Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Balvanera is a neighborhood of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The official name, Balvanera, is the name of the parroquia centered around the church of Nuestra Señora de Balvanera, erected in 1831; the zone around Corrientes avenue is known as Once after Plaza Once de Septiembre, the alternative name of Plaza Miserere. The south-eastern part of Balvanera is called Congreso, as it contains the Congress building and the neighboring Plaza del Congreso; the north-western part of Balvanera is referred to as Abasto after the landmark Abasto market. Towards the middle of the 18th century the lands of the current Balvanera belonged to Antonio González Varela, a Spanish known by the nickname of Miserere. In 1799 the priest Damián Pérez, received a plot of land, where years was built the Parish Nuestra Señora de Balvanera. During the British invasions of the River Plate, the town of Balvanera was the scene of the battles between the Spanish troops under Santiago de Liniers and the English, commanded by William Beresford.
The Battle of Miserere, occurred during the second invasion, took place in the current Miserere square on July 2, 1807. In 1833 the Cemetery of the Dissidents was installed in Balvanera, a resting place for Protestants of English and American origin; the Protestant cemetery closed in 1892, the bodies that were buried there were transferred to the British Cemetery of Chacarita. This cemetery known as the "Cementerio de la Victoria" was located in the current Plaza 1 de Mayo, among its illustrious residents was Elizabeth Chitty Curling de Brown, whose tomb was never found; until the 1860s, Balvanera was considered an outskirt of Buenos Aires proper. In 1836, a census set its population at 3,635. Most inhabitants lived in quintas, the zone was known as las quintas; the Camino Real was the main road from the city to the west. In the late 19th century, Balvanera had a strong political tradition, identifying first with Adolfo Alsina and with UCR leaders Leandro Alem and Hipólito Yrigoyen. By 1900, Balvanera was associated with violently contested elections—and with the brothels in the Junín y Lavalle area where, according to Borges, the tango dance acquired its notorious erotic overtones.
Natural growth and railroad development assimilated the neighbourhood into the city. During the 1910s and 1920s, the area around Corrientes avenue became the center of Buenos Aires's Jewish community and the hub of the garment trade, which in turn attracted segments of the Arab and Armenian communities. A number of Jewish institutions are located in Balvanera, including the Gran Templo Paso and the AMIA community center; the southern part of Balvanera is home to some traditional institutions of the Galician community, features a lively furniture trade along Belgrano avenue. In the late 1970s, Balvanera became a favored location for electronics import shops which co-exist with the more traditional fabrics and garment shops. Newly arrived Korean and Chinese immigrants have become a strong presence in several fields of commerce. Balvanera is located to the west of downtown Buenos Aires; the elegant northern neighbourhood of Recoleta is located north of Balvanera, crossing Córdoba avenue. Most dwellers of Balvanera live.
Population density is high, the amount of green space is deemed insufficient. The meager green space of Plaza Miserere is taken up by illegal peddlers, people queuing for their bus, preachers of all stripes; as in most of Buenos Aires, the streets are laid out in a checkboard pattern. Most streets and avenues are one-way; the main streets of Balvanera are arguably Rivadavia, which crosses the entire city from East to West, Corrientes, the main thoroughfare of commerce and entertainment in Buenos Aires. The kilómetro cero reference, from which all Argentine routes count the distance to Buenos Aires, is marked by a monolith in Plaza Congreso; the mausoleum of President Rivadavia in Plaza Miserere used to be covered in graffiti. The University complex on the northern edge of Balvanera is home to many faculties of the University of Buenos Aires, including Medicine, Economics and Social Science, as well as the Clínicas University Hospital. Many private universities have facilities in Balvanera; the Ramos Mejía general hospital and the Santa Lucía ophthalmology hospital are located in southern Balvanera.
Many private health-care institutions are located in Balvanera around the Faculty of Medicine complex. Among the architectural features in Balvanera are the neo-classical Congress building and the statue group in neighboring Plaza Congreso; the El Molino tea room is located across the street in a building that has seen several rounds of restoration since its heyday. The café Los Angelitos in the corner of Rivadavia and Rincón was a meeting point for poets and musicians, it features a relief of angels in its façade, one of the landmarks of the barrio. After extensive restorations, it was reopened in 2007, with plans to offer live tango and become a tourist landmark much like the Tortoni and Ideal cafés. There are many concert halls in Balvanera; the Liceo theater and the Ricardo Rojas cultural center are two of the best-known venues. For most of the 20th ce
Stanford University Press
The Stanford University Press is the publishing house of Stanford University. In 1892, an independent publishing company was established at the university; the first use of the name "Stanford University Press" in a book's imprinting occurred in 1895. In 1917, the university bought the press. In 1999, the press became a division of the Stanford University Libraries, it was located on Page Mill Road in the Stanford Research Park to the southeast of the Stanford campus before moving to its current location, Redwood City, in 2012-2013. It publishes about 130 books per year. Bancroft Prize: Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision, 1962. Bancroft Prize: Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, the Cold War, 1992. Nautilus Book Award: Companies on a Mission, 2010. Acting Out Between Pacific Tides Born Red Is Geography Destiny? Lessons from Latin America Quelling the People: The Military Suppression of the Beijing Democracy Movement In 1933, David Lamson, a sales manager at SUP, was accused of murdering his wife, Allene, at their home on the Stanford campus.
