Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It uses mathematics and chemistry in order to explain their origin and evolution. Objects of interest include planets, stars, nebulae and comets. Relevant phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, blazars and cosmic microwave background radiation. More astronomy studies everything that originates outside Earth's atmosphere. Cosmology is a branch of astronomy, it studies the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is one of the oldest natural sciences; the early civilizations in recorded history made methodical observations of the night sky. These include the Babylonians, Indians, Nubians, Chinese and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas. In the past, astronomy included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars. Nowadays, professional astronomy is said to be the same as astrophysics. Professional astronomy is split into theoretical branches.
Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects. This data is analyzed using basic principles of physics. Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena; these two fields complement each other. Theoretical astronomy seeks to explain observational results and observations are used to confirm theoretical results. Amateurs play an active role in astronomy, it is one of the few sciences. This is true for the discovery and observation of transient events. Amateur astronomers have helped with many important discoveries, such as finding new comets. Astronomy means "law of the stars". Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two fields share a common origin, they are now distinct. Both of the terms "astronomy" and "astrophysics" may be used to refer to the same subject.
Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the Earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties," while "astrophysics" refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with "the behavior, physical properties, dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena". In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject. However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could be called astrophysics; some fields, such as astrometry, are purely astronomy rather than astrophysics. Various departments in which scientists carry out research on this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics" depending on whether the department is affiliated with a physics department, many professional astronomers have physics rather than astronomy degrees.
Some titles of the leading scientific journals in this field include The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Astronomy & Astrophysics. In early historic times, astronomy only consisted of the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye. In some locations, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops and in understanding the length of the year. Before tools such as the telescope were invented, early study of the stars was conducted using the naked eye; as civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Persia, China and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop. Most early astronomy consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, the nature of the Sun and the Earth in the Universe were explored philosophically.
The Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the Ptolemaic system, named after Ptolemy. A important early development was the beginning of mathematical and scientific astronomy, which began among the Babylonians, who laid the foundations for the astronomical traditions that developed in many other civilizations; the Babylonians discovered. Following the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena. In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, he proposed a model of the Solar System where the Earth and planets rotated around the Sun, now called the heliocentric model. In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and invented the earliest known astronomical devices such as the astrolabe.
Hipparchus created a comprehensive ca
The SMU Mustangs women's soccer program represents Southern Methodist University in National Collegiate Athletics Association Division I. The Mustangs compete in the American Athletic Conference and play their home games on SMU's campus in Dallas, Texas at Westcott Field; the Mustangs are led by head coach Chris Petrucelli. The SMU women's soccer program played their first season in 1986 under the direction of head coach Alan Kirkup; the Mustangs made their first NCAA Tournament appearance in 1990. The Southwest Conference sponsored women's soccer in 1995, in that season the Mustangs advanced to the NCAA Final Four after winning both the SWC regular season and tournament championships. SMU joined the Western Athletic Conference in 1996, Greg Ryan took over the program; the Mustangs returned to the NCAA Tournament in 1997, won the regular season conference title in all three of Ryan's seasons at SMU. George Van Linder was named head coach in 1999, SMU continued their success with three NCAA Tournament appearances and three regular season conference championships in Van Linder's four seasons.
John Cossaboon took control as head coach in 2003, SMU returned to the NCAA Tournament again in both 2003 and 2004. The Mustangs won both the WAC regular season and tournament championships in their final two seasons in the WAC. In the nine seasons SMU competed in the WAC, the Mustangs advanced to the NCAA Tournament six times; the Mustangs won the conference regular season championship eight times and the conference postseason tournament championship six times. SMU joined Conference USA in 2005, the Mustangs continued their success with two more appearances in the NCAA Tournament as well as two more regular season conference championships under the direction of Cossaboon. Two-time National Coach Of The Year Chris Petrucelli was named head coach of SMU in 2012; the Mustangs joined The American Athletic Conference in 2013. The Mustangs play their home games at Westcott Field on the campus of SMU; the soccer field is natural measures 115 yards x 75 yards. Danielle Fotopoulous Marci Jobson Erin McLeod SMU Mustangs SMU Mustangs men's soccer SMU Women's Soccer Home Page
The Collector is a 2009 American horror film written by Marcus Dunstan and Patrick Melton, directed by Dunstan. The script, titled The Midnight Man, was at one point shopped as a prequel to the Saw franchise, but the producers opposed the idea and dismissed it. A sequel, The Collection, was released in 2012. Married couple Larry and Gena return home to find, they discover a large trunk upstairs, are horrified by its contents. They are attacked by an unseen assailant. Former convict Arkin O'Brien works as a handyman for the Chase family, he is well-liked by the Chases the younger daughter Hannah. After work, Arkin meets his wife. To protect her and their daughter, Arkin plans to steal a valuable ruby from the Chase home; as Arkin attempts to crack the safe, a masked figure locks the door. Michael, the father, appears with several injuries. Mistaking Arkin for the perpetrator, he grabs a golf club. Michael's action triggers a trap that incapacitates him, the masked man drags Michael into the basement.
