Physical geography is one of the two major sub-fields of geography. Physical geography is the branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography. Physical Geography can be divided into several sub-fields, as follows: Geomorphology is the field concerned with understanding the surface of the Earth and the processes by which it is shaped, both at the present as well as in the past. Geomorphology as a field has several sub-fields that deal with the specific landforms of various environments e.g. desert geomorphology and fluvial geomorphology. Geomorphology seeks to understand landform history and dynamics, predict future changes through a combination of field observation, physical experiment, numerical modeling. Early studies in geomorphology are the foundation for pedology, one of two main branches of soil science Hydrology is predominantly concerned with the amounts and quality of water moving and accumulating on the land surface and in the soils and rocks near the surface and is typified by the hydrological cycle.
Thus the field encompasses water in rivers, aquifers and to an extent glaciers, in which the field examines the process and dynamics involved in these bodies of water. Hydrology has had an important connection with engineering and has thus developed a quantitative method in its research. Similar to most fields of physical geography it has sub-fields that examine the specific bodies of water or their interaction with other spheres e.g. limnology and ecohydrology. Glaciology is the study of glaciers and ice sheets, or more the cryosphere or ice and phenomena that involve ice. Glaciology groups the latter as continental glaciers and the former as alpine glaciers. Although research in the areas are similar with research undertaken into both the dynamics of ice sheets and glaciers, the former tends to be concerned with the interaction of ice sheets with the present climate and the latter with the impact of glaciers on the landscape. Glaciology has a vast array of sub-fields examining the factors and processes involved in ice sheets and glaciers e.g. snow hydrology and glacial geology.
Biogeography is the science which deals with geographic patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in these patterns. Biogeography emerged as a field of study as a result of the work of Alfred Russel Wallace, although the field prior to the late twentieth century had been viewed as historic in its outlook and descriptive in its approach; the main stimulus for the field since its founding has been that of evolution, plate tectonics and the theory of island biogeography. The field can be divided into five sub-fields: island biogeography, paleobiogeography, phylogeography and phytogeography Climatology is the study of the climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a long period of time. Climatology examines both the nature of micro and macro climates and the natural and anthropogenic influences on them; the field is sub-divided into the climates of various regions and the study of specific phenomena or time periods e.g. tropical cyclone rainfall climatology and paleoclimatology.
Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and short term forecasting. Studies in the field stretch back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the eighteenth century. Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events which illuminate and are explained by the science of meteorology. Pedology is the study of soils in their natural environment, it is one of two main branches of the other being edaphology. Pedology deals with pedogenesis, soil morphology, soil classification. In physical geography pedology is studied due to the numerous interactions between climate, soil life, the mineral materials within soils and its position and effects on the landscape such as lateralization. Palaeogeography is a cross-disciplinary study that examines the preserved material in the stratigraphic record to determine the distribution of the continents through geologic time. All the evidence for the positions of the continents comes from geology in the form of fossils or paleomagnetism.
The use of this data has resulted in evidence for continental drift, plate tectonics, supercontinents. This, in turn, has supported palaeogeographic theories such as the Wilson cycle. Coastal geography is the study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography and the human geography of the coast, it involves an understanding of coastal weathering processes wave action, sediment movement and weathering, the ways in which humans interact with the coast. Coastal geography, although predominantly geomorphological in its research, is not just concerned with coastal landforms, but the causes and influences of sea level change. Oceanography is the branch of physical geography that studies seas, it covers a wide range including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics.
Great Dividing Range
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australia's most substantial mountain range and the third longest land-based range in the world. It stretches more than 3,500 kilometres from Dauan Island off the northeastern tip of Queensland, running the entire length of the eastern coastline through New South Wales into Victoria and turning west, before fading into the central plain at the Grampians in western Victoria; the width of the range varies from about 160 km to over 300 km. The Greater Blue Mountains Area, Gondwana Rainforests, Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Areas are located in the range; the sharp rise between the coastal lowlands and the eastern uplands has affected Australia's climate due to orographic precipitation, these areas of highest relief have revealed an impressive gorge country. The Dividing Range does not consist of a single mountain range, it consists of a complex of mountain ranges, upland areas and escarpments with an ancient and complex geological history.
