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Asuras are a class of beings or power-seeking clans related to the more benevolent Devas in Hinduism. The asuras battle with the devas. Asuras are described in Indian texts as powerful superhuman demigods with bad qualities; the good Asuras are called Adityas and are led by Varuna, while the malevolent ones are called Danavas and are led by Vritra. In the earliest layer of Vedic texts Agni and other gods are called Asuras, in the sense of them being "lords" of their respective domains and abilities. In Vedic and post-Vedic texts, the benevolent gods are called Devas, while malevolent Asuras compete against these Devas and are considered "enemy of the gods". Asuras are part of Indian mythology along with Devas and Rakshasas. Asuras feature in many cosmological theories in Hinduism. Monier-Williams traces the etymological roots of Asura to Asu, which means life of the spiritual world or departed spirits. In the oldest verses of the Samhita layer of Vedic texts, the Asuras are any spiritual, divine beings including those with good or bad intentions, constructive or destructive inclinations or nature.

In verses of the Samhita layer of Vedic texts, Monier Williams states the Asuras are "evil spirits and opponents of the gods". Asuras connote the chaos-creating evil, in Indo-Iranian mythology about the battle between good and evil. Asko Parpola traces the etymological root of Asura to *asera- of Uralic languages, where it means "lord, prince". Bhargava states the word, including its variants and asura, occurs "88 times in the Rigveda, 71 times in the singular number, four times in the dual, 10 times in the plural, three times as the first member of a compound. In this, the feminine form, asuryaa, is included twice; the word, has been used 19 times as an abstract noun, while the abstract form asuratva occurs 24 times, 22 times in each of the 22 times of one hymn and twice in the other two hymns". Asura is used as an adjective meaning "powerful" or "mighty". In the Rigveda, two generous kings, as well as some priests, have been described as asuras. One hymn requests a son, an asura. In nine hymns, Indra is described as asura.

Five times, he is said to possess asurya, once he is said to possess asuratva. Agni has total of 12 asura descriptions, Varuna has 10, Mitra has eight, Rudra has six. Bhargava gives a count of the word usage for every Vedic deity; the Book 1 of Rig Veda describes Savitr as an Asura, a "kind leader". In the Jaiminya, one of three recensions of the SamaVeda, the term'Asura' is stated to be derived from'rests' in the vital airs, i.e.'Asu' +'ram' ='Asuram'. According to the Bhagavad Gita, all beings in the universe have both the divine qualities and the demonic qualities within each; the sixteenth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita states that pure god-like saints are rare and pure demon-like evil are rare among human beings, the bulk of humanity is multi-charactered with a few or many faults. According to Jeaneane Fowler, the Gita states that desires, greed, emotions in various forms "are facets of ordinary lives", it is only when they turn to lust, cravings, conceit, harshness, hypocrisy and such negativity- and destruction-inclined that natural human inclinations metamorphose into something demonic.

In the Brahmanda Purana, it is stated the term'Asura' was used for the Daityas due to their rejection of Varuni after she emerged from the Ocean of Milk. However, in other legends, the Asuras accept Varuni. Scholars have disagreed on the nature and evolution of the Asura concept in ancient Indian literature; the most studied scholarly views on Asura concept are those of FBJ Kuiper, W Norman Brown, von Bradke, Benveniste, Rajwade, Darmesteter and Raja, Banerji-Sastri, Skoeld, SC Roy, Shamasastry, Schroeder, Hillebrandt, Lommel, Segerstedt, Gerschevitch, Macdonnell, Hermann Oldenberg, Geldner and Jan Gonda. Kuiper calls Asuras a special group of gods in one of major Vedic theories of creation of the universe, their role changes only during and after the earth and living beings have been created. The sky world becomes that of Devas, the underworld becomes that of Asuras. Deity Indra is the protagonist of the good and the Devas, while dragon Vrtra, one of asuras is the protagonist of the evil. During this battle between good and evil and destruction, some powerful Asuras side with the good and are called Devas, other powerful Asuras side with the evil and thereafter called Asuras.

This is the first major dualism to emerge in the nature of everything in the Universe. Hale, in his review, states that Kuiper theory on Asura is plausible but weak because the Vedas never call Vrtra an Asura as the texts describe many other powerful beings. Secondly, Rigveda never classifies Asura as "group of gods" states Hale, this is a presumption of Kuiper. Many scholars describe Asuras to be "lords" with different specialized knowledge, magical powers and special abilities, which only choose to deploy these for good, constructive reasons or for evil, destructive reasons; the former become known as Asura in the sense of Devas, the as Asura in the sense of demons. Kuiper, Brown and others a

Chico Fernández (baseball, born 1939)

Lorenzo Marto Fernández Mosquera is a Cuban retired professional baseball player who appeared in 24 games played during 1968 for the Baltimore Orioles of Major League Baseball. He batted right-handed, stood 5 feet 10 inches tall and weighed 160 pounds. Fernández was a shortstop and second baseman during his minor league career, which began in 1958 in the Detroit Tigers' system. In 1962, Lorenzo Fernández departed the Detroit organization playing in the Milwaukee Braves' system, the next year he joined the Chicago White Sox organization. Baltimore acquired him after the 1967 season, he made the 1968 Orioles' Major League roster out of spring training. In his debut, as a pinch hitter on April 20 against the California Angels at Anaheim Stadium, he singled off Angel pitcher Bobby Locke in the eighth inning of a 10–1 Oriole triumph, it would be four months before he would get his second hit a pinch single and this off Minnesota Twins' left-hander Jim Kaat. Fernández started only two games, a doubleheader against the Athletics at Oakland on June 16.

