealand in June 2014 when restorers left rags piled overnight. Raw linseed oil is not suited to boats as it stays oily for a long time. Mildew will grow well on raw linseed oil treated timber but not on boiled linseed oil. More introduced tropical woods as mahogany, okoumé, Keruing, azobé and merbau. are used. With tropical species, extra attention needs to be taken to ensure that the wood is indeed FSC-certified. Teak or iroko is used to create the deck and any superstructure. Glue, rivets and/or nails are used to join the wooden components.
Before teak is glued the natural oil must be wiped off with a chemical cleaner, otherwise the joint will fail. Some types of wood construction include: Carvel, in which a smooth hull is formed by edge joined planks attached to a frame; the planks may be curved in cross section like barrel staves. Carvel planks are caulked with oakum or cotton, driven into the seams between the planks and covered with some waterproof substance, it is believed to have originated in the Mediterranean. A number of boat building texts are available. Clinker is a technique identified with the Scandinavians and Ingveonic people in which wooden planks are fixed to each other with a slight overlap, beveled for a tight fit; the planks may be mechanically connected to each other with copper rivets, bent over iron nails, screws or in modern boats with adhesives. Steam bent wooden ribs are fitted inside the hull. Strip planking is yet another type of wooden boat construction similar to carvel, it is a glued construction method, popular with amateur boatbuilders as it is quick, avoids complex temporary jig work and does not require shaping of the planks.
Sheet plywood boat building uses sheets of plywood panels fixed to longitudinal long wood such the chines, inwhales or intermediate stringers which are all bent around a series of frames. By attaching the ply sheets to the longwood rather than directly to the frames this avoids hard spots or an unfair hull. Plywood may be used in single sheets; these hulls have one or more chines and the method is called Ply on Frame construction. A subdivision of the sheet plywood boat building method is known as the stitch-and-glue method, where pre-shaped panels of plywood are drawn together edge glued and reinforced with fibreglass without the use of a frame. Metal or plastic ties, nylon fishing line or copper wires pull curved flat panels into three-dimensional curved shapes; these hulls have one or more chines. Marine grade plywood of good quality is designated "WBP" or more BS 1088. Australian plywood manufacturers and suppliers have issued warnings that some Asian nations are selling ply stamped BS 1088 which does not meet international standards.
They say outer plies are too thin or are thin or high-grade surface ply such as Okoume is combined with a much heavier and wider inner cores. Most high-grade marine Okoume ply uses lightweight poplar inner cores; the 1088 stamp is blurred in the poor Asian ply so it is not clear. In Australia and New Zealand a higher-grade marine ply than BS1088 is AS2272, it requires. The most common plywood used for this grade is plantation-grown Hoop Pine, fine grained smooth, moderately light. Hoop pine has a high stress rating of F17, indicating high strength. Meranti ply has a stress rating of F14 and Okoume ply F8. Okoume ply is coated with epoxy to increase strength and impact resistance as well as to exclude water. B
Asnières (Van Gogh series)
Asnières, now named Asnières-sur-Seine, is the subject and location of paintings that Vincent van Gogh made in 1887. The works, which include parks, riverside settings and factories, mark a breakthrough in van Gogh's artistic development. In the Netherlands his work was shaped by great Dutch masters as well as Anton Mauve a Dutch realist painter, a leading member of the Hague School and a significant early influence on his cousin-in-law van Gogh. In Paris van Gogh was exposed to and influenced by Impressionism, Symbolism and Japanese woodblock print genres. During van Gogh's first twelve months in Paris he absorbed a lot of information about modern art from the best of the avant-garde artists of the time, but in practice his work in 1886 and early 1887 varied little from his paintings in the Netherlands. In the early 1887 he stayed with Émile Bernard and his parents in Asnières and the budding spring seemed to trigger an awakening within van Gogh where he experimented with the genres to develop his personal style.