Janet Lewis, wife of Stanford poet Yvor Winters, campaigning for Lamson's acquittal, wrote a pamphlet emphasizing the dangers of using circumstantial evidence. Lamson was released after being tried four times. SUP Official Website
Argentina–Israel relations refer to international relations between Argentina and Israel. Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 31, 1949. Relations between the two were tied during the early years of Nazi hunting when Israel's Mossad kidnapped former-Nazi Adolf Eichmann despite Argentine protestations of a violation of its sovereignty. After World War II, Argentina was a safe haven for former Nazi officials because they brought badly needed capital investment and/or technical expertise. According to declassified British Foreign and Commonwealth Office documents, Israel sold arms to Argentina before and during the Falklands War; the arms sales to Argentina included Douglas A-4 Skyhawk jets which would be used in the war with the United Kingdom. Carlos Menem was the first head of state of Argentina to make a diplomatic visit to Israel, in 1991, he proposed to mediate between Syria in their negotiations over the Golan Heights. However, the relations were further tested when Hezbollah was blamed for bombing the Israeli embassy and a Jewish community centre in 1992 and 1994, respectively.
Since 2013 100 Jewish organizations across Argentina have called for the government to repeal its pact with the Islamic Republic of Iran over the AMIA terrorist attacks. In 2012, Argentine President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner met an Israeli-Palestinian delegation and announced that Argentina would spearhead the Latin American role in reinvigorating the peace process in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. In 2010, Argentina announced the intention to join Brazil in recognizing an independent Palestinian state, provoking sharp criticism from Israel. While Argentina has the largest Jewish population in Latin America, there have been various cases of anti-Semitism in Argentina, such as the desecration of 58 Jewish graves in La Tablada by unknown peoples in 2009 due to negative stereotypes of Jews controlling business interests and dominating the world through capitalism, as well as Israel's affiliation with the United States. In September 2017, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu paid an official visit to Argentina, becoming the first Israeli Prime Minister in office to visit Argentina and Latin America.
In March 2019, two Iranian citizens used fake Israeli passports to leave Spain and different fake Israeli passports to enter Argentina. Realizing that the passports were fraudulent, Argentinian police arrested the suspects. Argentinian prosecutors discovered that the suspects had used fake passports to enter other countries, including Portugal. Argentina has an embassy in Tel Aviv. Israel has honorary consulates in Córdoba and Mendoza. Argentine Jews in Israel History of the Jews in Argentina International recognition of Israel Argentine Ministry of Foreign Relations: list of bilateral treaties with Israel Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires
Leiden is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants; the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, in the larger Leiden urban area Teylingen and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south and some 40 km from Amsterdam to its north; the recreational area of the Kaag Lakes lies just to the northeast of Leiden. A university city since 1575, Leiden has been one of Europe's most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Leiden is a typical university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city and the many students from all over the world give the city a bustling and international atmosphere.
Many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden's motto: ‘City of Discoveries’. The city houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, Leiden University Medical Center. Leiden University is one of Europe's top universities, with thirteen Nobel Prize winners, it is a member of the League of European Research Universities and positioned in all international academic rankings. It is twinned with the location of the United Kingdom's oldest university. Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences together have around 35,000 students. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave. Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but in the arts. One of the world's most famous painters, was born and educated in Leiden. Other famous Leiden painters include Jan van Goyen and Jan Steen. Leiden was formed on an artificial hill at the confluence of the rivers Nieuwe Rijn.
In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon. The name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- "canal" in dative pluralis, thus meaning "at the canals". "Canal" is not the proper word. A leitha was a human-modified natural river natural artificial. Leiden has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum; this particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, the city's name was thought to be derived from the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in fact closer to the town of Katwijk, whereas the Roman settlement near modern-day Leiden was called Matilo; the landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill, was subject to the Bishop of Utrecht but around 1100 the burgraves became subject to the county of Holland. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold: Holland. Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a civil war against her uncle, William I, Count of Holland.
