The Atacama Desert is a desert plateau in South America covering a 1,000-km strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains. The Atacama desert is one of the driest places in the world, as well as the only true desert to receive less precipitation than the polar deserts. According to estimates, the Atacama Desert occupies 105,000 km2, or 128,000 km2 if the barren lower slopes of the Andes are included. Most of the desert is composed of stony terrain, salt lakes and felsic lava that flows towards the Andes; the desert owes its extreme aridity to a constant temperature inversion due to the cool north-flowing Humboldt ocean current, to the presence of the strong Pacific anticyclone. The most arid region of the Atacama desert is situated between two mountain chains of sufficient height to prevent moisture advection from either the Pacific or the Atlantic Oceans, a two-sided rain shadow. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the Atacama Desert ecoregion occupies a continuous strip for nearly 1,600 km along the narrow coast of the northern third of Chile, from near Arica southward to near La Serena.
The National Geographic Society considers the coastal area of southern Peru to be part of the Atacama Desert and includes the deserts south of the Ica Region in Peru. Peru borders it on the north and the Chilean Matorral ecoregion borders it on the south. To the east lies the less arid Central Andean dry puna ecoregion; the drier portion of this ecoregion is located south of the Loa River between the parallel Sierra Vicuña Mackenna and Cordillera Domeyko. To the north of the Loa lies the Pampa del Tamarugal; the Coastal Cliff of northern Chile west of the Chilean Coast Range is the main topographical feature of the coast. The geomorphology of the Atacama Desert has been characterized as a low-relief bench "similar to a giant uplifted terrace" by Armijo and co-workers; the intermediate depression forms a series of endorheic basins in much of Atacama Desert south of latitude 19°30'S. North of this latitude, the intermediate depression drains into the Pacific Ocean. Although the total lack of precipitation is the most prominent characteristic of the Atacama Desert, exceptions may occur.
In July 2011, an extreme Antarctic cold front broke through the rain shadow, bringing 80 cm of snow to the plateau, stranding residents across the region in Bolivia, where many drivers became stuck in snow drifts and emergency crews became overtaxed with a large number of rescue calls. In 2012, the altiplano winter brought floods to San Pedro de Atacama. On 25 March 2015, heavy rainfall affected the southern part of the Atacama Desert. Resulting floods triggered mudflows that affected the cities of Copiapo, Tierra Amarilla and Diego de Almagro, causing the deaths of more than 100 people; the Atacama Desert is known as the driest nonpolar place in the world the surroundings of the abandoned Yungay town. The average rainfall is about 15 mm per year. Moreover, some weather stations in the Atacama have never received rain. Periods up to four years have been registered with no rainfall in the central sector, delimited by the cities of Antofagasta and Copiapó, in Chile. Evidence suggests that the Atacama may not have had any significant rainfall from 1570 to 1971.
The Atacama Desert may be the oldest desert on earth, has experienced extreme hyperaridity for at least 3 million years, making it the oldest continuously arid region on earth. The long history of aridity raises the possibility that supergene mineralisation, under the appropriate conditions, can form in arid environments, instead of requiring humid conditions; the presence of evaporite formations suggest that in some sections of the Atacama Desert, arid conditions have persisted for the last 200 million years. The Atacama is so arid that many mountains higher than 6,000 m are free of glaciers. Only the highest peaks have some permanent snow coverage; the southern part of the desert, between 25 and 27°S, may have been glacier-free throughout the Quaternary, though permafrost extends down to an altitude of 4,400 m and is continuous above 5,600 m. Studies by a group of British scientists have suggested that some river beds have been dry for 120,000 years. However, some locations in the Atacama receive a marine fog known locally as the camanchaca, providing sufficient moisture for hypolithic algae and some cacti—the genus Copiapoa is notable among these.