In a country setting, undergoing industrialization, van Gogh was able to depict his reverence for rural life and express concern about encroachment of industrialization. With new techniques, van Gogh produced paintings evoked tenderness of couples taking a walk in the park or social commentary about the ways in which factories affected country life. In 1886 van Gogh left the Netherlands for Paris never to return, his brother Theo, a successful Parisian art dealer, provided Vincent the support and connections for an immersion in modern art. In the Netherlands van Gogh was influenced by great Dutch masters, as well as his cousin-in-law Anton Mauve, a Dutch realist painter, a leading member of the Hague School and a significant early influence. Starting March 1886 van Gogh studied with Fernand Cormon. During that time he lived with his brother Theo, who leased a large apartment on Rue Lepic in Montmartre with space for a studio for Vincent. Three months van Gogh abandoned his studies with Cormon, but his education continued as he met local artists.
During 1886 he was introduced to Impressionist artists and their works, such as Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, Georges Seurat and Paul Signac. In 1887 Van Gogh continued to make important connections with other artists who he befriended and exchanged paintings with, such as Louis Anquetin, Émile Bernard, Armand Guillaumin, Lucien Pissarro and Signac. Having been introduced to Impressionism and Pointillism in Paris, van Gogh began experimenting with related techniques, first on a series of self-portraits before he moved on to larger, more complex compositions. Many of the Impressionist artists shared his interest in Japanese wood block prints; the works of ukiyo-e artists and Hokusai influenced van Gogh, both for the beautiful subject matter and the style of flat patterns of colors, without shadow. Van Gogh arranged an exhibit in Paris of Japanese prints at Café du Tambourin. In the two years, from 1886 through 1888, van Gogh emerged as a sophisticated and provoking artist, it is through association with artists in Paris that he began to dream of a utopian artists community where "like-minded" individuals would realize "the perfect art."
Asnières, now named Asnières-sur-Seine, a town in the northern suburbs of Paris located on the banks of the Seine and near the fortifications of Paris. In the 19th century Parisians took a short train ride to Asnières for boating, including rowing meets; the Goncourt brothers wrote of Asnieres in their 1867 novel Manette Salomon. Anatole, a painter, meets up with his friends near a riverside cabaret, they all got into his boat "comrades of both sexes, approximations of painters, species of artists, vague women known only by nicknames, actresses from Grenelle, unemployed lorettes, all tempted by the idea of the day in the country and a drink of claret in a cabaret."Impressionists were interested in painting this area, en plein air, for the interesting scenery: bridges over the Seine, boats along the banks of the river, outdoor cafés and treed settings. Longing for tranquil settings, van Gogh began to paint in Asnières in April 1887 where fellow artists Signac and Bernard lived. Beyond the city fortifications and along the banks of the Seine, lay Asnières and the island of Grand Jatte.
He experimented with a lighter, more colorful palette than used in his early Dutch and Montmartre paintings. When painting with Bernard, they painted in the open air. To his sister Wil, Vincent wrote, "While painting at Asnières, I saw more colors than I have seen before." Instead of working in the somber colors of his early work, he embraced the use of color and light of the Impressionists. Influenced by Pointillism, van Gogh modified his traditional style and used vivid color, shorter brushstrokes and perspective to engage the viewer, his views of the banks of the Seine are an important progression for his landscape paintings. In Asnières, within walking distance of Theo's flat in Montmartre, Vincent painted parks, cafés, restaurants and the river. Signac commented on meeting up with van Gogh, "I would encounter him at Saint-Ouen. We painted together on the riverbanks, we lunched at roadside cafes and we returned by foot to Paris via the Avenues of Saint-Ouen and Clichy. Van Gogh, wearing the blue overalls of a zinc worker, would have little dots of color painted on his shirtsleeves.
