SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tokelau

Tokelau is a dependent territory of New Zealand in the southern Pacific Ocean. It consists of three tropical coral atolls, with a combined land area of 10 km2; the capital rotates yearly among the three atolls. Tokelau lies north of the Samoan Islands, east of Tuvalu, south of the Phoenix Islands, southwest of the more distant Line Islands, northwest of the Cook Islands. Swains Island is geographically part of Tokelau, but is subject to an ongoing territorial dispute and is administered by the United States as part of American Samoa. Tokelau has a population of 1,500 people, the fourth-smallest population of any sovereign state or dependency; as of the 2016 census, around 45% of residents were born overseas in Samoa and New Zealand. The nation has a life expectancy of 69, comparable with other Oceanian island nations. 94% of the population speak Tokelauan as a first language. Tokelau has the smallest economy in the world, although it is a leader in renewable energy, being the first 100% solar powered nation in the world.

Tokelau is referred to as a nation by both the New Zealand government and the Tokelauan government. It is a democratic nation with elections every three years. However, in 2007 the United Nations General Assembly included Tokelau on its list of non-self-governing territories, its inclusion on the list is controversial, as Tokelauans have twice voted against further self-determination and the islands' small population reduces the viability of self-government. The basis of Tokelau's legislative and judicial systems is the Tokelau Islands Act 1948, amended on a number of occasions. Since 1993, the territory has annually elected its own head of the Ulu-o-Tokelau; the administrator of Tokelau was the highest official in the government and the territory was administered directly by a New Zealand government department. The name Tokelau is a Polynesian word meaning "north wind"; the islands were named the Union Islands and Union Group by European explorers at an unknown time. Tokelau Islands was adopted as the name in 1946, was contracted to Tokelau on 9 December 1976.

Archaeological evidence indicates that the atolls of Tokelau – Atafu and Fakaofo – were settled about 1,000 years ago and may have been a "nexus" into Eastern Polynesia. Inhabitants followed Polynesian mythology with the local god Tui Tokelau; the three atolls functioned independently while maintaining social and linguistic cohesion. Tokelauan society was governed by chiefly clans, there were occasional inter-atoll skirmishes and wars as well as inter-marriage. Fakaofo, the "chiefly island", held some dominance over Atafu and Nukunonu after the dispersal of Atafu. Life on the atolls was subsistence-based, with reliance on coconut. Commodore John Byron was the first European to sight Atafu, on 24 June 1765 and called the island "Duke of York's Island". Parties onshore reported that there were no signs of previous inhabitants. Captain Edward Edwards, knowing of Byron's discovery, visited Atafu on 6 June 1791 in search of the Bounty mutineers. There were no permanent inhabitants, but houses contained canoes and fishing gear, suggesting the island was used as a temporary residence by fishing parties.

On 12 June 1791, Edwards sailed southward and discovered Nukunonu, naming it "Duke of Clarence's Island". A landing party could not make contact with the people but saw "morais", burying places, canoes with "stages in their middle" sailing across the lagoons. On 29 October 1825 August R. Strong of the USS Dolphin ship wrote of his crew's arrival at the atoll Nukunonu: Upon examination, we found they had removed all the women and children from the settlement, quite small, put them in canoes lying off a rock in the lagoon, they would come near the shore, but when we approached they would pull off with great noise and precipitation. On 14 February 1835 Captain Smith of the United States whaler General Jackson records discovering Fakaofo, calling it "D'Wolf's Island". On 25 January 1841, the United States Exploring Expedition visited Atafu and discovered a small population living on the island; the residents appeared to be temporary, evidenced by the lack of a chief and the possession of double canoes.

They desired to barter, possessed blue beads and a plane-iron, indicating previous interaction with foreigners. The expedition reached Nukunonu on 28 January 1841 but did not record any information about inhabitants. On 29 January 1841, the expedition discovered Fakaofo and named it "Bowditch"; the islanders were found to be similar in nature to those in Atafu. Missionaries preached Christianity in Tokelau from 1845 to the 1870s. French Catholic missionaries on Wallis Island and missionaries of the Protestant London Missionary Society in Samoa used native teachers to convert the Tokelauans. Atafu was converted to Protestantism by the London Missionary Society, Nukunonu was converted to Catholicism and Fakaofo was converted to both denominations; the Rev. Samuel James Whitmee, of the London Missionary Society, visited Tokelau in 1870. Helped by Swains Island-based Eli Jennings senior, Peruvian "blackbird" slave traders arrived in 1863 and kidnapped nearly all of the able-bodied men to work as labourers, depopulating the atolls.

