In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science by reporting new research. Articles in scientific journals are written by active scientists such as students and professors instead of professional journalists. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are specialized, although some of the oldest journals such as Nature publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that have been peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, scientific validity. Although scientific journals are superficially similar to professional magazines, they are quite different. Issues of a scientific journal are read casually, as one would read a magazine; the publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results.
Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record. Articles in scientific journals can be used in higher education. Scientific articles allow researchers to keep up to date with the developments of their field and direct their own research. An essential part of a scientific article is citation of earlier work; the impact of articles and journals is assessed by counting citations. Some classes are devoted to the explication of classic articles, seminar classes can consist of the presentation by each student of a classic or current paper. Schoolbooks and textbooks have been written only on established topics, while the latest research and more obscure topics are only accessible through scientific articles. In a scientific research group or academic department it is usual for the content of current scientific journals to be discussed in journal clubs. Public funding bodies require the results to be published in scientific journals. Academic credentials for promotion into academic ranks are established in large part by the number and impact of scientific articles published.
Many doctoral programs allow for thesis by publication, where the candidate is required to publish a certain number of scientific articles. Articles tend to be technical, representing the latest theoretical research and experimental results in the field of science covered by the journal, they are incomprehensible to anyone except for researchers in the field and advanced students. In some subjects this is inevitable given the nature of the content. Rigorous rules of scientific writing are enforced by the editors. Articles are either original articles reporting new results or reviews of current literature. There are scientific publications that bridge the gap between articles and books by publishing thematic volumes of chapters from different authors. Many journals have a regional focus, specializing in publishing papers from a particular geographic region, like African Invertebrates; the history of scientific journals dates from 1665, when the French Journal des sçavans and the English Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society first began systematically publishing research results.
Over a thousand ephemeral, were founded in the 18th century, the number has increased after that. Prior to mid-20th century, peer review was not always necessary, but it became compulsory; the authors of scientific articles are active researchers instead of journalists. As such, the authors receive no compensation from the journal. However, their funding bodies may require them to publish in scientific journals; the paper is submitted to the journal office, where the editor considers the paper for appropriateness, potential scientific impact and novelty. If the journal's editor considers the paper appropriate, the paper is submitted to scholarly peer review. Depending on the field and paper, the paper is sent to 1–3 reviewers for evaluation before they can be granted permission to publish. Reviewers are expected to check the paper for soundness of its scientific argument, i.e. if the data collected or considered in the paper support the conclusion offered. Novelty is key: existing work must be appropriately considered and referenced, new results improving on the state of the art presented.
Reviewers are unpaid and not a part of the journal staff—instead, they should be "peers", i.e. researchers in the same field as the paper in question. The standards that a journal uses to determine publication can vary widely; some journals, such as Nature, Science, PNAS, Physical Review Letters, have a reputation of publishing articles that mark a fundamental breakthrough in their respective fields. In many fields, a formal or informal hierarchy of scientific journals exists. In some countries, journal rankings can be utilized for funding decisions and evaluation of individual researchers, although they are poorly suited for that purpose. For scientific journals Reproducibility and Replicability are core concepts that allow other scientists to check and reproduce the results under the same conditions described
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competences as the producers of the work. It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are used to maintain quality standards, improve performance, provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, e.g. medical peer review. Professional peer review focuses on the performance of professionals, with a view to improving quality, upholding standards, or providing certification. In academia, peer review is used to inform in decisions related to faculty tenure. Henry Oldenburg was a British philosopher, seen as the'father' of modern scientific peer review. WA prototype is a professional peer-review process recommended in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishāq ibn ʻAlī al-Ruhāwī.
He stated that a visiting physician had to make duplicate notes of a patient's condition on every visit. When the patient was cured or had died, the notes of the physician were examined by a local medical council of other physicians, who would decide whether the treatment had met the required standards of medical care. Professional peer review is common in the field of health care, where it is called clinical peer review. Further, since peer review activity is segmented by clinical discipline, there is physician peer review, nursing peer review, dentistry peer review, etc. Many other professional fields have some level of peer review process: accounting, engineering and forest fire management. Peer review is used in education to achieve certain learning objectives as a tool to reach higher order processes in the affective and cognitive domains as defined by Bloom's taxonomy; this may take a variety of forms, including mimicking the scholarly peer review processes used in science and medicine.
Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal, conference proceedings or as a book. The peer review helps the publisher decide whether the work should be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review. Impartial review of work in less narrowly defined or inter-disciplinary fields, may be difficult to accomplish, the significance of an idea may never be appreciated among its contemporaries. Peer review is considered necessary to academic quality and is used in most major scholarly journals, but it by no means prevents publication of invalid research. Traditionally, peer reviewers have been anonymous, but there is a significant amount of open peer review, where the comments are visible to readers with the identities of the peer reviewers disclosed as well.
The European Union has been using peer review in the "Open Method of Co-ordination" of policies in the fields of active labour market policy since 1999. In 2004, a program of peer reviews started in social inclusion; each program sponsors about eight peer review meetings in each year, in which a "host country" lays a given policy or initiative open to examination by half a dozen other countries and the relevant European-level NGOs. These meet over two days and include visits to local sites where the policy can be seen in operation; the meeting is preceded by the compilation of an expert report on which participating "peer countries" submit comments. The results are published on the web; the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, through UNECE Environmental Performance Reviews, uses peer review, referred to as "peer learning", to evaluate progress made by its member countries in improving their environmental policies. The State of California is the only U. S. state to mandate scientific peer review.
In 1997, the Governor of California signed into law Senate Bill 1320, Chapter 295, statutes of 1997, which mandates that, before any CalEPA Board, Department, or Office adopts a final version of a rule-making, the scientific findings and assumptions on which the proposed rule are based must be submitted for independent external scientific peer review. This requirement is incorporated into the California Health and Safety Code Section 57004. Medical peer review may be distinguished in 4 classifications: 1) clinical peer review. Additionally, "medical peer review" has been used by the American Medical Association to refer not only to the process of improving quality and safety in health care organizations, but to the process of rating clinical behavior or compliance with professional society membership standards. Thus, the terminology has poor standardization and specificity as a database search term. To an outsider, the anonymous, pre-publication peer review process is opaque. Certain journals are accused of not carrying out stringent peer review in order to more expand their customer base in journals where authors pay a fee before public
Catherine Jeanne Cesarsky is a French astronomer, known for her successful research activities in several central areas of modern astrophysics. She was president of the International Astronomical Union and the director general of the European Southern Observatory. In 2017 she became Chairman of the Board of the Square Kilometre Array radio telescope project. Born in France, Catherine Cesarsky was raised in Argentina and received a degree in Physical Sciences at the University of Buenos Aires, she graduated with a PhD in Astronomy in 1971 from Harvard University, for several years worked at the California Institute of Technology. In 1974, she moved to France, becoming a staff member of the Service d'Astrophysique, Direction des Sciences de la Matière, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, she established her career in France. From 1985 to 1993, she was the Head of SAp; as Director of DSM, she led a team of about 3000 scientists and technicians active within a broad spectrum of basic research programmes in physics, chemistry and earth sciences.
From 1999 to 2007, she was the Director General of the European Southern Observatory. At present, she is the High Commissioner for Atomic Energy in France, advisor to the French government for science and energy issues, she chairs the Science Program Committee of the French space agency, CNES, the Consultative Committee EURATOM - Fusion. From August 2006 to August 2009, she was President of the International Astronomical Union, she is recipient of the 1998 COSPAR Space Science Award, member or Foreign member of various Academies, Doctor Honoris Causa from the Geneva University. Catherine Cesarsky is Commandeur de l’Ordre national du Mérite and Commandeur de l’Ordre de la Légion d’honneur. Dr. Cesarsky is known for her research activities in several central areas of modern astrophysics; the first part of her career was devoted to the high-energy domain. This has involved studies of the propagation and composition of galactic cosmic rays, of matter and fields in the diffuse interstellar medium, as well as the acceleration of particles in astrophysical shocks, e.g. in connection with supernovae.
