An islet is a small island. As suggested by its origin as islette, an Old French diminutive of "isle", use of the term implies small size, but little attention is given to drawing an upper limit on its applicability. Cay or Key – an islet formed by the accumulation of fine sand deposits atop a reef. Motu – A reef islet formed by broken coral and sand, surrounding an atoll. River island – A small islet within the current of a river. Rock – A "rock", in the sense of a type of islet, is an uninhabited landform composed of rock, lying offshore, having at most minimal vegetation. Sandbar – An exposed sandbar is another type of islet. Sea stack – A thin, vertical landform jutting out of a body of water. Skerry – A small rocky island defined to be too small for habitation. Subsidiary islets – A more technical application is to small land features, isolated by water, lying off the shore of a larger island. Any emergent land in an atoll is called an islet. Tidal island – Often small islands which lie off the mainland of an area, being connected to it in low tide and isolated in high tide.
In the Caribbean and West Atlantic, islets are called cays or keys. Rum Cay in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys off Florida are examples of islets. In Normandy and the Channel Islands, they are identified by the French suffix -hou from the Scandinavian -holm. In Scotland and Ireland, they are called inches, from the Gaelic innis, which meant island, but has been supplanted to refer to smaller islands. In Ireland they are termed skerries. In and around Polynesia, islets are known by the term motu, from the term for the coral-rubble islets common to the region. In and around the River Thames in England, small islands are known as eyots. Whether an islet is considered a rock or not can have significant economic consequences under Article 121 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which stipulates that "Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf." One long-term dispute over the status of such an islet was that of Snake Island.
The International Court of Justice jurisprudence however sometimes ignores islets, regardless of inhabitation status, in deciding territorial disputes. There are thousands of islets on Earth: 24,000 islands and islets in the Stockholm archipelago alone; the following is a list of example islets from around the world. Clive Schofield. "Islands or Rocks, Is that the Real Question? The Treatment of Islands in the Delimitation of Maritime Boundaries". In Myron H. Nordquist, John Norton Moore, Alfred H. A. Soons, Hak-So Kim; the Law of the Sea Convention: US Accession and Globalization. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Pp. 322–340. ISBN 978-90-04-20136-1. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter
A tropical cyclone is a rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. "Cyclone" refers to their winds moving in a circle, whirling round their central clear eye, with their winds blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis effect. Tropical cyclones form over large bodies of warm water, they derive their energy through the evaporation of water from the ocean surface, which recondenses into clouds and rain when moist air rises and cools to saturation.
This energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such as nor'easters and European windstorms, which are fueled by horizontal temperature contrasts. Tropical cyclones are between 100 and 2,000 km in diameter; the strong rotating winds of a tropical cyclone are a result of the conservation of angular momentum imparted by the Earth's rotation as air flows inwards toward the axis of rotation. As a result, they form within 5° of the equator. Tropical cyclones are unknown in the South Atlantic due to a strong wind shear and a weak Intertropical Convergence Zone; the African easterly jet and areas of atmospheric instability which give rise to cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, along with the Asian monsoon and Western Pacific Warm Pool, are features of the Northern Hemisphere and Australia. Coastal regions are vulnerable to the impact of a tropical cyclone, compared to inland regions; the primary energy source for these storms is warm ocean waters, therefore these forms are strongest when over or near water, weaken quite over land.
Coastal damage may be caused by strong winds and rain, high waves, storm surges, the potential of spawning tornadoes. Tropical cyclones draw in air from a large area—which can be a vast area for the most severe cyclones—and concentrate the precipitation of the water content in that air into a much smaller area; this continual replacement of moisture-bearing air by new moisture-bearing air after its moisture has fallen as rain, which may cause heavy rain and river flooding up to 40 kilometres from the coastline, far beyond the amount of water that the local atmosphere holds at any one time. Though their effects on human populations are devastating, tropical cyclones can relieve drought conditions, they carry heat energy away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes, which may play an important role in modulating regional and global climate. Tropical cyclones are areas of low pressure in the troposphere, with the largest pressure perturbations occurring at low altitudes near the surface.
On Earth, the pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest observed at sea level. The environment near the center of tropical cyclones is warmer than the surroundings at all altitudes, thus they are characterized as "warm core" systems; the near-surface wind field of a tropical cyclone is characterized by air rotating around a center of circulation while flowing radially inwards. At the outer edge of the storm, air may be nearly calm; as air flows radially inward, it begins to rotate cyclonically in order to conserve angular momentum. At an inner radius, air begins to ascend to the top of the troposphere; this radius is coincident with the inner radius of the eyewall, has the strongest near-surface winds of the storm. Once aloft, air flows away from the storm's center; the mentioned processes result in a wind field, nearly axisymmetric: Wind speeds are low at the center, increase moving outwards to the radius of maximum winds, decay more with radius to large radii.
