Bellosguardo is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. As of 2011 its population was of 853, the word Bellosguardo is made up of 2 parts, the first is Bello that means beautiful, the second Sguardo whose meaning is view, landscape. In the past, the town was called Belrisguardo, Bellosguardo is located in Cilento and is part of its national park. It borders with the municipalities of Aquara, Laurino, Ottati and SantAngelo a Fasanella
Acerno, is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the region of Campania in south-western Italy. It lies within the Parco regionale Monti Picentini, a park of the Monti Picentini group in the Southern Apennines. The neighbouring municipalities are Giffoni Valle Piana, Montecorvino Rovella, Senerchia, the communal territory has an elevation varying between 400 and 1790 metres above sea level. Outside of the town itself it is uninhabited by humans. It is rich in flora, with forests of maple, chestnut, hazel and alder, while the fauna includes golden eagles, wild cats and wolves. The town therefore acts as a base for excursions to the mountains Monte Cervialto, Monte Polveracchio, although Acerno does attract tourists, the economy is largely based on agriculture, especially sheep and pig farming, and cereal cultivation. Acerno was founded by refugees from Picentia, which had destroyed by the Romans after the Second Punic War. Around 1150, Guido da Acerno inherited the comune from his father Tommaso, on 17 August 1254, Pope Innocent IV granted Philip dAcerno possession of Acerno and various feudal estates.
In 1272 Charles I of Anjou granted Acerno to his eldest son Charles, in 1298 it fell under the ownership of Roger of Lauria and was owned by William Vaccaro, Roberto Grillo, Francesco Guindazzo and Antonio de Muro. In 1453 a university for Acerno and Calabritto was built, in 1469, Troiano Santomango became lord of Acerno and Muro, and on 11 September 1500 reached a financial agreement with other feudal lords over taxes. The territory was inherited by his son, Camillo Colonna Marcello and he was succeeded by his son Pompeo, who in 1577 sold the land for 30,500 ducats to Diomedes, Marquis of Castiglione. Diomedes died on 2 October 1596 and was succeeded by his son Ascanio, in 1619 he loaned the lands under Royal Assent and after a series of owners, including Pompeo Colonna, in 1665 the estate fell into the hands of Antonio Tocco. Tocco died on 5 March 1678 and was succeeded by his nephew Charles, the Gascon family ran Acerno throughout much of the 18th century until 1777 when it was ceded to the Royal Court when Marquis Giuseppe Gascon, the last owner died without legitimate heirs.
Girola Mascaro, President of the Royal House of Salermo was granted power of the territory in 1781 but with the end of feudalism in 1806, the Bishopric of Acerno dates back to the 11 or 12th century. The first bishop was named Pisano who was appointed in 1136, followed by Peter, Acerno lost its own bishopric in 1818 and today has been merged into the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salerno-Campagna-Acerno in its present form since 30 September 1986. The Germans shelled the house of the canon, the priest escaped, the town was severely damaged in the 1980 Irpinia earthquake. The Cathedral of San Donato, built in 1444, has been destroyed, the interior has four paintings depicting the four Evangelists, the work of an artist called Pallas in 1797. The church of Our Lady of Grace, has an altar in polychrome marble, there is the remains of the castle that belonged to Roger of Lauria
Aquara is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. As of 2011 its population was of 1,550, the town, located on a hill in the middle of Cilento and part of its national park, lies below the Alburni mountains. It is 9 km far from Ottati and Castel San Lorenzo,13 from Roccadaspide,14 from Castelcivita and 17 from its caves, the municipality borders with Bellosguardo, Castel San Lorenzo, Felitto and Roccadaspide. It counts the hamlet of Mainardi and the localities of Casalicchio, Madonna del Piano, the last one is administratively shared with Castel San Lorenzo and located by the river Calore Lucano, that constitutes the western boundary of Aquaras municipal territory. Aquara has Roman origins, such as testified by ruins of a Roman villa in Madonna del Piano. It was first mentioned in the 11th century, and counts among his vassals, Guglielmo Sanseverino, saint Lucidus of Aquara, Benedectine monk and patron saint Ettore Fieramosca and vassal of Aquara Cilentan dialect Castelcivita Caves Aquara official website Aquara on tuttaitalia. it
Ascea is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of southwestern Italy. In the communal territory are the Greek ruins of Velia and it is part of the Cilento traditional area and the maritime touristic part of the municipality is the Marina di Ascea. The town is located on the beach and is popular with European tourists in the summer months, Cilento Cilentan Coast Parmenides Elea Media related to Ascea at Wikimedia Commons
Battipaglia is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy, with 50,831 inhabitants. The area was given its name in 1080, when Robert Guiscard confirmed the possession of lands between the Sele river and Tusciano river to the Church of Salerno. Battipaglia was officially created by Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies as a colony in 1858. The Bourbon authorities chose Battipaglia as the site of an agricultural colony, during the Second World War, markedly in 1943, the town was bombed several times by American aviators. In 1953 the town was involved in a disappearance which has since remained shrouded in mystery, in the years following the end of World War II, Battipaglia undertook a great industrial growth, witnessing a big increase in population - mostly people moving from neighboring towns. The few but intense days of social unrest eventually resulted in 2 victims, since late 20th and early 21st century, the town has managed to combine the agricultural sector with the technological one.