Striking quite close to me, he would be yelling and brandishing a large size-thirty, freshly painted canvas. Van Gogh's work in
Pierre-Auguste Renoir known as Auguste Renoir, was a French artist, a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty and feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau." He was the father of filmmaker Jean Renoir and ceramic artist Claude Renoir. He was the grandfather of the filmmaker Claude Renoir, son of Pierre. Pierre-Auguste Renoir was born in Limoges, Haute-Vienne, France, in 1841, his father, Léonard Renoir, was a tailor of modest means, so in 1844, Renoir's family moved to Paris in search of more favorable prospects. The location of their home, in rue d’Argenteuil in central Paris, placed Renoir in proximity to the Louvre. Although the young Renoir had a natural proclivity for drawing, he exhibited a greater talent for singing, his talent was encouraged by his teacher, Charles Gounod, the choir-master at the Church of St Roch at the time. However, due to the family’s financial circumstances, Renoir had to discontinue his music lessons and leave school at the age of thirteen to pursue an apprenticeship at a porcelain factory.
Although Renoir displayed a talent for his work, he tired of the subject matter and sought refuge in the galleries of the Louvre. The owner of the factory recognized his apprentice’s talent and communicated this to Renoir’s family. Following this, Renoir started taking lessons to prepare for entry into Ecole des Beaux Arts; when the porcelain factory adopted mechanical reproduction processes in 1858, Renoir was forced to find other means to support his learning. Before he enrolled in art school, he painted hangings for overseas missionaries and decorations on fans. In 1862, he began studying art under Charles Gleyre in Paris. There he met Alfred Sisley, Frédéric Bazille, Claude Monet. At times, during the 1860s, he did not have enough money to buy paint. Renoir had his first success at the Salon of 1868 with his painting Lise with a Parasol, which depicted Lise Tréhot, his lover at the time. Although Renoir first started exhibiting paintings at the Paris Salon in 1864, recognition was slow in coming as a result of the turmoil of the Franco-Prussian War.
During the Paris Commune in 1871, while Renoir painted on the banks of the Seine River, some Communards thought he was a spy and were about to throw him into the river, when a leader of the Commune, Raoul Rigault, recognized Renoir as the man who had protected him on an earlier occasion. In 1874, a ten-year friendship with Jules Le Cœur and his family ended, Renoir lost not only the valuable support gained by the association but a generous welcome to stay on their property near Fontainebleau and its scenic forest; this loss of a favorite painting location resulted in a distinct change of subjects. Renoir was inspired by the style and subject matter of previous modern painters Camille Pissarro and Edouard Manet. After a series of rejections by the Salon juries, he joined forces with Monet, Sisley and several other artists to mount the first Impressionist exhibition in April 1874, in which Renoir displayed six paintings. Although the critical response to the exhibition was unfavorable, Renoir's work was comparatively well received.
That same year, two of his works were shown with Durand-Ruel in London. Hoping to secure a livelihood by attracting portrait commissions, Renoir displayed portraits at the second Impressionist exhibition in 1876, he contributed a more diverse range of paintings the next year when the group presented its third exhibition. Renoir did not exhibit in the fourth or fifth Impressionist exhibitions, instead resumed submitting his works to the Salon. By the end of the 1870s after the success of his painting Mme Charpentier and her Children at the Salon of 1879, Renoir was a successful and fashionable painter. In 1881, he traveled to Algeria, a country he associated with Eugène Delacroix to Madrid, to see the work of Diego Velázquez. Following that, he traveled to Italy to see Titian's masterpieces in Florence and the paintings of Raphael in Rome. On 15 January 1882, Renoir met the composer Richard Wagner at his home in Sicily. Renoir painted Wagner's portrait in just thirty-five minutes. In the same year, after contracting pneumonia which permanently damaged his respiratory system, Renoir convalesced for six weeks in Algeria.