However, the wind field exhibits additional spatial and temporal variability due to the effects of localized processes, such as thunderstorm activity and horizontal flow instabilities. In the vertical direction, winds are strongest near the surface and decay with height within the troposphere. At the center of a mature tropical cyclone, air sinks rather than rises. For a sufficiently strong storm, air may sink over a layer deep enough to suppress cloud formation, thereby creating a clear "eye". Weather in the eye is calm and free of clouds, although the sea may be violent; the eye is circular in shape, is 30–65 km in diameter, though eyes as small as 3 km and as large as 370 km have been observed. The cloudy outer edge of the eye is called the "eyewall"; the eyewall expands outward with height, resembling an arena foo
An atoll, sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon or completely. There may be coral cays on the rim; the coral of the atoll sits atop the rim of an extinct seamount or volcano which has eroded or subsided beneath the water. The lagoon forms over the volcanic crater or caldera while the higher rim remains above water or at shallow depths that permit the coral to grow and form the reefs. For the atoll to persist, continued erosion or subsidence must be at a rate slow enough to permit reef growth upward and outward to replace the lost height; the word atoll comes from the Dhivehi word atholhu. OED Its first recorded use in English was in 1625 as atollon. Charles Darwin recognized its indigenous origin and coined, in his The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, the definition of atolls as "circular groups of coral islets", synonymous with "lagoon-island". More modern definitions of atoll describe them as "annular reefs enclosing a lagoon in which there are no promontories other than reefs and islets composed of reef detritus" or "in an morphological sense, a ring-shaped ribbon reef enclosing a lagoon".
Most of the world's atolls are in the Indian Ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has no large groups of atolls, other than eight atolls east of Nicaragua that belong to the Colombian department of San Andres and Providencia in the Caribbean. Reef-building corals will thrive only in warm tropical and subtropical waters of oceans and seas, therefore atolls are only found in the tropics and subtropics; the northernmost atoll of the world is Kure Atoll at 28°24′ N, along with other atolls of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The southernmost atolls of the world are Elizabeth Reef at 29°58′ S, nearby Middleton Reef at 29°29′ S, in the Tasman Sea, both of which are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory; the next southerly atoll is Ducie Island in the Pitcairn Islands Group, at 24°40′ S. Bermuda is sometimes claimed as the "northernmost atoll" at a latitude of 32°24′ N. At this latitude coral reefs would not develop without the warming waters of the Gulf Stream. However, Bermuda is termed a pseudo-atoll because its general form, while resembling that of an atoll, has a different mode of formation.
While there is no atoll directly on the equator, the closest atoll to the Equator is Aranuka of Kiribati, with its southern tip just 12 km north of the equator. In most cases, the land area of an atoll is small in comparison to the total area. Atoll islands are low lying, with their elevations less than 5 meters. Measured by total area, Lifou is the largest raised coral atoll of the world, followed by Rennell Island. More sources however list as the largest atoll in the world in terms of land area Kiritimati, a raised coral atoll, 160 km² main lagoon, 168 km² other lagoons; the remains of an ancient atoll as a hill in a limestone area is called a reef knoll. The second largest atoll by dry land area is Aldabra with 155 km²; the largest atoll in terms of island numbers is Huvadhu Atoll in the south of the Maldives with 255 islands. In 1842, Charles Darwin explained the creation of coral atolls in the southern Pacific Ocean based upon observations made during a five-year voyage aboard HMS Beagle from 1831 to 1836.
Accepted as correct, his explanation involved considering that several tropical island types—from high volcanic island, through barrier reef island, to atoll—represented a sequence of gradual subsidence of what started as an oceanic volcano. He reasoned that a fringing coral reef surrounding a volcanic island in the tropical sea will grow upward as the island subsides, becoming an "almost atoll", or barrier reef island, as typified by an island such as Aitutaki in the Cook Islands, Bora Bora and others in the Society Islands; the fringing reef becomes a barrier reef for the reason that the outer part of the reef maintains itself near sea level through biotic growth, while the inner part of the reef falls behind, becoming a lagoon because conditions are less favorable for the coral and calcareous algae responsible for most reef growth. In time, subsidence carries the old volcano below the ocean surface and the barrier reef remains. At this point, the island has become an atoll. Atolls are the product of the growth of tropical marine organisms, so these islands are only found in warm tropical waters.
