Association of Tennis Professionals

The Association of Tennis Professionals is a main men's tennis governing body. It was formed in September 1972 by Donald Dell, Jack Kramer, Cliff Drysdale to protect the interests of professional tennis players, Drysdale became the first President. Since 1990, the association has organized the ATP Tour, the worldwide tennis tour for men and linked the title of the tour with the organization's name, it is the governing body of men's professional tennis. In 1990 the organization was called the ATP Tour, renamed in 2001 as just ATP and the tour being called ATP Tour. In 2009 the name of the tour was changed again and was known as the ATP World Tour, but changed again to the ATP Tour by 2019, it is an evolution of the tour competitions known as Grand Prix tennis tournaments and World Championship Tennis. The ATP's global headquarters are in London. ATP Americas is based in Florida. Started in 1972 by Jack Kramer, Donald Dell, Cliff Drysdale, it was first managed by Jack Kramer, as Executive Director, Cliff Drysdale, as President.

Jim McManus was a founding member. Kramer created the professional players' rankings system, which started the following year and is still in use. From 1974 to 1989, the men's circuit was administered by a sub-committee called the Men's International Professional Tennis Council, it was made up of representatives of the International Tennis Federation, the ATP, tournament directors from around the world. The ATP requested that the MIPTC introduce a drug testing rule, making tennis the first professional sport to institute a drug-testing program. In May 1973 Nikola Pilić, Yugoslavia's number one tennis player, was suspended by his national lawn tennis association, who claimed he had refused to play in a Davis Cup tie for his country earlier that month; the initial suspension of nine months, supported by the International Lawn Tennis Federation, was reduced by the ILTF to one month which meant that Pilic would not be allowed to play at Wimbledon. In response the ATP threatened a boycott, stating that if Pilić was not allowed to compete none should.

After last-ditch attempts at a compromise failed the ATP voted in favor of a boycott and as a result 81 of the top players, including reigning champion Stan Smith and 13 of the 16 men's seeds, did not compete at the 1973 Wimbledon Championships. Three ATP players, Ilie Năstase, Roger Taylor and Ray Keldie defied the boycott and were fined by the ATP's disciplinary committee, but the tour was still run by the tournament directors and the ITF. The lack of player representation and influence within the Men's International Professional Tennis Council as well as dissatisfaction with the way the sport was managed and marketed culminated in a player mutiny in 1988 led by active tennis pros including world Number 1 ranked Mats Wilander which changed the entire structure of the tour. CEO Hamilton Jordan is credited with the "Parking Lot Press Conference" on 26 August 1989 during which the ATP announced their withdrawal from the MIPTC and the creation of their own tour from 1990 onwards; this re-organisation ended a lawsuit with Volvo and Donald Dell.

On 19 January 1989 the ATP published the calendar for the inaugural 1990 season. By 1991, the men had their first television package to broadcast 19 tournaments. Coming online with their first website in 1995, this was followed by a multi-year agreement with Mercedes-Benz. Lawsuits in 2008, around the same issues, resulted in a restructured tour. In 2009, ATP introduced a new tour structure called ATP World Tour consisting of ATP World Tour Masters 1000, ATP World Tour 500, ATP World Tour 250 tier tournaments. Broadly speaking, the Tennis Masters Series tournaments became the new Masters 1000 level and ATP International Series Gold and ATP International Series events became ATP 500 level and 250 level events respectively; the Masters 1000 tournaments are Indian Wells, Monte Carlo, Rome, Toronto/Montreal, Cincinnati and Paris. The end-of-year event, the ATP Finals, moved from Shanghai to London. Hamburg has been displaced by the new clay court event at Madrid, a new combined men's and women's tournament.

In 2011, Rome and Cincinnati became combined tournaments. Severe sanctions are placed on top players skipping the Masters 1000 series events, unless medical proof is presented. Plans to eliminate Monte Carlo and Hamburg as Masters Series events led to controversy and protests from players as well as organisers. Hamburg and Monte Carlo filed lawsuits against the ATP, as a concession it was decided that Monte Carlo would remain a Masters 1000 level event, with more prize money and 1000 ranking points, but it would no longer be a compulsory tournament for top-ranked players. Monte Carlo dropped its suit. Hamburg was "reserved" to become a 500 level event in the summer. Hamburg did not accept this concession, but lost its suit; the 500 level tournaments are Rotterdam, Rio, Barcelona, Aegon Championships, Hamburg, Beijing, Tokyo and Vienna. The ATP & ITF have declared that Davis Cup World Group and World Group Playoffs award a total of up to 500 points. Players accumulate points over the four rounds and the playoffs and these are counted as one of a player's four best results from the 500 level events.