Otherwise he served as a late-inning replacement for regular Baltimore shortstop Mark Belanger or second baseman Davey Johnson. He included one base on balls with his two hits during the season, he played for the 1969 Rochester Red Wings before leaving the game. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet, or Pura Pelota

Sonar (keelboat)

The Sonar is a 7 m one-design keelboat for three to five people. It is Bermuda-rigged, with a 100 % jib; the class is recognised by the International Sailing Federation. The Sonar showcased disabled sailing at the 1996 Paralympic Games where the sport was a demonstration event with just the Sonar; the Sonar has been the three person keelboat at every subsequent Paralympics. When being sailed by people who are disabled it is crewed by 3, sailed without a spinnaker. Instead, when running downwind a whisker pole is used to hold the jib out to windward for maximum exposed sail area; the Sonar is well suited for sailors who are disabled because of its large open cockpit making adaptations easy. The Sonar was designed in 1979 by designer of the popular Laser dinghy. Since over 800 boats have been built. Most of the fleet is with smaller fleets in Britain and Canada. Since its adoption as a Paralympic class the Sonar has spread to many other countries as well; the Sonar was inducted into the American Sailboat Hall of Fame in 2004.

The regatta is open to all competitors who meet the International Sonar Class Association eligibility requirements. The Sonar has been used extensively for adaptive sailing; the boat specifications are the same for open and disabled sailing events, but additional adaptations are allowed to be fitted to the boat to aid the crew who are not permitted to hike or use a spinnaker. The World Championships is recognised by World Sailing; the Sonar has been the equipment used for the three person keelboat discipline at every Paralympic Sailing Competition. International Sonar Class Association ISAF Sonar Microsite


Voce was a premium Mobile Virtual Network Operator using the AT&T GSM network sold by Neiman-Marcus and created by Japanese company Faith Communications. During the month of January 2008, ownership was transferred to SunCal Midwest; the service launched November 2005 and subsequently shut down February 1, 2008 with no official announcement, which caught most customers and some company executives by surprise. The MVNO targeted individuals who desired a mobile phone with unlimited calling, plus an included concierge service; the initiation fee was $500, with a recurring $200 monthly charge. Included was a free customized Voce handset with damage insurance, free trade-in replacements every twelve months, free accessories, unlimited domestic calling and roaming, unlimited directory assistance, SMS, WAP, personalized setup and training, unlimited access to a concierge for travel assistance, technical support, other services; the original plan was for a $1500 sign up fee and $500 monthly charge, but with new handsets every four months.

Handsets available were the Motorola KRZR, Nokia E61i, Nokia N95, LG Prada, Nokia 8600 Luna, Sony Ericsson W880i. Voce was available in Arizona, Florida, New Jersey, New York. Controversy arose in January 2008, when many Voce clients were double billed on their last statements. Following this, on February 1, 2008, cell phone service was disconnected. Voce has never provided an official statement to its customers regarding the status of its network, but all company phone numbers are disconnected and Voce has now taken down their website. Following the elimination of cell phone service, many Voce customers complained to Neiman Marcus requesting refunds or store credit. Neiman Marcus did not issue any such credits, but referred existing customers to preferred vendors to replace their service. Most customers were referred to AT&T for cell phone service, to Red Butler for concierge services. Company executives have reported being fired via text message, or having their phones turned off, confirming that the company abruptly went out of business.

RCR Wireless News reports that, the former COO, Roy Kosuge, discovered that he’d been fired when his phone line was disconnected, he told the Los Angeles Times. Official website Class Action Against Voce Red Butler

Protey Temen

Protey Temen is a contemporary artist, a multi-disciplinary media-artist whose works are performed in the form of total installations, including graphics, video-art and painting. He is a teacher at the Design School of the National research university the Higher School of Economics. Born in Moscow, into a family of biological scientists, where he picked up his first impressions of the visual structure of scientific knowledge, he became interested in drawing and graphic design as early as his school days, upon leaving he began work as the art director of KULT, a Moscow music club. He trained as an art director at the Humanitarian Institute of Television and Radio Broadcasting, at the International Advertisement Institute. In 2003 he became a member of the Zunge Design studio in Moscow, where he became an art director. In 2006 he became a member of The Tsekh world illustrators association. Since 2009, Protey focused on multi-media art, working, in the fields of generative video and performance which were new to him, in parallel with classical art practices.