Volcanic islands located beyond the warm water temperature requirements of hermatypic organisms become seamounts as they subside and are eroded away at the surface. An island, located where the ocean water temperatures are just sufficiently warm for upward reef growth to keep pace with the rate of subsidence is said to be at the Darwin Point. Islands in colder, more polar regions evolve toward guyots. Reginald Aldworth Daly offered a somewhat different explanation for atoll formation: islands worn away by erosion, by ocean waves and streams, during the last glacial stand of the sea of some 900 feet below present sea level developed as coral islands, or barrier reefs on a platform surrounding a volcanic island not worn away, a
The Dominion Post (Wellington)
The Dominion Post is a metropolitan morning newspaper published in Wellington, New Zealand, owned by the Australian Fairfax group, publishers of The Age and The Sydney Morning Herald. Weekday issues are now in tabloid format, its Saturday edition is in broadsheet format; the Dominion Post was created in July 2002 when Independent Newspapers Limited amalgamated two Wellington printed and published metropolitan broadsheet newspapers, The Evening Post, an evening paper first published on 8 February 1865, The Dominion, a morning paper first published on Dominion Day, 26 September 1907. The Dominion was distributed throughout the lower half of the North Island, as far as Taupo, where it met with Auckland's ambitiously-named The New Zealand Herald; the Evening Post was not so distributed, but had a much greater circulation than The Dominion. The Dominion Post became the only pay-and-read newspaper in Wellington City. Wellington has many free community newspapers, albeit these may be owned by The Dominion Post or affiliated/owning companies.
INL sold The Dominion Post and all other New Zealand newspapers and most magazines in its catalogue to Fairfax Media in 2003. The Dominion Post homepage at stuff.co.nz Today's The Dominion Post front page at the Newseum website
RNZ International or Radio New Zealand International, sometimes abbreviated to RNZI, is a division of Radio New Zealand and the official international broadcasting station of New Zealand. It broadcasts a variety of news, current affairs and sports programmes in English and news in seven Pacific languages; the station's mission statement requires it to promote and reflect New Zealand in the Pacific, better relations between New Zealand and Pacific countries. As the only shortwave radio station in New Zealand, RNZ International broadcasts to several island nations, it has studios in Radio New Zealand House, Wellington and a transmitter at Rangitaiki in the middle of the North Island. Its broadcasts cover from East Timor in the west across to French Polynesia in the east, covering all South Pacific countries in between; the station targets Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, the Cook Islands, Solomon Islands and Tonga during a 24-hour rotation. The signal can be heard in Europe and North America.
RNZ International was launched in 1948 as Radio New Zealand, a subsidiary of what was the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation. It utilised two 7.5 kW transmitters at Titahi Bay, left behind by the US military during World War II. It closed before reopening in 1976, under the foreign policy of the third Labour government. From 1987, the Government faced growing pressure to have a more active foreign policy towards the Pacific region, it upgraded the station, installed a new 100 kW transmitter and re-launched it as Radio New Zealand International on the first day of the Auckland 1990 Commonwealth Games. The station adopted new digital technology and launched a website in 2000. In 1992, Johnson Honimae was fired as the Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation head of current affairs over his work as a freelance reporter in Bougainville for RNZI and other international media outlets. SIBC general manager Patterson Mae was accused of undermining the principles of press freedom, resigned as president of the regional journalism body the Pacific Islands News Association.
In 1998 and again in 2000 RNZI won a Commonwealth Broadcasting Association's Rolls-Royce Award for Excellence. At a function of the Association for International Broadcasting in London, November 2007, RNZI received the International Radio Station of the Year award ahead of the BBC World Service; the association praised the station for what it said was an ability and clarity of vision - and for the delivery of something it said was valued by audiences throughout the region. RNZI won the award for Most Innovative Partnership; as of 2015, RNZI has 13 staff. These include manager Linden Clark, technical manager Adrian Sainsbury, news editor Walter Zweifel and deputy news editor Don Wiseman. Myra Oh, Colette Jansen, Damon Taylor, Dominic Godfrey and Jeremy Veal serve as technical producers and continuity announcers. In May of 2017 Radio New Zealand International's online brand was changed to RNZ Pacific to more reflect what the service does and emphasise its role in engaging with the domestic Pasifika audience in New Zealand.