In 1883, Renoir spent the summer in Guernsey, one of the islands in the English Channel with a varied landscape of beaches and bays, where he created fifteen paintings in little over a month. Most of these feature Moulin Huet, a bay in Saint Martin's, Guernsey; these paintings were the subject of a set of commemorative postage stamps issued by the Bailiwick of Guernsey in 1983. While living and working in Montmartre, Renoir employed Suzanne Valadon as a model, who posed for him and many of his fellow painters. In 1887, the year when Queen Victoria celebrated her Golden Jubilee, upon the request of the queen's associate, Phillip Richbourg, Renoir donated several paintings to the "French Impressionist Paintings" catalog as a token of his loyalty. In 1890, he married Aline Victorine Charigot, a dressmaker twenty years his junior, along with a number of the artist's friends, had served as a model for Le Déjeuner des canotiers in 1881, wit
Paris Métro Line 13
Line 13 is one of the sixteen lines of the Paris Métro rapid transit system. It originated as Line B of the Nord-Sud Company before becoming Line 13 when the Nord-Sud was merged into the CMP in 1930. Line 13 was extended in 1976 to reach one end of Métro Line 14, absorbed into it. Line 13 was once planned to be replaced by a north-south RER line, but this was cancelled after the reorganisation of the Île-de-France region in 1965. Today, Line 13 connects the western part of Paris to the suburbs of Saint-Denis, Asnières, Gennevilliers in the north and to Châtillon and Montrouge in the south. At 24.3 km in length, counting both of its northern branches, it is the longest line of the Métro. In 2004, it carried over about 540,000 per weekday. Annual traffic grew by about ten million passengers after the opening of two new stations on the Asnières branch on 14 June 2008. According to data from December 2009, there are 610,050 riders per day. Line 13's use of two northern branches serving populated areas, its long length, extension into the suburbs, rapid development of areas that it serves have culminated in the line's overloading, further highlighted by associations representing passengers.
It is the most crowded line in the system the section closest to Saint-Lazare. 26 February 1911: Line B of the Nord-Sud company was opened from Saint-Lazare to Porte de Saint-Ouen. 20 January 1912: A second branch of Line B was opened between La Fourche and Porte de Clichy. 1930: The Nord-Sud company was bought by the CMP company. Line B became Line 13, the Nord-Sud's planned future Line C was assigned the number 14. 21 January 1937: The original Line 14 was opened between Bienvenüe and Porte de Vanves. 27 July 1937: Line 14 was extended north from Bienvenüe to Duroc and took over the section between Duroc and Invalides from Line 10. 30 June 1952: Line 13 was extended north from Porte de Saint-Ouen to Carrefour Pleyel. 27 June 1973: The line was extended south from Saint-Lazare to Miromesnil. 18 February 1975: The line was extended south from Miromesnil to Champs-Elysées – Clémenceau. 26 May 1976: The line was extended north from Carrefour Pleyel to Saint-Denis – Basilique. 9 November 1976: The line was extended from Champs-Elysées to Invalides.
Line 14 was eliminated as a separate line and incorporated into Line 13. The line was extended south from Porte de Vanves to Châtillon – Montrouge. 9 May 1980: The northwestern branch of the line was extended from Porte de Clichy to Gabriel Péri. 25 May 1998: The northern branch was extended from Basilique de Saint-Denis to Saint-Denis – Université. 14 June 2008: The northwestern branch was extended from Gabriel Péri to Les Courtilles. On 28 December 1901, the Société du chemin de fer éléctrique souterrain Nord-Sud de Paris, or Nord-Sud Company, obtained a concession from the City of Paris to build a rapid transit network of two lines concurrent with the more prominent CMP, which had opened the first lines of the Métro. Connecting Porte de Saint-Ouen and Saint-Lazare, the construction of Line B began on 19 June 1905 with 2.8 km of track. Four years building commenced on the branch to Porte de Clichy; the line ran under Rue d'Amsterdam until its split at La Fourche, with each branch following either the Avenue de Clichy or the Avenue de Saint-Ouen.