The physiographic division name for the landmass is called the East Australian Cordillera. In some places the terrain is flat, consisting of low hills; the highlands range from 300 to 1,600 metres in height. The mountains and plateaus, which consist of limestones, quartzite and dolomite, have been created by faulting and folding processes; the crest of the range is defined by the watershed or boundary between the drainage basins of rivers which drain directly eastward into the Pacific Ocean, or southward into Bass Strait, those rivers which drain into the Murray–Darling river system towards the west and south. In central Queensland, the rivers on the west side drain into Lake Eyre basin. In north Queensland, the rivers on the west side of the range drain towards the Gulf of Carpentaria; the higher and more rugged parts of the "range" do not form part of the crest of the range, but may be branches and offshoots from it. The term "Great Dividing Range" may refer to the watershed crest of the range, or to the entire upland complex including all of the hills and mountains between the east coast of Australia and the central plains and lowlands.
At some places it can be up to 400 km wide. Notable ranges and other features which form part of the range complex have their own distinctive names; the Great Dividing Range was formed during the Carboniferous period—over 300 million years ago—when Australia collided with what are now parts of South America and New Zealand. The range has experienced significant erosion since. For tens of thousands of years prior to British colonisation the ranges were home to various Aboriginal Australian nations and clans. Evidence remains in some places of their traditional way of life including decorated caves and trails used to travel between the coastal and inland regions. Many descendants of these nations still exist today and remain the traditional owners and custodians of their lands. After British colonisation in 1788, the ranges were an obstacle to exploration and settlement by the British settlers. Although not high, parts of the highlands were rugged. Crossing the Blue Mountains was challenging due to the mistaken idea that the creeks should be followed rather than the ridges, impenetrable, sandstone mountains.
Knowing that local Aboriginal people had established routes crossing the range and by making use of Aboriginal walking trails, a usable ridge-top route was discovered by Europeans directly westward from Sydney across the Blue Mountains to Bathurst by an expedition jointly led by Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Charles Wentworth. Towns in the Blue Mountains were named after each of these men; this was the start of the development of the agricultural districts of inland New South Wales. A road was built to Blaxland by convicts within six months. Easier routes to inland New South Wales were discovered towards Goulburn to the southwest, westwards from Newcastle. Subsequent explorations were made across and around the ranges by Allan Cunningham, John Oxley, Hamilton Hume, Paul Edmund Strzelecki, Ludwig Leichhardt and Thomas Mitchell; these explorers were concerned with finding and appropriating good agricultural land. By the late 1830s the most fertile rangelands adjacent to the mountain ranges had been explored, appropriated from the traditional inhabitants and some settled.
These included the Gippsland and Riverina regions in the south, up to the Liverpool Plains and the Darling Downs in the north. Various road and railway routes were subsequently established through many parts of the ranges, although many areas remain remote to this day. For example, in eastern Victoria there is only one major road crossing the highlands from north to south, the Great Alpine Road. Parts of the highlands consisting of flat and, by Australian standards, well-watered land were developed for agricultural and pastoral uses; such areas include the Atherton Tableland and Darling Downs in Queensland, the Northern Tablelands, Southern Highlands and Southern Tablelands in New South Wales. Other parts of the highlands have been used for forestry. Many parts of the highlands which were not developed are now included in National Parks. All of mainland Australia's alpine areas, including its highest mountain, Mount Kosciuszko, are part of this range, called the Main Range; the highest areas in southern New South Wales and eastern Victoria are known as the Australian Alps.