Geographically, the aridity of the Atacama is explained by it being situated between two mountain chains of sufficient height to prevent moisture advection from either the Pacific or the Atlantic Oceans, a two-sided rain shadow. In a region about 100 km south of Antofagasta, which averages 3,000 m in elevation, the soil has been compared to that of Mars. Owing to its otherworldly appearance, the Atacama has been used as a location for filming Mars scenes, most notably in the television series Space Odyssey: Voyage to the Planets. In 2003, a team of researchers published a report in which they duplicated the tests used by the Viking 1 and Viking 2 Mars landers to detect life, were unable to detect any signs in Atacama Desert soil in the region of Yungay; the region may be unique on Earth in this regard, is being used by NASA to test instruments for future Mars missions. The team duplicated the Viking tests in
HMS Goodson USS George, was an Evarts class destroyer escort, assigned to the United Kingdom under the lend-lease. The ship was laid down as George on 20 May 1943 at the Boston Navy Yard, named after Eugene Frank George, posthumously awarded the Navy Cross at Guadalcanal, she was assigned to the United Kingdom under the lend-lease on 22 June 1943. During the remainder of World War II, she served on escort and patrol duty in the Atlantic and along the English coast, she supported the Allied Invasion of Europe at Normandy on 6 June 1944. Damaged 25 June by U-984 commanded by Heinz Sieder, she was returned to the United States Navy on 21 October. On 9 January 1947 she was sold to John Lee of Northern Ireland. A subsequent vessel named George was launched 14 August 1943 at the Defoe Shipbuilding Company, Bay City, Michigan; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here
Città Sant'Angelo is a city and comune in the province of Pescara, Italy. The origins of Città Sant'Angelo are uncertain and have always been a basis for historical discussion, beginning with the Vestini; the numerous archaeological finds between the mouths of Piomba and Saline Rivers, the presence of small urban aggregates at the site called Marina Sant'Angelo point to the origins of the city during the Roman period, located in the eastern portion of the Vestine region. Mentioned by Plinius as one of four Vestini cities, Angelus or Angulum appears to have stood where today Città Sant'Angelo stands, it is cited from the 12th century as Castrum Sancti Angeli. However around 400 CE, the first churches took root in the area between Città Sant ` Atri; the vestino-roman abodes, which would have been located in the nearby Salt Hill, were destroyed in the early Middle Ages during the Gothic War. Testimonies of this cult are present in the municipal coat of arms; the first official record found where the municipality mentions a concession from the Emperor Ludovico II who granted a privilege to the Monastery of Casauria on the site called "CIVITATE S. ANGELI" where there was a castle and a port and dated 13 October 875.
In the 12th century it was aggregated to Loreto County by the Normans who established the Kingdom of Sicily. It was a Guelph city destroyed in 1239 by Boemondo Pissono, executioner to Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, successor to the Normans as the King of Sicily, because the city was too loyal to his enemy, the Roman Catholic Church. Reconstruction began in 1240 and the city took the shape of a fortified nucleus in a semicircle; the most prominent names were those of Salomone. The arrival of the monastic orders in the first half of the 14th century generated widening interest and a monastery was established. By 1528 it obtained the current name of the city. In this era, Città Sant'Angelo was one of the three major cities of the Penne-Atri diocese, along with the two bishopric sites; this rivalry resulted in wars for port control, at the border between the current Silvi Marina and Pineto, in the province of Teramo. In the 16th century it was aligned to the Castriota family together with the lands of Spoltore and Montesilvano.
It became one of several feudal possession, between the Carafa and the Piccolomini of Celano, who gave it to the Pinelli. An agrarian bourgeoisie established itself through to the 17th century. On 18 February 1699 Lucrezia Camerlengo bought on behalf of her son Francesco Figliola the Angolan marquis from Pinelli for 130,000 ducats. Francesco Figliola transformed the marquisate into a duchy. Between 1300 and 1700, Città Sant'Angelo, despite numerous attacks by French and Spanish, met a period of splendor. In the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle the city passed definitively to the Kingdom of Naples. Italy gained stability for the first time in the 18th century; the new territorial settlement and the accession of the peaceful Ferdinand VI of Spain allowed the peace settlement to last until the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1792. In March 1814, Città Sant'Angelo together with the municipalities of Penne, Castiglione Messer Raimondo and Penna Sant'Andrea were the protagonists of the first ups and downs of Carboneria of the Italian Risorgimento.
The revolt was repressed by the troops of Gioacchino Murat, led by General Florestano Pepe, thanks to the betrayal of a conspiracy and the non-adherence of several municipalities that after giving their positive opinion remained silent. Angolan chiefs of the uprising, Philip La Noce and Domenico Marulli were shot at Penne and their heads were displayed on Porta Sant'Angelo, the main gate, while Michelangelo Castagna, another head of the revolt, managed to escape finding shelter with his sister in the town of Atri. Prior to joining the Kingdom of Italy, Città Sant'Angelo was the capital city from 1837 to 1848 in the Distretto di Città Sant'Angelo, an administrative unit of Abruzzo Ulteriore Primo, a province of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies returned to Penne County when the capital was returned to Penne. At the turn of the 20th century, many people left the region and joined the mass migration to the Americas. During the Second World War in April 1940 the Ministry of the Interior set up and rented the building of the Ex Manifattura Tabacchi, in the historic center of the city, to serve it as the only concentration camp of the province of Pescara with about 200 prisoners from Yugoslavia.
The location remained active until April 1944. It is permanently hosted by the Museum of Contemporary Art. On May 22, 1944, the US Air Force bombed the marina district. On Monday, June 12, 1944 Città Sant'Angelo was liberated by the Allies. Today, it is known for its historical architecture and as a tourist location that offers its own variety of wine and cuisine. Città Sant'Angelo is a member of the club "I Borghi più belli d'Italia". Among its dominant landmarks is undoubtedly the Church of St. Michael, while the entire center is characterized by 18th-century brick houses; the following are distinctive points of interest: The parish church of San Michele Arcangelo of the 13th century, with beautiful stone portal of 1326, an interesting Nativity fresco in the attic, a 14th-century bell tower