Arkin calls 911. The windows have been lined with razors, making escape impossible. Arkin retreats to the basement, where Michael informs him that his wife Victoria is captured as well, his older daughter Jill is out, Hannah is hiding somewhere. Michael gives Arkin the combination to the safe. Arkin has her distract the intruder while he gets to the safe. Arkin pockets the ruby. While searching for Hannah, he finds a trunk containing a bloodied Larry. Larry explains. Horrified, Arkin flees. Back in the basement, Arkin discovers Michael is dead, he frees Victoria, tortured. As they make their way out of the basement, Victoria sees Michael's corpse and alerts Collector, who stabs her several times. Jill arrives home with her boyfriend Chad; as the two prepare to have sex on the kitchen table, they notice the Collector watching them. Chad is killed when he is pushed into a room filled with several bear traps. Jill manages to make a 911 call before being captured. Arkin frees Jill, but she doesn't trust him and reaches for a pair of scissors, only to be killed by a trap.
Arkin sees the Collector approaching Hannah. Changing his mind, he reenters the house. Arkin prepares a trap to kill the Collector. Arkin gets to Hannah, sends her down a laundry chute to the basement to hide. Before Arkin can do the same, the Collector ties him up and brutally tortures him. A police officer responding to Jill's 911 call is killed by the Collector's dog. Taking advantage of the distraction, Arkin frees himself and discovers a dead Victoria and armed explosives in the basement. After killing the Collector's dog with a flaming bucket and trapping the Collector in one of his own traps, Arkin escapes with Hannah. Seeing approaching police cars, Arkin runs into the road to get their attention and is hit by one of the cars, he sees. He tells the police; the explosives detonate and destroy the house. While Arkin is being taken to the hospital, The Collector ambushes the ambulance and kills everyone except Arkin, whom he kidnaps. In a post-credits scene, the Collector watches film slides on the trunk containing Arkin, who threatens to kill him.
The Collector was shot in Louisiana in the spring of 2008 over 19 days. It used 16mm film stock; the final scene was part of a reshoot in Los Angeles' Griffith Park. When Dunstan announced to his producing team he wanted to direct, he set off to make a sizzle reel - a prolonged trailer of the proposed film, he reunited with many of his friends from "Feast" and employed John Gulager as his cinematographer, used actors Clu Gulager to play Roy and Tom Gulager as Arkin. It was this reel, used to sell the pitch to Dimension, who put up the money to produce the film. Before its release, Dimension chose not to put a P&A budget into the movie and opted to release it direct to DVD. However, Dimension gave the filmmakers a chance to sell the film. In the end, Mickey Liddell bought the movie from Dimension. Liddell organized the reshoots and changed the title from "The Midnight Man" to "The Collector." The film was theatrically released on July 31, 2009 in the United States, on DVD on April 6, 2010. A rental version was made available February 2010, through Blockbuster Video's Exclusive Line.
The DVD includes two deleted scenes, an alternative ending, Arkin leaving after seeing Hannah in the window – thus cutting off the remaining 25 minutes of the film. The Collector was met with negative reviews from critics. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes gave the film a rating of 29%, based on 72 reviews, with an average rating of 4.12/10. The site's general consensus reads, "Increasingly tedious displays of gore makes this torture porn home-invasion-horror more programmatic than provocative." On Metacritic, the film has a score of 29 out of 100, based on 11 critics, indicating "generally unfavorable reviews". Clay Clane of BET noted that, "You will squirm, but aren't we getting a bit desensitized to these routine torture flicks? It's like seeing a pop songstress get naked for the billionth time – yeah, she's hot, but we have all seen it before." Bloody Disgusting gave the film a 3.5/5 and wrote that The Collect