She turned to infrared astronomy. She was the Principal Investigator of the ISOCAM camera on board the Infrared Space Observatory of the European Space Agency, which flew between 1995 and 1998; as such, she has led the ISOCAM central programme, which studied, in a coordinated way, the infrared emission from a variety of galactic and extragalactic sources and yielded new and exciting results on star formation and galactic evolution. These were consolidated through further observations with the ESO VLT, the satellites Spitzer and now Herschel. Recipient of the 1998 COSPAR Space Sciences Award. Chevalier de l'Ordre National du Mérite Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur Officier de l'Ordre national du Mérite. Officier de la Légion d'Honneur. Commandeur de l'Ordre national du Mérite Commandeur de la Légion d'Honneur Member of the French Academy des Sciences Member of the Academia Europaea Member of the International Academy of Astronautics Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Foreign Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Foreign Member of the Royal Society of London Prix Jules Janssen of the Société astronomique de France 2010 Doctorate Honoris Causa University of Geneva Media related to Catherine Cesarsky at Wikimedia Commons About Catherine J. Cesarsky
Chemical Abstracts Service
Chemical Abstracts Service is a division of the American Chemical Society. It is a source of chemical information. CAS is located in Columbus, United States. Chemical Abstracts is a periodical index that provides numerous tools such as SciFinder as well as tagged keywords, indexes of disclosures and structures of compounds in published scientific documents. 8,000 journals, technical reports, conference proceedings, new books, available in at least 50 different languages, are monitored yearly, as are patent specifications from 27 countries and two international organizations. Chemical Abstracts ceased print publication on January 1, 2010; the two principal databases that support the different products are Registry. CAplus consists of bibliographic information and abstracts for all articles in chemical journals worldwide, chemistry-related articles from all scientific journals and other scientific publications. Registry contains information on more than 130 million organic and inorganic substances, more than 64 million protein and Nucleic acid sequences.
The sequence information comes from GenBank, produced by the National Institutes of Health. The chemical information is produced by CAS, is prepared by the CAS Registry System, which identifies each compound with a specific CAS registry number, index name, graphic representation of its chemical structure; the assignment of chemical names is done according to the chemical nomenclature rules for CA index names, different from the internationally standard IUPAC names, according to the rules of IUPAC. CAS databases are available via two principal database systems, STN, SciFinder. STN International is operated jointly by CAS and FIZ Karlsruhe, is intended for information professionals, using a command language interface. In addition to CAS databases, STN provides access to many other databases, similar to Dialog. SciFinder is a database of chemical and bibliographic information. A client application, a web version was released in 2008, it has a graphics interface, can be searched for chemical structures and reactions as well as literature in chemistry and related disciplines.
The client version is for chemists in commercial organizations. Versions for both the Windows and Macintosh exist. SciFinder Scholar is for other academic institutions. CASSI stands for Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index. Since 2009, this print and CD-ROM compilation is available as a free online resource to look up and confirm publication information; the online CASSI Search Tool provides titles and abbreviations, CODEN, ISSN, date of first issue for a selected journal. Included is its language of text and language of summaries; the range is from 1907 to the present, including both serial and non-serial scientific and technical publications. The database is updated quarterly. Beyond CASSI lists abbreviated journal titles from early chemical literature and other historical reference sources. Chemical Abstracts developed from there; the use of volunteer abstractors was phased out in 1994. Chemical Abstracts has been associated with the American Chemical Society in one way or another since 1907.
For many years, beginning in 1909, the offices of Chemical Abstracts were housed in various places on the campus of Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. In 1965, CAS moved to a new 50-acre site on the west bank of the Olentangy River, just north of the Ohio State campus; this campus became well known in the Columbus area and famous as the site of many Columbus Symphony Orchestra pop concerts. In 2009, the campus consisted of three buildings. In 1907, William A. Noyes had enlarged the Review of American Chemical Research, an abstracting publication begun by Arthur Noyes in 1895, the forerunner of Chemical Abstracts; when it became evident that a separate publication containing these abstracts was needed, Noyes became the first editor of the new publication, Chemical Abstracts. E. J. Crane became the first Director of Chemical Abstracts Service when it became an American Chemical Society division in 1956. Crane had been CA editor since 1915, his dedication was a key factor in its long-term success.