According to RNZ, "For now, the RNZI brand will continue to be maintained on-air through our international service, but domestically it is now known as RNZ Pacific." Aside from Radio Australia, RNZI is the only international state-owned public broadcaster covering the Pacific region. Its news service focuses on South Pacific countries, includes news bulletins in eight languages; the station's reporters include Johnny Blades, Sally Round, former Pacific Media Centre editor Alex Perrottet, Moera Tuilaepa-Taylor, Indira Moala, Koroi Hawkins, Koro Vaka'uta, Leilani Momoisea, Amelia Langford, Bridget Tunnicliffe, Mary Baines, Jenny Meyer and The Wireless contributor Jamie Tahana. Vinnie Wylie heads the station's sports coverage, freelancers are used for on-the-ground reporting; the station's news service focuses on news that relates to New Zealand, ongoing stories like natural disasters and political crises. It predominantly cites Government and opposition leaders and the spokespeople of non-government organisations and government departments.
Marshall Islands journalist Giff Johnson is an RNZI correspondent, World Bank regional director Franz Dreez-Gross and Victoria University academic John Fraenkel are interviewed for stories. RNZI covers the Papua conflict and interviews exiled Koteka tribal leader Benny Wenda on his visits to New Zealand, it has reported on Vanuatu's Parliamentary debate on the conflict, Indonesian estimates of the death toll and West Papua National Liberation Army claims of militant arrests. The station has interviewed members of the Melanesian Spearhead Group over the army's bid to join the group. However, the station does not have any reporters on the ground; the station provides ongoing coverage of several regional issues, including climate change, rapid emigration, LGBT rights in Oceania, the development of Pacific tax havens and the growing influence of China. It allowed other media to redistribute its ongoing coverage of Fijian politics after the 2000 Fijian coup d'état, has covered the transition to independence in East Timor and political stability in the Solomon Islands.
RNZI gives greater air time to national news stories from South Pacific countries than New Zealand's other mainstream and Pacific media outlets. For instance, during March 2013 it covered the constitutional crisis in Nauru, video of alleged torture of prisoners by Fijian government officials and a World Bank grant to the Samoan government. RNZI produces most of its own programming, including regional current affairs, Pacific business and news bulletins in various languages; some local Pacific Island radio stations rebroadcast selected ite
Nukunonu is the largest atoll within Tokelau, a dependency of New Zealand, in the south Pacific Ocean. It comprises 30 islets surrounding a central lagoon, with about 5.5 km2 of land area and a lagoon surface area of 109 km2. The main settlement on the atoll is located on Nukunonu Island at the southwestern edge of the lagoon with a concrete bridge joining the two areas of settlement. Other islets in the group include Motuhaga, Te Puka e Mua, Motufala, Taulagapapa, Saumagalu, Laulauia, Fatigauhu, Tokelau, Te Fakanava, Te Puku, Te Kamu to name a few; the island's residents depend upon coconuts and marine life for subsistence. Shipping is hampered by the lack of an adequate anchorage. Tokelau has one hotel, the Luana Liki Hotel, one resort, Falefa Resort, both situated on Nukunonu. Few tourists visit the country and tourism is not promoted. There is ambivalence to the idea of tourists with some Tokelauans wanting to keep the country unaffected by the outside world. Despite this, visitors are greeted with traditional Polynesian hospitality.
The Luana Liki Hotel functions to accommodate official visitors who have included the New Zealand Prime Minister and Governor General. There is one main shop in Nukunonu. Due to the vagaries of shipping schedules, it is at times short of goods. Concrete water tanks are incorporated into the base of newly built houses and collect rainwater from the roof. Satellite TV dishes are beginning to appear on some houses in the village; the first European vessel known to have come upon Nukunonu was the Royal Navy ship HMS Pandora, in 1791, whose captain, Edward Edwards, named Duke of Clarence Island in honor of Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews, the third son of King George III and king himself, as William IV. At the time, the Pandora was searching for mutineers from HMS Bounty. During the early 19th century, Nukunonu’s inhabitants were converted to Roman Catholicism by Samoan missionaries. Between 1856 and 1979, the United States claimed that it held sovereignty over the island and the other Tokelauan atolls.