The central core of the Great Dividing Range is dotted with hundreds of peaks and is surrounded by many smaller mountain ranges or spurs, vall
Kuranda is a town and locality on the Atherton Tableland in the Shire of Mareeba, Far North Queensland, Australia. The town of Myola is located within the locality of Kuranda, it is 25 kilometres via the Kuranda Range road. It is surrounded by tropical rainforest and adjacent to the Wet Tropics World Heritage listed Barron Gorge National Park, it is within the local government area of Shire of Mareeba. Kuranda is positioned on the eastern edge of the Atherton Tableland where the Barron River begins a steep descent to its coastal floodplain; the area is an important wildlife corridor between the Daintree/Carbine Tableland area in the north and Lamb Range/Atherton Tableland in the south, two centres of biodiversity. Parts of Kuranda along its eastern edge, are protected within the Kuranda National Park and Barron Gorge National Park. Both national parks belong to the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Barron Gorge Forest Reserve and Formatine Forest Reserve have been established in the south of Kuranda.
Closer to the centre of the town is Jumrum Creek Conservation Park where a near threatened, endemic frog species is protected. An elongated dam created by a weir built for a power station was constructed in 1935 and is used to today for recreation; the rainforest around Kuranda has been home to the Djabugay people for over 10,000 years. Europeans began to explore the area throughout the nineteenth century, it is believed a massacre of indigenous people took place at the location in Kuranda known as Skeleton Creek. Kuranda was first settled in 1885 and surveyed by Thomas Behan in 1888. Construction of the railway from Cairns to Myola began in 1887 and the line reached Kuranda in 1891; the current railway station was built in 1915. Kuranda Post Office opened on 25 June 1891. Between 1912 and 1913 Eric Mjöberg lead an expedition to Queensland in which the Kuranda Aboriginal people were observed. Kuranda District State School and Kuranda State High School amalgamated at the commencement of 2007 to create Kuranda District State College.
Although coffee was grown around Kuranda in the early twentieth century, timber was the town's primary industry for a number of years. Kuranda has been known as a tourist destination since the early 1900s, it was both the local Aboriginals which attracted people to the area. Today Kuranda is a'village in the rainforest' with tourism being the current backbone of the local economy. The'village in the rainforest' concept promoted from the 1970s onwards served two purposes, it attracted those seeking a bohemian enclave in which to reside as well as a being a tourist promotional strategy. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s Kuranda was popular with alternative lifestylers, a theme that still runs through the local community today; the Barron Gorge Hydroelectric Power Station was built nearby in the 1960s. Kuranda Library opened in 1996 and underwent a major refurbishment in 2015. At the 2011 census, the locality Kuranda had a population of 2,966. Kuranda has a number of heritage-listed sites: Cairns-to-Kuranda railway line including the Kuranda railway station.
The town receives thousands of tourists each week who arrive from Cairns either on the Kuranda Scenic Railway, the Skyrail Rainforest cableway, coach or by public bus via the Kuranda Range Road, a 40-minute drive from Cairns. The town is surrounded by tropical rainforest, abundant with wildlife and popular amongst birdwatchers. There are several short walks around the village including the Jum Rum Creek Environmental Park which includes The River Walk. Walking to the Barron Gorge National Park to visit Barron Falls is popular. Another 1 kilometre each way on to Wright's Lookout. There is a shuttle service that provides an alternative to walking with a half-hourly service out to the Barron Gorge National Park; this service includes a visit to Wright's Lookout. Attractions in Kuranda include a bird aviary, butterfly sanctuary, wildlife rescue/rehabilitation centre, reptile park and koala sanctuary. There is a fossil and gemstone museum and candy making displays. Cruises are available aboard'Kuranda Riverboat' on the Barron River.
Kuranda provides the visitor with many shopping opportunities, all within easy walking distance around the CBD, including the markets which consist of a range of stalls with locally made arts and produce. Kuranda has numerous art galleries and specialty shops offering a wide selection of locally made and designed art and handicrafts as well as a variety of sidewalk cafes and restaurants. Kuranda is a major centre for opals and didgeridoos, it was the first home of the Tjapukai Indigenous Dance Theatre, established by former New Yorkers Judy and Don Freeman, together with indigenous dancer and actor, David Hudson. The theatre is now located adjacent the Skyrail Terminal at Smithfield. Mareeba Shire Council operate a public library in Kuranda at 18-22 Arara Street; the Kuranda Historical Society was established in 2017 and seeks to collect and display items of historical interest relating to the Kuranda area. The Kuranda Media Association publish a monthly newspaper called "The Kuranda Paper"; the Kuranda branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall on the corner of Barang Street and Thongon Street.