No connection was provided to the CMP. On 26 February 1911, Line B opened between Saint-Lazare and Porte de Saint-Ouen, with the northwestern branch to Porte de Clichy opening a year later. Due to the narrow width of Rue d'Amsterdam, Berlin station was built unusually with non-aligned platforms; the Nord-Sud Company operated Line B with 368 trains per a minimum of 2.5 minute headways. On 1 January 1930, the CMP absorbed the Nord-Sud Company and renamed Line B to Line 13 in accordance with its numerical naming policy; the electrical supply needed to be changed. In order to allow interoperability, Line 13 was switched to third rail power. Line 13 is the least-appreciated line of the Métro by riders and is the object of a number of criticisms on part of its constant overcrowding north of Saint-Lazare where the line splits in two, leading to reduced frequencies, it is not rare for passengers to wait for several trains to load before being able to board due to the sheer volume of users. Within trains, there may be up to 4.5 people per square metre, while the cars on Line 13 can only hold four people per square metre.
In December 2003, the extension of Line 14 to Saint-Lazare resulted in a large increase of passengers using the station. However, this has only worsened the chronic congestion of Line 13. Important economic development at Plaine Saint-Denis around a vast urban project since the construction of the Stade de France has worsened conditions on the line since a number of companies have moved there, forcing more employees to use the line for their commutes. In 2007, the delay of the automatic control system named Ouragan led the RATP to propose to STIF the employment of "pushers", responsible for smoother boarding and detraining at the busiest stations on Line 13. Since December 2006, more than eighty additional trains have been added to provide supplemental service, a nearly 10% increase including additional Asnières branch service. Two years an automatic reversal at Châtillon-Montrouge went into effect, which reduces the turn-back time by ten seconds so as to circulate train
Île-de-France called the région parisienne, contains the city of Paris, is the most populous of the 18 regions of France. It covers 12,012 square kilometres, or two percent of the national territory, has official estimated population of 12,213,364 as of January 1, 2019, or 18.2% of the population of France. The region accounts for nearly 30 percent of the French Gross Domestic Product; the region is made up of eight administrative departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Yvelines. It was created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961 renamed in 1976 after the historic province of Île-de-France, when its status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Residents are sometimes referred to an administrative word created in the 1980s; the GDP of the region in 2016 was €681 billion. It has the highest per-capita GDP among regions in France and the third-highest of regions in the European Union. In 2018 all of the twenty-eight French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 had their headquarters in the Paris region.
Besides the landmarks of Paris, the region has many important historic sites, including the Palace of Versailles and the Palace of Fontainebleau, as well as the most-visited tourist attraction in France, Disneyland Paris. Although the modern name Île-de-France means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear; the "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise and Seine, or it may have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, where the French royal palace and cathedral were located. The Île-de-France was inhabited by the Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris's Left Bank, it became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris. In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks, was elected King of the Franks. Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris became the largest and most prosperous city in France; the Kings of France enjoyed getting away from Paris and hunting in the game-filled forests of the region. They built palatial hunting lodges, most notably Palace of Fontainebleau and the Palace of Versailles. From the time of Louis XIV until the French Revolution, Versailles was the official residence of the Kings and the seat of the French government; the Ile-de-France became the term used for the territory of Paris and the surrounding province, administered directly by the King.
During the French Revolution, the royal provinces were abolished and divided into departments, the city and region were governed directly by the national government. In the period after World War II, as Paris faced a major housing shortage, hundreds of massive apartment blocks for low-income residents were built around the edges of Paris. In the 1950s and the 1960s, Many thousands of immigrants settled in the communes bordering the city. In 1959, under President Charles De Gaulle, a new region was created out of six departments, which corresponded with the historic region, with the name District de la région de Paris. On 6 May 1976, as part of the process of regionalisation, the district was reconstituted and increased administrative and political powers and renamed the Île-de-France region. Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2. It is composed of eight départements centered on Paris. Around the département of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments known as the petite couronne, extends into a second outer ring of four départements known as the grande couronne.