In 1979, the U. S. conceded that Tokelau was under New Zealand sovereignty, a maritime boundary between Tokelau and American Samoa was established by the Treaty of Tokehega. Local administration consists of a Taupulega, made up of heads of family groups and two elected members. According to the 2006 census 426 people live on Nukunonu, of which more than 95% belong to the Catholic Church. List of Guano Island claims Nukunonu at Encyclopædia Britannica
Tokelau is a dependent territory of New Zealand in the southern Pacific Ocean. It consists of three tropical coral atolls, with a combined land area of 10 km2; the capital rotates yearly between the three atolls. Tokelau lies north of the Samoan Islands, east of Tuvalu, south of the Phoenix Islands, southwest of the more distant Line Islands, northwest of the Cook Islands. Swains Island is geographically part of Tokelau, but is subject to an ongoing territorial dispute and is administered by the United States as part of American Samoa. Tokelau has a population of 1,500 people, the fourth-smallest population of any sovereign state or dependency; as of the 2016 census, around 45% of residents were born overseas in Samoa and New Zealand. The nation has a life expectancy of 69, comparable with other Oceanian island nations. 94% of the population speak Tokelauan as a first language. Tokelau has the smallest economy in the world, although it is a leader in renewable energy, being the first 100% solar powered nation in the world.
Tokelau is referred to as a nation by both the New Zealand government and the Tokelauan government. It is a democratic nation with elections every three years. However, in 2007 the United Nations General Assembly included Tokelau on its list of non-self-governing territories, its inclusion on the list is controversial, as Tokelauans have twice voted against further self-determination and the islands' small population reduces the viability of self-government. The basis of Tokelau's legislative and judicial systems is the Tokelau Islands Act 1948, amended on a number of occasions. Since 1993, the territory has annually elected its own head of the Ulu-o-Tokelau; the Administrator of Tokelau was the highest official in the government and the territory was administered directly by a New Zealand government department. The name Tokelau is a Polynesian word meaning "north wind"; the islands were named the Union Islands and Union Group by European explorers at an unknown time. Tokelau Islands was adopted as the name in 1946, was contracted to Tokelau on 9 December 1976.
Archaeological evidence indicates that the atolls of Tokelau – Atafu and Fakaofo – were settled about 1,000 years ago and may have been a "nexus" into Eastern Polynesia. Inhabitants followed Polynesian mythology with the local god Tui Tokelau; the three atolls functioned independently while maintaining social and linguistic cohesion. Tokelauan society was governed by chiefly clans, there were occasional inter-atoll skirmishes and wars as well as inter-marriage. Fakaofo, the "chiefly island", held some dominance over Atafu and Nukunonu after the dispersal of Atafu. Life on the atolls was subsistence-based, with reliance on coconut. Commodore John Byron discovered Atafu on 24 June 1765 and named it "Duke of York's Island". Parties onshore reported that there were no signs of previous inhabitants. Captain Edward Edwards, knowing of Byron's discovery, visited Atafu on 6 June 1791 in search of the Bounty mutineers. There were no permanent inhabitants, but houses contained canoes and fishing gear, suggesting the island was used as a temporary residence by fishing parties.
On 12 June 1791, Edwards sailed southward and discovered Nukunonu, naming it "Duke of Clarence's Island". A landing party could not make contact with the people but saw "morais", burying places, canoes with "stages in their middle" sailing across the lagoons. On 29 October 1825 August R. Strong of the USS Dolphin ship wrote of his crew's arrival at the atoll Nukunonu: Upon examination, we found they had removed all the women and children from the settlement, quite small, put them in canoes lying off a rock in the lagoon, they would come near the shore, but when we approached they would pull off with great noise and precipitation. On 14 February 1835 Captain Smith of the United States whaler General Jackson records discovering Fakaofo, calling it "D'Wolf's Island". On 25 January 1841, the United States Exploring Expedition visited Atafu and discovered a small population living on the island; the residents appeared to be temporary, evidenced by the lack of a chief and the possession of double canoes.
They desired to barter, possessed blue beads and a plane-iron, indicating previous interaction with foreigners. The expedition reached Nukunonu on 28 January 1841 but did not record any information about inhabitants. On 29 January 1841, the expedition discovered Fakaofo and named it "Bowditch"; the islanders were found to be similar in nature to those in Atafu. Missionaries preached Christianity in Tokelau from 1845 to the 1870s. French Catholic missionaries on Wallis Island and missionaries of the Protestant London Missionary Society in Samoa used native teachers to convert the Tokelauans. Atafu was converted to Protestantism by the London Missionary Society, Nukunonu was converted to Catholicism and Fakaofo was converted to both denominations; the Rev. Samuel James Whitmee, of the London Missionary Society, visited Tokelau in 1870. Helped by Swains Island-based Eli Jennings senior, Peruvian "blackbird" slave traders arrived in 1863 and kidnapped nearly all of the able-bodied men to work as labourers, depopulating the atolls.
The Tokelauan men died of dysentery and smallpox, few returned. With this loss, the system of governance became based on the "Taupulega", or "Councils of Elders", where individual families on each atoll were represented. During this time