Kuranda District State School and Kuranda State High School amalgamated in 2007 to form Kuranda District State College. The nocturnal frog species Litoria myola is only found in the vicinity of a few creeks near Kuranda; the area boasts a rich diversity of invertebrate fauna including Australi
"White beech" redirects here. This may refer to the related Gmelina arborea outside Australia. Gmelina leichhardtii known as the white beech is a rainforest tree of eastern Australia. Scattered individuals or small groups of trees occur from the Illawarra district of New South Wales to near Proserpine in tropical Queensland; the white beech or grey teak is a fast-growing tree, growing on volcanic and alluvial soils in areas of moderate to high rainfall. It grows on poorer sedimentary soils in fire free areas. White beech may be seen in Australian rainforests, their status is considered "uncommon". Unlike the Australian red cedar, the white beech has not recovered well after logging in the 19th and 20th centuries. Ferdinand von Mueller described the white beech as Vitex leichhardtii in 1862, from collections near Myall Creek by Ludwig Leichhardt and Clarence River by Dr. Hermann Beckler. George Bentham reassigned it to the genus Gmelina in his 1870 Flora Australiensis; the genus name honours German botanist Johann Georg Gmelin, while the species name honours Leichhardt, who explored and collected specimens from the country's east and north.
White beech was classified in the Verbenaceae, but its genus and many others have been transferred into the mint family Lamiaceae. White beech is the standard trade name for the timber, as well as a common name for the species, due to the similarity of the wood to that of European beech. Other common names include grey teak. Mature specimens of white beech reach 15 to 30 m tall, though exceptional individuals can reach 60 m tall, live for centuries; the base of the largest trees exceeds two and a half metres in diameter, the trunk is cylindrical with a flanged but not buttressed base. The flanging can extend up the bole; the bark varies from light to dark grey and has a scaled surface with vertical cracks marking sections of trunk. There can be burls. Considered by some to be a semi-deciduous species, losing part of the canopy in late spring. Green leaves are always found at the base of the tree, assisting with tree identification. Branchlets are thick, grey or brown and hairy, with visible leaf scars.
The new shoots are densely covered in fine fur. The mature leaves are ovate, 8 to 18 cm long. Hairy and veiny on the underside. Midrib and net veins distinct on the upper surface, conspicuously raised and distinct beneath due to the covering of fawn hairs. Lateral veins eight to ten and forking near the margin at 45 degrees to the midrib. Juvenile leaves are toothed. Purple and white flowers form in late spring and summer; the fruit are ripe from February to May. The main range is from the Blackall Range and the vicinity of Maleny south through to the New South Wales south coast; the locality of Broughtonvale, near Berry, New South Wales is considered by Anders Bofeldt as the southern limit of natural distribution. However, D. J. Boland considers the far more southerly Clyde River, New South Wales near Batemans Bay to be the southern limit of distribution. There are isolated occurrences in central-northern Queensland in the Eungella Range and on Mt Elliot near Townsville. North of Sydney, it was last recorded in the Wyong area in 1916.
White beech is rare and endangered in the Illawarra region. It is that fewer than one hundred trees remain in some thirty different sites in the Illawarra. White beech trees in the Illawarra may be seen by the Minnamurra Falls rainforest walk in Budderoo National Park, these trees are not signposted, it is found on mountain slopes as well as alluvial soils along riverbanks. On Fraser Island it is found on sand hills; the usual habitat is subtropical rainforest, where trees occur singly or in small stands of up to five individuals scattered through the forest, associated with such trees as yellow carabeen, red carabeen, Queensland kauri pine, golden sassafras, black booyong and white booyong, as well as members of the genus Flindersia. The fruit is consumed by the topknot wompoo fruit dove. Around Easter time, seeds mature within a fleshy bluish or purple drupe 2 to 3 centimetres in diameter; these are eaten by the wompoo fruit dove, paradise riflebird, topknot pigeon and other large fruit eating birds.