The former département of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the petite couronne. The petite couronne consists of the départements of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, the grande couronne of those of Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines and Val-d'Oise. Politically, the region is divided into 8 départements, 25 arrondissements, 155 cantons and 1 276 communes, out of the total of 35 416 in metropolitan France, The outer parts of the Ile-de-France remain rural. Agriculture land and natu
François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity the Roman Catholic Church, his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile and prolific writer, producing works in every literary form, including plays, novels and historical and scientific works, he wrote more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time; as a satirical polemicist, he made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma and the French institutions of his day. François-Marie Arouet was born in Paris, the youngest of the five children of François Arouet, a lawyer, a minor treasury official, his wife, Marie Marguerite Daumard, whose family was on the lowest rank of the French nobility; some speculation surrounds Voltaire's date of birth, because he claimed he was born on 20 February 1694 as the illegitimate son of a nobleman, Guérin de Rochebrune or Roquebrune.
Two of his older brothers—Armand-François and Robert—died in infancy, his surviving brother Armand and sister Marguerite-Catherine were nine and seven years older, respectively. Nicknamed "Zozo" by his family, Voltaire was baptized on 22 November 1694, with François de Castagnère, abbé de Châteauneuf, Marie Daumard, the wife of his mother's cousin, standing as godparents, he was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand, where he was taught Latin and rhetoric. By the time he left school, Voltaire had decided he wanted to be a writer, against the wishes of his father, who wanted him to become a lawyer. Voltaire, pretending to work in Paris as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry; when his father found out, he sent Voltaire to study law, this time in Normandy. But the young man continued producing essays and historical studies. Voltaire's wit made him popular among some of the aristocratic families with. In 1713, his father obtained a job for him as a secretary to the new French ambassador in the Netherlands, the marquis de Châteauneuf, the brother of Voltaire's godfather.
At The Hague, Voltaire fell in love with a French Protestant refugee named Catherine Olympe Dunoyer. Their affair, considered scandalous, was discovered by de Châteauneuf and Voltaire was forced to return to France by the end of the year. Most of Voltaire's early life revolved around Paris. From early on, Voltaire had trouble with the authorities for critiques of the government; as a result, he was twice sentenced once to temporary exile to England. One satirical verse, in which Voltaire accused the Régent of incest with his daughter, resulted in an eleven-month imprisonment in the Bastille; the Comédie-Française had agreed in January 1717 to stage his debut play, Œdipe, it opened in mid-November 1718, seven months after his release. Its immediate critical and financial success established his reputation. Both the Régent and King George I of Great Britain presented Voltaire with medals as a mark of their appreciation, he argued for religious tolerance and freedom of thought. He campaigned to eradicate priestly and aristo-monarchical authority, supported a constitutional monarchy that protects people's rights.
The author adopted the name Voltaire following his incarceration at the Bastille. Its origin is unclear, it is an anagram of AROVET LI, the Latinized spelling of his surname and the initial letters of le jeune. According to a family tradition among the descendants of his sister, he was known as le petit volontaire as a child, he resurrected a variant of the name in his adult life; the name reverses the syllables of Airvault, his family's home town in the Poitou region. Richard Holmes supports the anagrammatic derivation of the name, but adds that a writer such as Voltaire would have intended it to convey connotations of speed and daring; these come from associations with words such as voltige, volte-face, volatile. "Arouet" was not a noble name fit for his growing reputation given that name's resonance with à rouer and roué. In a letter to Jean-Baptiste Rousseau in March 1719, Voltaire concludes by asking that, if Rousseau wishes to send him a return letter, he do so by addressing it to Monsieur de Voltaire.
A postscript explains: "J'ai été si malheureux sous le nom d'Arouet que j'en ai pris un autre surtout pour n'être plus confondu avec le poète Roi", This refers to Adenes le Roi, the'oi' diphthong was pronounced like modern'ouai', so the similarity to'Arouet' is clear, thus, it could well have been part of his rationale. Voltaire is known to have used at least 178 separate pen names during his lifetime. Voltaire's next play, Artémire, set in ancient Macedonia, opened on 15 February 1720, it was a flop and only fragments of the text survive. He instead turned to an epic poem about Henry IV of France that he had begun in early 1717. Denied a licence to publish, in August 1722 Voltaire headed north to find a publisher outside France. On the journey, he was acco