The municipality borders with Bellizzi, Montecorvino Rovella, Olevano sul Tusciano and Pontecagnano Faiano and its hamlets are Aversana, Santa Lucia Inferiore, Belvedere, Taverna delle Rose and Rione SantAnna. The ethnic origins of the inhabitants are extremely varied, the first migration wave, beginning in the nineteenth century, led many people to move there from Melfi and neighboring municipalities. Over the last two decades, many agricultural laborers from North Africa as well as Slavs have moved to Battipaglia, most of the towns wealth is due to the industrial and agricultural sectors. Among the most significant companies are, Prysmian, Metzeler, Alcatel-Lucent, Nexans, Paif and Deriblok. Several local dairy companies produce the well-known local buffalo mozzarella, a form of which is called zizzona di Battipaglia because of its similarity to a female breast. Every first Sunday of July the towns center is decked to the nines for three days on the occasion of the celebrating of Our Lady of Hope, L.
Rocco Carbone, Battipaglia,70 anni nella sua storia, Massa Editore 1999. Battipagliese Media related to Battipaglia at Wikimedia Commons Battipaglia official website
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine regions, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Crete. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a vast number of islands, eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea.
Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming a part of the Roman Empire and its successor. The Greek Orthodox Church shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World, falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greeces rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe, Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Greeces unique cultural heritage, large industry, prominent shipping sector. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, the names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, all three stages of the stone age are represented in Greece, for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries and these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek. The Mycenaeans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC and this ushered in a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent. The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, in 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the worlds first democratic system of government in Athens
Province of Salerno
The Province of Salerno is a province in the Campania region of Italy. The largest towns in the province are, the capital, the province has an area of 4,923 km2, and a total population of about 1.1 million. There are 158 comuni, the one with the largest area being Eboli, see Comuni of the Province of Salerno. One of the features of the rugged country-side is Gole del Calore di Felitto and this area is of great geological interest and is rich in flora and fauna. One of the historical buildings in the province is the chapter house belonging to the Certosa di Padula. The building has evolved over centuries, the earliest parts were constructed in the early 14th century, a mannerist cloister leads to the church, and a 17th-century cloister has loggias supported by rusticated columns. These features add to the baroque character of the building. The chapter house has been adapted for the Museo Archeologico della Lucania Occidentale, the Monti Picentini area is home to the eponymous regional park, which is home to several natural preserves
Agropoli is a town and comune, former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see located in the Cilento area of the province of Salerno, Italy. It is situated at the start of the Cilentan Coast, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, as of 2011, its population was of 20,610. The promontory on which Agropoli stands has been inhabited since Neolithic times and it seems, that it was not until the Bronze and Iron Ages that it came to be continuously inhabited by a stable, indigenous population, which lived off hunting and fishing. To the east of the promontory, at the mouth of the River Testene, there is a sheltered bay, called Foce in ancient times. Before and after the foundation of nearby Poseidonia, the Greeks used it for trading with the local people and they gave the promontory the Greek name and built a temple on it, dedicated to Artemis, the Goddess of Hunting. Meanwhile, the harbour of neighbouring Poseidonia became progressively silted up by the process of coastal bradyseism, during the 5th century, when the Vandals made life difficult in Ercula, its inhabitants retreated to the overlooking promontory, which offered better prospects for defence.