The fruit contains a hard wooden capsule. The capsule contains each with a viable or non viable seed; the fleshy aril needs to be removed. Regular watering and drying of the capsules seems to improve germination results. Germination is unreliable, taking between six months and four years. Seedlings appear in late spring and summer. A successful technique for germinating white beech is to collect new purple fruit. Cut off the fleshy aril. Place the wooden "nut" in the sun for a few days; when cracks appear around the emerging seed compartments, place it in a large container. Ensure the capsule receives adequate warmth in the cooler months. Trying to open the hard nut in the middle of the fruit, or hitting the capsule with a hammer has proven useless; the best technique appears to be the removal of the outer blue/purple flesh. Exposing the inner capsule to sunlight and moisture; the sunlight cracks the outer covering of the capsule. The moisture seeps through the outer shell; when the seed is germinated, it pushes open the cells of the capsule.
The majority of capsules will not produce seedlings. A large quantity of capsules is advised for propagation; the timber is greyish without significant markings. However, it splits
A cinder cone is a steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments, such as either volcanic clinkers, volcanic ash, or cinder, built around a volcanic vent. They consist of loose pyroclastic debris formed by explosive eruptions or lava fountains from a single cylindrical, vent; as the gas-charged lava is blown violently into the air, it breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as either cinders, clinkers, or scoria around the vent to form a cone, symmetrical. Most cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit; the rock fragments called cinders or scoria, are glassy and contain numerous gas bubbles "frozen" into place as magma exploded into the air and cooled quickly. Cinder cones range in size from tens to hundreds of meters tall. Cinder cones are made of pyroclastic material. Many cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit. During the waning stage of a cinder-cone eruption, the magma has lost most of its gas content; this gas-depleted magma does not fountain but oozes into the crater or beneath the base of the cone as lava.
Lava issues from the top because the loose, uncemented cinders are too weak to support the pressure exerted by molten rock as it rises toward the surface through the central vent. Because it contains so few gas bubbles, the molten lava is denser than the bubble-rich cinders. Thus, it burrows out along the bottom of the cinder cone, lifting the less dense cinders like a cork on water, advances outward, creating a lava flow around the cone's base; when the eruption ends, a symmetrical cone of cinders sits at the center of a surrounding pad of lava. If the crater is breached, the remaining walls form an amphitheatre or horseshoe shape around the vent. Cinder cones are found on the flanks of shield volcanoes and calderas. For example, geologists have identified nearly 100 cinder cones on the flanks of Mauna Kea, a shield volcano located on the island of Hawaii; these cones are referred to as'scoria cones' and'cinder and spatter cones.'The most famous cinder cone, grew out of a corn field in Mexico in 1943 from a new vent.
Eruptions continued for nine years, built the cone to a height of 424 meters, produced lava flows that covered 25 km². The Earth's most active cinder cone is Cerro Negro in Nicaragua, it is part of a group of four young cinder cones NW of Las Pilas volcano. Since its initial eruption in 1850, it has erupted more than 20 times, most in 1995 and 1999. Based on satellite images it was suggested that cinder cones might occur on other terrestrial bodies in the solar system too, they were reported on the flanks of Pavonis Mons in Tharsis, in the region of Hydraotes Chaos on the bottom of the Coprates Chasma, or in the volcanic field Ulysses Colles. It is suggested that domical structures in Marius Hills might represent lunar cinder cones; the size and shape of cinder cones depend on environmental properties as different gravity and/or atmospheric pressure might change the dispersion of ejected scoria particles. For example, cinder cones on Mars seem to be more than two times wider than terrestrial analogues as lower atmospheric pressure and gravity enable wider dispersion of ejected particles over a larger area.
