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Atapuerca Mountains

The Atapuerca Mountains is a karstic hill formation near the village of Atapuerca, in the Province of Burgos, northern Spain. In a still ongoing excavation campaign, rich fossil deposits and stone tool assemblages were discovered which are attributed to the earliest known hominin residents in Western Europe; this "exceptional reserve of data" has been deposited during extensive Lower Paleolithic presence, as the Atapuerca Mountains served as the preferred occupation site of Homo erectus, Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis communities. The earliest specimen so far unearthed and reliably dated confirm an age between 1.2 million and 630,000 years. Some finds are exhibited in Burgos. Encompassing 284,119 hectares, the Atapuerca Mountains are a mid-altitude karstic range of small foothills around 1,080 m above sea level, they are located at the north-east corner of the Douro basin, to the south of the Cantabrian Mountains that run across northern Spain, stretch alongside the Bureba corridor, a mountain pass that connects the Ebro river valley with the Mediterranean Sea and the Duero basin.

This conjunction constitutes an ecotone, rich in species of both ecosystems. The mountain pass was part of a causeway built by the Romans, as well as part of the pilgrimage route of Saint James; the mountains are strategically located between two major drainage divides and near the mountain pass. In 2008 scholars identified a new genus and species of red-toothed shrew from the Pleistocene layers of the Gran Dolina cave; until this discovery, researchers had believed that the fossils found in this area were of the Beremendia fissidens type, but recent research has been published to support an Asiatic type called Dolinasorex glyphodon that might be endemic and is the earliest known type of soricid in the Iberian peninsula. The archaeological site was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, under the name, Archaeological Site of Atapuerca. Piedrahita in the Atapuerca valley is according to records site of the Battle of Atapuerca, which took place in 1054 between the forces of Ferdinand I of Castile and his brother García V of Navarre.

Apart from the typical dryland farming of the region, the municipality has grown in economic and social level with the impact generated by the presence of the archaeological site and its associated services. 15% of the active population owns a job related to tourism. This "tertiarization" of their economy has reversed depopulation by rejuvenating it. Official Web Page of the Atapuerca UCM-ISCIII Research Group American Museum of Natural History-Atapuerca www.atapuerca.com

Tora (band)

TORA are an Australian electronic band formed in Byron Bay in May 2013. The founding members are Thorne Davis on drums; the band now operate as a four piece. A group of multi-instrumentalists and producers with a wide musical palette, fusing unique and graceful vocals with smoothly layered production and instrumentation reminiscent of Radiohead and James Blake, their catalogue now boasts over 100m streams and 1.1m listeners a month on Spotify alone. They have undertaken international tours, their tracks have received high rotation on Triple J's playlist. All future Tora band members: Jai Piccone, Jo Loewenthal, Shaun Johnston, Thorne Davis and Tobias Tunis-Plant attended Shearwater Steiner School in Mullumbimby, a small New South Wales town. In 2006 while still at high school, they formed an indie-rock band with Loewenthal on lead guitar and vocals, Tunis on drums and Johnston on bass guitar. In 2010 the three left Shearwater to attain a diploma in contemporary music served by Northern Rivers Conservatorium Arts Centre.

While completing the course they continued to perform as Alice Blu, including supporting gigs by the Beautiful Girls and by Daryl Braithwaite. According to Loewenthal "The business classes helped us a lot with negotiating gigs and money and knowing how to promote ourselves." In mid-2012 Loewenthal began experimenting in Melbourne with electronic music using Reason software and still working full-time in call centre. He reconnected with Davis. Tunis-Plant was travelling Europe and developing new song ideas while Johnston was undertaking a Bachelor of Audio Engineering at John Martin Cass Academy. At the end of that year and Loewenthal moved back to Byron Bay. From October Loewenthal and Tunis-Plant rekindled their songwriting partnership for electronic-infused music. In January of the following year, Loewenthal began teaching music to Piccone, which developed into a songwriting partnership; when Johnston returned from Melbourne in May 2013, Tora formed as a five piece band. The group's name is from the Greek word τώρα tṓra meaning "now".