Acropolis remained in the hands of the Byzantines until 882, when the fell to the Saracens. From this base, they set out to plunder and terrorise the surrounding areas, eventually, in 915, they were driven out from their trenched camp at Garigliano. Acropolis was liberated, and came back under the jurisdiction of the bishops, in fact, in 1412, Pope Gregory XII ceded the feudal territories of Agropoli and Castellabate to King Ladislas of Durazzo in partial payment of some war debts. The first statistics on Agropoli were compiled in 1445, when the town, including its dependent villages, had a total of 202 homes and, therefore, a similar number of families. Agropoli was a target of raids from North Africa in the 16th and 17th centuries. On 21 April 1544, the town was sacked, and about 100 people were taken prisoner, on 30 June 1630, a strong band of men from the surrounding Cilento helped the citizens of Agropoli to repel an attack by 700 Turkish pirates. The pirates managed to escape in their ships with an amount of booty and many prisoners, but were nevertheless heavily defeated.
In about 592, Pope Gregory the Great wrote to a Bishop Felix at Acropolis, telling him to visit the neighbouring dioceses, which were without a bishop. No longer a residential bishopric, Acropolis is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see, nicola in Carcere, promoted Cardinal-Priest of the same S. The town is few km far from the Ancient Greek city of Paestum and it includes the hamlets of Frascinelle, Marotta, Moio, Madonna del Carmine, San Marco and Trentova. The beaches of Trentova Bay contribute to make Agropoli an important seaside resort, the Angevin-Aragonese castle, which was built on the 6th century Byzantine foundations, still stands on top of the promontory. It has a plan with three circular towers and a moat
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Amalfi is a town and comune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno. It lies at the mouth of a ravine, at the foot of Monte Cerreto, surrounded by dramatic cliffs. The town of Amalfi was the capital of the maritime republic known as the Duchy of Amalfi, in the 1920s and 1930s, Amalfi was a popular holiday destination for the British upper class and aristocracy. Amalfi is included in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites, a patron saint of Amalfi is Saint Andrew, the Apostle, whose relics are kept here at Amalfi Cathedral. Grain-bearing Amalfi traders enjoyed privileged positions in the Islamic ports, Fernand Braudel notes, the Amalfi tables provided a maritime code that was widely used by the Christian port cities. Merchants of Amalfi were using gold coins to purchase land in the 9th century, in spite of some devastating setbacks it had a population of some 70,000 to 80,000 reaching a peak about the turn of the millennium, during the reign of Duke Manso.
Under his line of dukes, Amalfi remained independent, except for a period of Salernitan dependency under Guaimar IV. In 1073 the republic fell to the Norman countship of Apulia, a prey to the Normans who encamped in the south of Italy, it became one of their principal posts. However, in 1131, it was reduced by King Roger II of Sicily, the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair, fighting in favour of Pope Innocent II against Roger, who sided with the Antipope Anacletus, took him prisoner in 1133, assisted by forty-six Pisan ships. The Pisans, commercial rivals of the Amalfitani, sacked the city, in 1135 and 1137, it was taken by the Pisans and rapidly declined in importance, though its maritime code, known as the Tavole amalfitane, was recognized in the Mediterranean until 1570. A tsunami in 1343 destroyed the port and lower town, in medieval culture Amalfi was famous for its flourishing schools of law and mathematics. Flavio Gioia, traditionally considered the first to introduce the mariners compass to Europe, is said to have been a native of Amalfi, celebrated visitors to Amalfi included the composer Richard Wagner and the playwright Henrik Ibsen, both of whom completed works whilst staying in Amalfi.
Author Gore Vidal was a long time resident, at the top of a staircase, Saint Andrews Cathedral overlooks the Piazza Duomo, the heart of Amalfi. The cathedral dates back to the 11th century, its interior is adorned in the late Baroque style with a nave, the façade of the cathedral is Byzantine in style and is adorned with various paintings of saints, including a large fresco of Saint Andrew. The gold caisson ceiling has four paintings by Andrea dellAsta. They depict the flagellation of Saint Andrew, the miracle of Manna, the crucifixion of Saint Andrew, from the left hand nave there is a flight of stairs which leads to the crypt. These stairs were built in 1203 for Cardinal Pietro Capuano, who, on 18 May 1208, brought Saint Andrews remains to the cathedral from Constantinople. The bronze statue of Saint Andrew in the cathedral was sculpted by Michelangelo Naccherino, in 1206, Saint Andrews relics were brought to Amalfi from Constantinople by the Pietro Capuano following the Sack of Constantinople after the completion of the towns cathedral