The Tokelauan men died of dysentery and smallpox, few returned. With this loss, the system of governance became based on the "Taupulega", or "Councils of Elders", where individual families on each atoll were

Kalaram Temple

The Kalaram Temple is an old Hindu shrine dedicated to Rama in the Panchavati area of Nashik city in Maharashtra, India. It is the most important Hindu shrine in the city; the temple derives its name from a black statue of Lord Rama. The literal translation of kalaram is "black Rama"; the sanctum sanctorum houses the statues of the goddess Sita and the god Lakshmana. Thousands of devotees visit it every day; the temple was funded by Sardar Rangarao Odhekar, was built around 1788. It was said that Odhekar had a dream that the statue of Rama in black colour was in the Godavari River. Odhekar built the temple. According to ancient epic of the Ramayana, Lord Rama was sent in exile for fourteen years. After the tenth year of exile, Lord Rama along with Lakshman and Seeta, lived for two and half years on the northern bank of the Godavari near Nasik; this place is known as Panchavati. The temple formed a pivotal role in the Dalit movement in India. B. R. Ambedkar led a protest outside the temple on 2 March 1930, in order to allow Dalits into the temple.

The main entrance has a Lord Hanuman deity, black. There is a old tree that has Lord Dattatreya's footprint impressions marked on a stone. Pilgrims visit the Kapaleshwar Mahadev temple near the Kalaram Temple. Official website

Battle of Munda

The Battle of Munda, in southern Hispania Ulterior, was the final battle of Caesar's civil war against the leaders of the Optimates. With the military victory at Munda, the deaths of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompeius, Caesar was politically able to return in triumph to Rome, govern as the elected Roman dictator. Subsequently, the assassination of Julius Caesar began the Republican decline that led to the Roman Empire, initiated with the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus; the republicans had been led by Pompey, until the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey's death soon afterwards. However, in April 46 BC, Caesar's forces destroyed the Pompeian army at the Battle of Thapsus. After this, military opposition to Caesar was confined to Hispania. During the Spring of 46 BC, two legions in Hispania Ulterior formed by former Pompeian veterans enrolled in Caesar's army, had declared themselves for Gnaeus Pompeius and driven out Caesar's proconsul. Soon they were joined by the remnants of the Pompeian army.

These forces were commanded by the brothers Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus and by the talented general Titus Labienus, one of the most trusted of Caesar's generals during the Gallic Wars. Using the resources of the province they were able to raise an army of three legions; these were the two original veteran legions, one additional legion recruited from Roman citizens and local inhabitants in Hispania. They took control of all Hispania Ulterior, including the important Roman colonies of Italica and Corduba. Caesar's generals Quintus Fabius Maximus and Quintus Pedius did not risk a battle and remained encamped at Obulco, about 35 miles east of Corduba, requesting help from Caesar. Thus, Caesar was forced to move from Rome to Hispania to deal with the Pompeius brothers, he brought two trusted veteran legions and some newer legions, but in the main was forced to rely on the recruits present in Hispania. Caesar covered the 1,500 miles from Rome to Obulco in less than one month, arriving in early December.

Caesar had called for his great-nephew Octavian to join him, but due to his health Octavian was only able to reach him after the conclusion of the campaign. Capitalizing on his surprise arrival Caesar was able to relieve the stronghold of Ulipia but was unable to take Corduba, defended by Sextus Pompeius. Under Labienus’ advice, Gnaeus Pompeius decided to avoid an open battle, Caesar was forced to wage a winter campaign, while procuring food and shelter for his army. After a short siege, Caesar took the fortified city of Ategua. Another skirmish near Soricaria on March 7 went in Caesar's favor; the two armies met in the plains of Munda in southern Spain. The Pompeian army was situated on a gentle hill, less than one mile from the walls of Munda, in a defensible position. Caesar led a total of eight legions, with 8,000 horsemen, while Pompeius commanded thirteen legions, 6,000 light-infantrymen, about 6,000 horsemen. Many of the Republican soldiers had surrendered to Caesar in previous campaigns and had deserted his army to rejoin Pompeius: they would fight with desperation, fearing that they would not be pardoned a second time.

After an unsuccessful ploy designed to lure the Pompeians down the hill, Caesar ordered a frontal attack. The fighting lasted for 8 hours without a clear advantage for either side, causing the generals to leave their commanding positions and join the ranks; as Caesar himself said he had fought many times for victory, but at Munda he had to fight for his life. Caesar took command of his right wing, where his favorite Legio X Equestris was involved in heavy fighting. With Caesar's inspiration the tenth legion began to push back Pompeius' forces. Aware of the danger, Gnaeus Pompeius removed a legion from his own right wing to reinforce the threatened left wing. However, as soon as the Pompeian right wing was thus weakened, Caesar's cavalry launched a decisive attack which turned the course of the battle. King Bogud of Mauretania and his cavalry, Caesar's allies, attacked the rear of the Pompeian camp. Titus Labienus, commander of the Pompeian cavalry, saw this manoeuvre and moved some troops to intercept them.

The Pompeian army misinterpreted the situation. Under heavy pressure on both the left and right wings, they thought Labienus was retreating; the Pompeian legions fled in disorder. Although some were able to find refuge within the walls of Munda, many more were killed in the rout. At the end of the battle there were about 30,000 Pompeians dead on the field. All thirteen standards of the Pompeian legions were captured, a sign of complete disbandment. Titus Labienus died on the field and was granted a burial by Caesar, while Gnaeus and Sextus Pompeius managed to escape from the battlefield. Caesar left his legate Quintus Fabius Maximus to besiege Munda and moved to pacify the provinc