An additional 125 points are given to a player who wins the Davis Cup. The ATP Tour comprises ATP Masters 1000, ATP 500, ATP 250; the ATP oversees the ATP Challenger Tour, a level below the ATP Tour, the ATP Champions Tou

Dimitri Lavalée

Dimitri Lavalée is a Belgian professional footballer who plays as a centre-back for Standard Liège. Lavalée's career began with a team he spent his youth career with, he was named on the substitutes bench thirteen times during the 2016–17 and 2017–18 seasons but went unused on all occasions. On 12 August 2018, Lavalée joined Dutch Eerste Divisie side MVV Maastricht on loan, he subsequently made his professional debut for the club on 24 Telstar. In total, the centre-back featured in thirty-two matches for the Dutch outfit. After returning in June 2019, Lavalée's Standard Liège debut arrived in October during a UEFA Europa League group stage defeat to Eintracht Frankfurt; as of 24 October 2019. Dimitri Lavalée at Soccerway Dimitri Lavalée at


Nusaybin is a city in Mardin Province, Turkey. The population of the city is predominantly Kurdish. In Turkish Kurdistan, Nusaybin is separated from the larger Kurdish-majority city of Qamishlo by the Turkey-Syria border. First mentioned in 901 BCE, Naşibīna was an Aramean kingdom captured by the Assyrian king Adad-Nirari II in 896. By 852 BCE, Naṣibina had been annexed to the Neo-Assyrian Empire and appeared in the Assyrian Eponym List as the seat of an Assyrian provincial governor named Shamash-Abua, it remained part of the Assyrian Empire until its collapse in 608 BCE. It was under Babylonian control until 536 BCE, when it fell to the Achaemenid Persians, remained so until taken by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE; the Seleucids refounded the city as Antiochia Mygdonia, mentioned for the first time in Polybius' description of the march of Antiochus III the Great against Molon. Greek historian Plutarch suggested. Around the 1st century CE, Nisibis was the home of Judah ben Bethera, who founded a famous yeshiva there.

Like many other cities in the marches where Roman and Parthian powers confronted one another, Nisibis was taken and retaken: it was captured by Lucullus after a long siege from the brother of Tigranes. Lost in 194, it was again conquered by Septimius Severus, who made it his headquarters and re-established a colony there; the last battle between Rome and Parthia was fought in the vicinity of the city in 217. With the fresh energy of the new Sassanid dynasty, Shapur I conquered Nisibis, was driven out, returned in the 260s. In 298, by a treaty with Narseh, the province of Nisibis was acquired by the Roman Empire; the Roman historian of the 4th century, Ammianus Marcellinus, gained his first practical experience of warfare as a young man at Nisibis under the master of the cavalry, Ursicinus. From 360 to 363, Nisibis was the camp of Legio I Parthica; because of its strategic importance on the Persian border Nisibis was fortified. Ammianus lovingly calls Nisibis the "impregnable city" and "bulwark of the provinces".

Sozomen writes that when the inhabitants of Nisibis asked for help because the Persians were about to invade the Roman territories and attack them, Julian refused to assist them because they were Christianized and he told them that he would not help them if they did not return to paganism. In 363 Nisibis was ceded back to the Persians after the defeat of Emperor Julian. Before that time the population of the town was forced by the Roman authorities to leave Nisibis and move to Amida. Emperor Jovian allowed them only three days for the evacuation. Historian Ammianus Marcellinus was again an eyewitness and condemns Emperor Jovian for giving up the fortified town without a fight. Marcellinus' point-of-view is in line with contemporary Roman public opinion. According to Al-Tabari some 12,000 Persians of good lineage from Istakhr and other regions settled at Nisibis in the 4th century, their descendants were still there at the beginning of the 7th century; the first theological and medical School of Nisibis, founded at the introduction of Christianity into the city by ethnic Assyrians of the Assyrian Church of the East, was closed when the province was ceded to the Persians.

Ephrem the Syrian, an Assyrian poet, commentator and defender of orthodoxy, joined the general exodus of Christians and reestablished the school on more securely Roman soil at Edessa. In the 5th century the school became a center of Nestorian Christianity, was closed down by Archbishop Cyrus in 489; those that have been discovered and published belong to Osee, the successor of Barsauma in the See of Nisibis, bear the date 496. In 590 they were again modified; the monastery school was under a superior called Rabban, a title given to the instructors. The administration was confided to a majordomo, steward, prefect of discipline and librarian, but under the supervision of a council. Unlike the Jacobite schools, devoted chiefly to profane studies, the school of Nisibis was above all a school of theology; the two chief masters were the instructors in reading and in the interpretation of Holy Scripture, explained chiefly with the aid of Theodore of Mopsuestia. The free course of studies lasted the students providing for their own support.

During their sojourn at the university and students led a monastic life under somewhat special conditions. The school enjoyed the right of acquiring all sorts of property, its rich library possessed a most beautiful collection of Nestorian works. The disorders and dissensions, which arose in the sixth century in the school of Nisibis, favoured the development of its rivals that of Seleucia. Among its literary celebrities mention should be made of its founder Narses.