Dale B. Baker became the CAS Director upon Crane's retirement in 1958. According to CAS, his visionary view of CAS' potential "led to expansion and the forging of international alliances with other information organizations." CAS was an early leader in the use of computer technology to disseminate information. The CAS Chemical Registry System was introduced in 1965. CAS developed a unique registry number to identify chemical substances. Agencies such as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and local fire departments around the world now rely on these numbers for the definite identification of substances. According to the ACS, this is the largest chemical substance database in the world. In 2007 the ACS designated its Chemical Abstracts Service subdivision an ACS National Historic Chemical Landmark in recognition of its significance as a comprehensive repository of research in chemistry and related sciences. Official website
La Silla Observatory
La Silla Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Chile with three telescopes built and operated by the European Southern Observatory. Several other telescopes are located at the site and are maintained by ESO; the observatory is one of the largest in the Southern Hemisphere and was the first in Chile to be used by ESO. The La Silla telescopes and instruments are located 150 km northeast of La Serena at the outskirts of the Chilean Atacama Desert, one of the driest and most remote areas of the world. Like other observatories in this geographical area, La Silla is located far from sources of light pollution and, like the Paranal Observatory, home to the Very Large Telescope, it has one of the darkest night skies on the Earth. Following the decision in 1963 to approve Chile as the site for the ESO observatory, scouting parties were sent to various locations to assess their suitability; the site, decided upon was La Silla in the southern part of the Atacama desert, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile and at an altitude of 2400 metres.
Besides being government property, it had the added benefits of being in a dry and accessible area, yet isolated and remote from any artificial light and dust sources. Named the Cinchado, it was renamed La Silla after its saddle-like shape. On October 30, 1964, the contracts were signed and an area of 245 square miles was purchased the following year. During 1965, temporary facilities were erected with a workshop and storage area; the dedication ceremony of the road to the summit took place in March 1966, two months after completion of the road. On 25 March 1969, the ESO site at La Silla was formally inaugurated by President Eduardo Frei Montalva. With a permanent base of dormitories, workshops and several functioning telescopes, the observatory was operational; the ESO 1.5-metre and ESO 1-metre telescopes had been erected in the late 1960s, were joined in 1968 by the Gran Prismo Objectif telescope, been used in South Africa. These three telescopes can be seen in this order from right to left in the background of the image on the left from June 1968.
By 1976, the largest telescope planned, the § ESO 3.6 m Telescope, started operations. It was subsequently to have a 1.4m CAT attached. In 1984, the 2.2m telescope began operations, while in March 1989, the 3.5 m New Technology Telescope saw first light. The program reached its apex with the installation of the SEST in 1987, the only large submillimetre telescope in the southern hemisphere, a combined project between ESO and the Swedish Natural Science Research Council. Around the end of the century some of the original telescopes were closed: the 1m Schmidt closed in 1998 and the 1.5m in 2002, while new equipment owned by various foreign observatories was introduced. A 1-metre telescope owned by Marseille Observatory opened in 1998, followed by a 1.2-metre telescope from Geneva Observatory in 2000. ESO operates three major optical and near infrared telescopes at the La Silla site: the New Technology Telescope, the 3.6-m ESO Telescope, the 2.2-m Max-Planck-ESO Telescope. In addition La Silla hosts several other national and project telescopes such as the ESO 1-metre Schmidt Telescope, the 1.54-m Danish Telescope, the 1.2-m Leonhard Euler Telescope, the Rapid Eye Mount telescope, TRAPPIST and TAROT.
These telescopes are not operated by ESO and hence do not fall under the responsibility of La Silla Science Operations. This 3.6 m Cassegrain telescope started operations in 1976 and has been upgraded since, including the installation of a new secondary mirror that has kept the telescope in its place as one of the most efficient and productive engines of astronomical research. The telescope hosts HARPS, the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher, the world's foremost exoplanet hunter. HARPS is a spectrograph with unrivalled precision and is the most successful finder of low-mass exoplanets to date. Since April 2008, HARPS has been the only instrument available at the 3.6 m telescope. The ESO New Technology Telescope is an Alt-Az, 3.58-metre Richey-Chretien telescope which pioneered the use of active optics. The telescope and its enclosure had a revolutionary design for optimal image quality. NTT saw first light in March 1989; the telescope chamber is ventilated by a system of flaps which optimize the air flow across the NTT optimizing the dome and mirror seeing.