He captured Ada. Leiden received city rights in 1266. In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons. In 1420, during the Hook and Cod wars, Duke John III of Bavaria along with his army marched from Gouda in the direction of Leiden in order to conquer the city since Leiden did not pay the new Count of Holland Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, his niece and only daughter of Count William VI of Holland. Burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels, but John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first. He rolled the cannons along with his army but one, too heavy went by ship. By firing at the walls and gates with iron balls the citadels fell one by one. Within a week John of Bavaria conquered the castles of Poelgeest, Ter Does, Hoichmade, de Zijl, ter Waerd, Warmond and de Paddenpoel. On 24 June the army appeared before the walls of Leiden. On 17 August 1420, after a two-month siege the city surrendered to John of Bavaria.
The burgrave Filips of Wassenaar was stripped of his offices and rights and lived out his last years in captivity. Leiden flourished in the 17th century. At the close of the 15th century the weaving establishments of Leiden were important, after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. In the same period, Leiden developed an important publishing industry; the influential printer Christoffel Plantijn lived there at one time. One of his pupils was Lodewijk Elzevir, who established the largest bookshop and printing works in Leiden, a business continued by his descendants through 1712 and the name subsequently adopted by contemporary publisher Elsevier. In 1572, the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town.
As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden was founded by William I of Orange in 1575. Yearly on 3 Oc
University of New Mexico Press
The University of New Mexico Press, founded in 1929, is a university press, part of the University of New Mexico. Its administrative offices are on the campus of UNM in Albuquerque; the University of New Mexico Press specializes in scholarly and trade books on subjects including Southwestern and Western American history and literature and anthropology, Latin American and border studies, Native American studies and recreation, children's books. UNM Press publishes the Dialagos Series in Latin American Studies, the Mary Burritt Christiansen Poetry Series, the Barbara Guth Worlds of Wonder Science Series for Young Readers. On June 1, 1929, the Board of Regents of the University of New Mexico unanimously approved the establishment of the University of New Mexico Press. At the time, the university enrolled about one thousand students; the inaugural publications produced by the Press were pamphlets. It does not appear that when the Press was founded the Regents had plans other than for the Press to serve the university community by printing and distributing pamphlets and journals.
At that time, the university printing plant and publishing arm were one entity, for its first three years, UNMP was little more than a printing facility for the university. On July 15, 1930, Stanford-educated Paul A. F. Walter, Jr. son of Santa Fe newspaperman Paul A. F. Walter, Sr. became the first director of UNMP. Leaving his post as editor of the Roswell Morning Dispatch, Walter moved to Santa Fe, where he was assistant director of the Museum of New Mexico and the School of American Research; the School of American Research and UNM jointly paid his salary for his cooperative job assignment. In August 1930, at the annual meeting of the boards of the Museum of New Mexico and the School of American Research, Walter was authorized to move his father’s printing plant for the periodical El Palacio to UNM campus. On August 13, 1930, the machinery that would function as the first UNMP printing plant was moved.:In 1930, four publications were issued. These booklets were part of the “Bulletins Series,” and featured studies by archaeology, education and engineering faculty at UNM, among others.
The booklets sold for $.25 per copy, UNMP housed stock and filled orders, though no marketing was done for these publications. Because early publications were printed by the UNMP plant, the copyright page listed “University of New Mexico Press” as the publisher. For example, the first book from UNMP printing facilities was Givers of Life by Emma Esterbrook, though the first book considered a UNMP book is New Mexico History and Civics. In its early years, the Press published the New Mexico Quarterly, a literary publication, the New Mexico Historical Review, it continued to publish Walter’s El Palacio. In 1933, Fred E. Harvey was hired as director, as Walter left to complete his Ph. D and become the founding faculty member of UNM’s sociology department. Under Harvey, the Press began publishing its first hardcover books; the best-seller for this era was Practical Spoken Spanish by Arthur L. Campa and F. M. Kercheville, published in 1934, still in print today; the first Press minutes on file are from the Committee on Publications meeting of April 20, 1937.
In those days, the committee, consisting of “Bloom, Harvey, Seyfried, John D. Clark and Hammond,” was the editorial board of the Press; the Committee received and sent manuscripts out for critical review. The board set the production budget. For the fiscal year 1937-1938, the printing budget was $6,000 and covered printing six University course catalogs and twelve faculty Bulletins, in addition to UNMP books. In 1937, UNMP joined the Association of American University Presses, an organization with whom it is still affiliated. During at least one year of the Depression era, no funds were available to pay Press employees during the summer months. Director Harvey told the Albuquerque Journal that the staff had agreed to work without pay until enough books were sold to compensate them. Harvey himself filled his car with books and sold them to bookstores and schools throughout New Mexico during these tough times. In 1940, the Press was involved in celebrating the four hundredth anniversary of the Coronado expedition to New Mexico.