Therefore, it seems that erupted amount of material is not sufficient on Mars for the flank slopes to attain the angle of repose and Martian cinder cones seem to be ruled by ballistic distribution and not by material redistribution on flanks as typical on Earth. Some cinder cones are monogenetic -- the result of a never-to-be-repeated eruption. Parícutin in Mexico, Diamond Head, Koko Head, Punchbowl Crater and some cinder cones on Mauna Kea are monogenetic cinder cones. Monogenetic eruptions can last for more than 10 years. Parícutin erupted from 1943 to 1952. List of cinder cones Volcanic cone – Landform of ejecta from a volcanic vent piled up in a conical shape Capulin Volcano National Monument
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
A cereal is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain, composed of the endosperm and bran. The term may refer to the resulting grain itself. Cereal grain crops are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop and are therefore staple crops. Edible grains from other plant families, such as buckwheat and chia, are referred to as pseudocereals. In their natural, whole grain form, cereals are a rich source of vitamins, carbohydrates, fats and protein; when processed by the removal of the bran, germ, the remaining endosperm is carbohydrate. In some developing countries, grain in the form of rice, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed countries, cereal consumption is still substantial; the word cereal is derived from the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. Agriculture allowed for the support of an increased population, leading to larger societies and the development of cities, it created the need for greater organization of political power, as decisions had to be made regarding labor and harvest allocation and access rights to water and land.
Agriculture bred immobility, as populations settled down for long periods of time, which led to the accumulation of material goods. Early Neolithic villages show evidence of the development of processing grain; the Levant is the ancient home of the ancestors of wheat and peas, in which many of these villages were based. There is evidence of the cultivation of figs in the Jordan Valley as long as 11,300 years ago, cereal production in Syria 9,000 years ago. During the same period, farmers in China began to farm rice and millet, using man-made floods and fires as part of their cultivation regimen. Fiber crops were domesticated as early as food crops, with China domesticating hemp, cotton being developed independently in Africa and South America, Western Asia domesticating flax; the use of soil amendments, including manure, fish and ashes, appears to have begun early, developed independently in several areas of the world, including Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley and Eastern Asia. The first cereal grains were domesticated by early primitive humans.
About 8,000 years ago, they were domesticated by ancient farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region. Emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, barley were three of the so-called Neolithic founder crops in the development of agriculture. Around the same time and rices were starting to become domesticated in East Asia. Sorghum and millets were being domesticated in sub-Saharan West Africa. During the second half of the 20th century there was a significant increase in the production of high-yield cereal crops worldwide wheat and rice, due to an initiative known as the Green Revolution; the strategies developed by the Green Revolution focused on fending off starvation and were successful in raising overall yields of cereal grains, but did not give sufficient relevance to nutritional quality. These modern high yield-cereal crops have low quality proteins, with essential amino acid deficiencies, are high in carbohydrates, lack balanced essential fatty acids, vitamins and other quality factors. While each individual species has its own peculiarities, the cultivation of all cereal crops is similar.
Most are annual plants. Wheat, triticale, oats and spelt are the "cool-season" cereals; these are hardy plants that cease to grow in hot weather. The "warm-season" cereals are prefer hot weather. Barley and rye are the hardiest cereals, able to overwinter in Siberia. Many cool-season cereals are grown in the tropics. However, some are only grown in cooler highlands, where it may be possible to grow multiple crops per year. For the past few decades, there has been increasing interest in perennial grain plants; this interest developed due to advantages in erosion control, reduced need for fertiliser, potential lowered costs to the farmer. Though research is still in early stages, The Land Institute in Salina, Kansas has been able to create a few cultivars that produce a good crop yield; the warm-season cereals are grown in tropical lowlands year-round and in temperate climates during the frost-free season. Rice is grown in flooded fields, though some strains are grown on dry land. Other warm climate cereals, such as sorghum, are adapted to arid conditions.
Cool-season cereals are well-adapted to temperate climates. Most varieties of a particular species are either spring types. Winter varieties are sown in the autumn and grow vegetatively become dormant during winter, they mature in late spring or early summer. This cultivation system makes optimal use of water and frees the land for another crop early in the growing season. Winter varieties do not flower until springtime because they require vernalization: exposure to low temperatures for a genetically determined length of time. Where winters are too warm for vernalization or exceed the hardiness of the crop, farmers grow spring varieties. Spring cereals are planted in early springtime and mature that same summer, without vernalization. Spring cereals require more irrigation and yield less than winter cereals. Once the cereal plants have grown their seeds, they have completed their life cycle; the plants di