To prevent heat input to the building, all motors in the telescope are water cooled and all the electronics boxes are insulated and cooled. The primary mirror of the NTT is controlled to preserve its figure at all telescope positions; the secondary mirror position is actively controlled in three directions. The optimized airflow, the thermal controls, the active optics give the excellent image quality of the NTT. Note that the NTT has active instead of adaptive optics: it corrects the defects and deformation of the telescope and mirror, but does not correct the turbulence. Together with the thermal control, it allows the NTT to reach the ambient seeing, but it does not improve it; the 2.2-metre telescope has been in operation at La Silla since early 1984, is on indefinite loan to ESO from the Max Planck Society. Telescope time is shared between MPG and ESO observing programmes, while the operation and maintenance of the telescope are ESO's responsibility. However, due to a new agreement between the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy and ESO, the instrument is operated by MPG until the end of September 2016.
The telescope hosts three instruments: the 67-million pixel
Goodsell Observatory is an observatory at Carleton College in Northfield, United States. It was, at the time, the largest observatory in the state of Minnesota; the Goodsell Observatory and its predecessor, a smaller observatory that opened in 1878, served as a consulted timekeeping station, bringing national prominence to Carleton College in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Goodsell Observatory was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 for its national significance in the themes of architecture, education, engineering and science, it was nominated for being one of the nation's few intact 19th-century observatories. While the telescope sees use in astronomy classes, the building houses offices and a classroom used by Carleton's linguistics and environmental studies departments. William W. Payne, one of Carleton's original professors, taught mathematics and natural philosophy, established a course in astronomy during his first year at the college; the course grew into a program, Carleton's president and board of trustees agreed to construct a small astronomical observatory on campus.
It was Carleton's fifth building. Though small, the observatory housed instruments of the highest quality, including an 81⁄4-inch refractor by Alvan Clark & Sons and a 3-inch Fauth transit circle. Shortly after the small observatory opened in 1878, a telegraph line was established from Carleton campus to central Northfield, the observatory began transmitting a time signal at three minutes to noon each day; the signal was based on astronomical measurements and was picked up by cities throughout Minnesota, as well as area banks and the various railroad lines of the Northwest, including the Northern Pacific and the Great Northern. A U. S. Army Signal Corps station was placed at the observatory in 1881 and transmitted meteorological data to Washington, D. C; the facility served as the headquarters of a state weather service from 1883 to 1886. In 1886 the college purchased a brand new meridian circle with a gift of $5,000 from James J. Hill, whose railroads benefitted from Carleton's time service.
The meridian circle was too big to fit in the existing building, so Carleton decided to build a new, larger observatory. The second observatory was designed by Harvey Ellis of the J. Walter Stevens architectural firm of Saint Paul, it was named after one of the college's founders, Charles M. Goodsell. By 1888, time signals from Carleton's Goodsell Observatory were used on more than 12,000 miles of railroad track. Railroad companies in the Northwest thought that the signal coming from Carleton was more accurate than the one transmitted by the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C. Accurate time was important for keeping trains running on schedule. In 1891 Goodsell Observatory was equipped with a 16.2-inch telescope produced by the famous John Brashear of Pennsylvania. It was the twelfth-largest refractor in the world and sixth-largest in the United States; the old observatory was made into a library and torn down to make room for Laird Hall in 1905. The observatory acquired a sidereal clock in 1910.
In 1922 Carleton professor Edward Fath constructed one of the nation's first photoelectric photometers in Goodsell. The time service was continued until 1931 and the study of astronomy was prominent at Carleton well into the 20th century. Goodsell served as the model for the Chamberlin Observatory at the University of Denver; the collection of meteorites on display in Goodsell was given to the college by the meteoriticist Harvey H. Nininger as payment-in-kind for his daughter's tuition in 1942. National Register of Historic Places listings in Rice County, Minnesota This article incorporates text from MNopedia, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Headley and Merrill Jarchow, Carleton: The First Century. Leonard, The History of Carleton College. Goodsell Observatory