A statewide commission was set up to handle the celebration, the Coronado Historical Fund, with federal and state moneys was established. Two series of books published by UNMP, were planned; the first—the Coronado Historical Series—consisted of ten titles authored by notable historians like Herbert E. Bolton, George P. Hammond, Frances V. Scholes; the second series was an anthropological series that contained a two-volume set titled Pioneers in Anthropology. At the start of World War II, the university still was small. In the fall of 1943, University President Zimmerman, in assessing the work of various departments at UNM, asked Joseph A. Brandt director of the University of Chicago Press, to visit UNMP and submit suggestions for improvement. Brandt had been prime in launching the University of Oklahoma Press in 1928 and was a dynamic figure in university press publishing during this period. Brandt wrote a four-page letter to Zimmerman in June 1944, he recommended better equipment for the printing plant.
Other suggestions included a focus on furthering the understanding of New Mexico citizens and their history and economics.
Google Books is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition, stored in its digital database. Books are provided either by publishers and authors, through the Google Books Partner Program, or by Google's library partners, through the Library Project. Additionally, Google has partnered with a number of magazine publishers to digitize their archives; the Publisher Program was first known as Google Print when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004. The Google Books Library Project, which scans works in the collections of library partners and adds them to the digital inventory, was announced in December 2004; the Google Books initiative has been hailed for its potential to offer unprecedented access to what may become the largest online body of human knowledge and promoting the democratization of knowledge. However, it has been criticized for potential copyright violations, lack of editing to correct the many errors introduced into the scanned texts by the OCR process.
As of October 2015, the number of scanned book titles was over 25 million, but the scanning process has slowed down in American academic libraries. Google estimated in 2010 that there were about 130 million distinct titles in the world, stated that it intended to scan all of them. Results from Google Books show up in both the universal Google Search and in the dedicated Google Books search website. In response to search queries, Google Books allows users to view full pages from books in which the search terms appear if the book is out of copyright or if the copyright owner has given permission. If Google believes the book is still under copyright, a user sees "snippets" of text around the queried search terms. All instances of the search terms in the book text appear with a yellow highlight; the four access levels used on Google Books are: Full view: Books in the public domain are available for "full view" and can be downloaded for free. In-print books acquired through the Partner Program are available for full view if the publisher has given permission, although this is rare.
Preview: For in-print books where permission has been granted, the number of viewable pages is limited to a "preview" set by a variety of access restrictions and security measures, some based on user-tracking. The publisher can set the percentage of the book available for preview. Users are restricted from downloading or printing book previews. A watermark reading "Copyrighted material" appears at the bottom of pages. All books acquired through the Partner Program are available for preview. Snippet view: A'snippet view' – two to three lines of text surrounding the queried search term – is displayed in cases where Google does not have permission of the copyright owner to display a preview; this could be because Google can not identify the owner declined permission. If a search term appears many times in a book, Google displays no more than three snippets, thus preventing the user from viewing too much of the book. Google does not display any snippets for certain reference books, such as dictionaries, where the display of snippets can harm the market for the work.
Google maintains. No preview: Google displays search results for books that have not been digitized; as these books have not been scanned, their text is not searchable and only the metadata such as the title, publisher, number of pages, ISBN, subject and copyright information, in some cases, a table of contents and book summary is available. In effect, this is similar to an online library card catalog. In response to criticism from groups such as the American Association of Publishers and the Authors Guild, Google announced an opt-out policy in August 2005, through which copyright owners could provide a list of titles that it did not want scanned, Google would respect the request. Google stated that it would not scan any in-copyright books between August and 1 November 2005, to provide the owners with the opportunity to decide which books to exclude from the Project. Thus, Google provides a copyright owner with three choices with respect to any work: It can participate in the Partner Program to make a book available for preview or full view, in which case it would share revenue derived from the display of pages from the work in response to user queries.
It can let Google scan the book under the Library Project and display snippets in response to user queries. It can opt out of the Library Project. If the book has been scanned, Google will reset its access level as'No preview'. Most scanned works are commercially available. In addition to procuring books from libraries, Google obtains books from its publisher partners, through the "Partner Program" – designed to help publishers and authors promote their books. Publishers and authors submit either a digital copy of their book in EPUB or PDF format, or a print copy to Google, made available on Google Books for preview; the publisher can control the percentage of the book available for preview, with the minimum being 20%. They can choose to make the book viewable, allow users to download a PDF copy. Books can be made available for sale on Google Play. Unlike the Library Project, this does not raise any copyright concerns as it is conducted pursuant to an agreement with the publisher; the publisher can choose to withdraw from the agreement at any time.
For many books, Google Books displays the original page numbers. However, Tim Pa