They released "Unobtainable", co-written by Loewenthal and Tunis-Plant. Loewenthal recalled, "we just started making music in our bedroom, like a big granny flat sort of thing; the first Tora track we made in four days –'Unobtainable' – it just came together and we were like'wow'. Electronic music is so much more fun to play and make... So we made that track stewed on it made heaps of tracks – after a while we just decided to put them up and see what people thought. We got a much better reaction than we'd had for Alice Blu – so we were a bit excited about that." According to Byron Bay Festival's correspondent, they played a "blend of ambient harmonies, layered rhythms and pulsing soundscapes." Aside from electronica they perform in chillwave. Tora released their debut self-titled seven-track extended play in October 2013, which had "swirling, electronica influenced pop, drawing from the likes of SOHN & James Blake". Crack in the Road reviewer, opined that the group were "rather bizarre in a way, in that they’re the opposite of the'make a shit load of noise' model, keeping it somber yet beautiful, opting to rely on minimal, sparse beats and haunting vocals."

The band received high rotation on national radio as the single, "Calming Her", was entered in the Triple J Unearthed competition. It received 100,000+ plays in its first three months of release; the band was invited to play their first large scale performance, at Falls Festival Byron Bay, on NYE. March 2014 Tora released their single, "These Eyes", which received 120,000+ plays within the first three weeks with support from blogs, it was written by Tunis-Plant. Amrap's AirIt's reviewer described the track, "The vocal soothes our soul, reminds us we still have one. We're not left waiting for a drop or a climax because all we want is for the chill wave to continue indefinitely. Vocal cutting, lush synths and xylophone attach to your psyche, leaving you nothing but residual warmth." The release was followed up with a tour across some of the state capital cities in April 2014. Over the next few months Tunis began working with female vocalist Merryn Jeann from fellow band, Potato Potato. According to Loewenthal, "most of the song was created in our bedrooms."

Soon after her vocals were developed into a track titled'Overcome ft. Merryn Jeann', released early July 2014 and marked as the most successful release the band had made at this point, receiving huge blog action from channels like'TheSoundYouNeed'. A month earlier Tora won the regional leg of the Unearthed competition. September 2014 Tora accepted a support slot with Miami Horror on their "Wild Motion" tour again playing Australia's major cities. On return Tora released their second EP, Eat the Sun, in November 2014 with tracks "from candle-lit R&B jams, to soothing, electronically laced ballads." They embarked on a national tour with their Sydney and Port Macquarie performances sold-out. The year finished up with a run of shows at'The Falls Arts & Music Festival 2014' in Byron Bay with Tora on the line-up along with bands such as Alt-J, Jamie XX, BadBadNotGood & Glass Animals, their tracks, "Overcome", "Admire", "Jaigantic" and "H

Szekely SR-3

Szekely aircraft engines were three-cylinder radial engines built in Holland, Michigan in the 1920s and 30s. They were used to power small aircraft such as the Rearwin Junior, Taylor H-2 and American Eagle Eaglet. Criticized for reliability issues and design flaws, many were replaced with better engines in their original airframes. Few examples still exist but a museum quality example is on display in the Holland Museum in Holland, Michigan. Data from:Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1931 SR-3 O Overhead valve combustion chamber, compression ratio 4.6:1, 45 hp at 1,750 rpm. SR-3 L Side-valve combustion chamber, compression ratio 5:1, 30 hp at 1,750 rpm. American Eagle Eaglet Curtiss-Wright Junior Lambach HL.1 Rearwin Junior Taylor H-2 Prest Baby Pursuit Data from American Engine Specifications, Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1938, Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1931 Type: Three-cylinder radial engine Bore: 4 1⁄8 in Stroke: 4 3⁄4 in Displacement: 191 cu in Length: 25 in overall Diameter: 36 in Dry weight: 147 lb Valvetrain: one camshaft per cylinder: pushrod-operated overhead inlet outlet valves, one each per cylinder.