In 2009 Temen, together with the artist Dima Kavko, founded the Gruppa Krovi art-association. Since 2011 he has been a member of the Moscow Union of Artists, a participant in the “Partnership of Placard Makers”, regional public organization. In 2012 he graduated from the Institute of Contemporary Art, from a course in “New Artistic Strategies”. At the same time, together with other ICA graduates, he created an art group named GZKRKP and took part in group exhibitions as a member thereof, his first solo museum exhibition took place in 2014 in the Moscow Museum of Modern Art in Petrovka Street. As part of the process of forming his own aesthetic system and artistic language, in 2013 Protey began working with Oleg Stavitsky, a game developer, to create a series of mobile art applications, which develop children’s fundamental habit patterns; when developing interactive games designed for children aged from 1 to 6, Protey, as art director, was concerned with the development of perception of shape and sound.

In a year, Fox & Sheep, a German mobile application publisher, announced their acquisition of Bubl StudioAt present, Protey Temen is a regular participant in art expositions, professional discussions and multi-format festivals in Australia, South Korea, Russia, USA, Great Britain and continental Europe. Temen defines his current art practice using two key terms: “abstract identity” and “routine spectacularity”. Works by Protey Temen are held by the collections of the Moscow Museum of Modern Art, the Russian State Library, Komnata gallery, in private collections in Russia, Germany and Spain, he was a participant in the Venice Biennial 2011, the European Biennial of Modern Art Manifesta 10, the international biennial of digital art The Wrong. The artist describes the surrounding world with the language of abstract graphics. Since his early childhood, Protey has developed a particular, well-recognized style which he has realized in his work both as an art director or illustrator, in his personal work.

The movement of Dobrotarism appeared in 2007, founded on the basis of the simplification of an image on a geometrical level, contrasting colours and ostentatious joy. The basic goal of the artist during this period was the study of the models and structures of daily life; this resulted in the exhibition “Iconography of Dobrotarism”, held in the “Dom” cultural centre in 2007. From 2008 to 2009, within his “Post-Dobrotarism” cycle, Protey delved deeper into abstract imaging, still remaining within the confines of his initial graphic language. “My work is about ritual, about the soul, about a kind of pure thing. And a number of symbols which I used — masks, costumes — they are about this pure thing. A text and an emotional experience would stand behind each picture. I came to this realisation just a short time ago; that same Dobrotarism is mixed up in religion, in the basics of Russian icon-painting. In fact, I became drawn into the idea of identity, and what does identity mean? It is a system of signs and symbols”.

In 2010 the monochrome period of his work began, which featured a break from the full colour palette, beginning to describe the surrounding world via independent abstract systems. By 2013 the final abandonment of colour and semi-tones occurred; the approach that arose was applied by Protey to alternative media: to sculpture, to video-shots, to 3D monochrome textures. The basic theme of the period was the study of an object as a body, a line, a black spot: “The spot was one of the basic images which I used earlier. In 2014, Protey formulated Surritualism as a new method, it is based on two inseparable parts: ritual, the principle of surrealism to denude the absurdity of this or that action. In 2015 Temen decided not to use computer technologies in his works, his basic focus in 2016 was the representation of information and the practice of visual communication. Many images were inspired by book graphics inside scientific literature, including texts devoted to biology; the artist elaborated a system of image analysis based on a toolkit of used representation models.

Works of 2015-2016 are the beginning of the Inner School of Open Studies. These works unite images representing “knowledge”, using popular educational guides, expl

Claire Bretécher

Claire Bretécher was a French cartoonist, known for her portrayals of women and gender issues. Her creations included Les Frustrés, the unimpressed teenager Agrippine. Bretécher was born in Nantes and got her first break as an illustrator when she was asked to provide the artwork for Le Facteur Rhésus by René Goscinny for L'Os à Moelle in 1963, she went on to work for several popular magazines and in 1969 invented the character "Cellulite". In 1972 she joined Gotlib and Mandryka in founding the Franco-Belgian comics magazine L'Écho des savanes. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, she published successful collections, such as The Destiny of Monique. In 2001, Bretécher's series Agrippine was adapted into a 26-episode TV series by Canal+. Claire Bretécher was the widow of French constitutionalist Guy Carcassonne. 1975: Best French Author at the Angoulême International Comics Festival, France 1987: Adamson Award for Best International Comic Book Cartoonist, Sweden 1999: Humour Award at the Angoulême International Comics Festival 2002: nominated for the Dialogue Award at the Angoulême International Comics Festival Les états d'âme de Cellulite, part of the Cellulite series Salades de saison Les angoisses de Cellulite, part of the Cellulite series Les Gnangnan Les Frustrés Le Cordon infernal Les Naufragés Les Amours écologiques du Bolot occidental Baratine et Molgaga La Vie passionnée de Thérè Les Mères Le Destin de Monique Docteur Ventouse, bobologue Agrippine Tourista Mouler démouler Une Saga génétique Robin les foies Fernand l'orphelin Tulipe et Minibus Inédits Claire Bretécher official site Claire Bretécher official art gallery Claire Bretécher biography on Lambiek Comiclopedia Claire Bretécher biography on Dargaud