The athletic nickname, or equivalently athletic moniker, of a university or college within the United States is the name adopted by that institution for at least the members of its athletic teams. As a matter of engendering school spirit, the institution either or unofficially uses this moniker of the institution's athletic teams as a nickname to refer to people associated with the institution its current students, but often its alumni, its faculty, its administration as well; this practice at the university and college tertiary higher-education level has proven so popular that it extended to the high school secondary-education level in the United States and in recent years to the primary-education level as well. In the United States, multiple recurring themes have appeared over time for choosing a school's athletic nickname. In all cases, the institution chooses an athletic nickname with an overtly positive goal in mind, where that goal reflects the character of the institution—either a established characteristic or a characteristic hoped for as a goal henceforth.
By choosing an abstract concept as its athletic moniker, the institution wants to inspire its student-athletes on and off the field to achieve success that the abstract concept represents. Examples: Cornell Big Red, Stanford Cardinal, UIC Flames, Tulane Green Wave. By choosing an animal, the school wants to emphasize the instillation of fear of losing athletic competitions to the institution's teams, such as through an fierce or stealthy animal; when the school chooses an animal as its athletic nickname in the plural or as a collective noun for a group of that animal typically, the school has that animal as its mascot, either named with a proper noun or generically referred to without a proper noun. Examples: Michigan Wolverines, Oregon Ducks, Princeton Tigers, Iowa Hawkeyes, California Golden Bears, Minnesota Golden Gophers. By choosing a collection that represents a summary of the institution's students or of its history; such a collection may refer to an ethnicity. A portion of athletic monikers that fall into this collection category started as derogatory epithets from others, but as an act of defiance, the school embraced the term as a rallying cry to overcome the term's negative origin.
Because a collection is hard to represent or iconify, when a school chooses a collection as its athletic nickname, the school chooses a related but different mascot that symbolizes that collection. Examples: Notre Dame Fighting Irish, Oklahoma Sooners, Purdue Boilermakers, Illinois Fighting Illini, Texas A&M Aggies A small number of schools choose an archetypical heroic person as their official athletic nickname; this person may be a graduate of the school, viewed as embodying the school's mission or an archetypal person, symbolic of the school's area, such as the West Virginia University Mountaineer. In religiously affiliated schools, this person may be a historical person in the religion, bestowed an official designation in that religion, such as a saint in Roman Catholic or Orthodox Christianity. Likenesses to Native Americans were at one time popular athletic monikers for schools that adopted them in the 19th or early 20th century. In recent years, some Native American organizations have protested the unlicensed use of likenesses of Native Americans related to team names, team logos, athletic monikers and cheering techniques.
The granting of overtly expressed written licenses by Native American organizations to use likenesses of Native Americans in these ways is rare, although not unheard of. In one notable example, two major groups of the Seminole nation, the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, have expressly given Florida State University permission to use the nickname "Seminoles" and certain Seminole imagery. Central Michigan University has a similar arrangement with the Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe to use the name "Chippewas"; because of protests from some Native American organizations, some schools have changed their athletic moniker and mascot and cheering practices without significant objection once the issue was raised if such offense toward a group of people was viewed as incompatible with that school's stated mission or if the threat of legal action was too burdensome. Other schools or their student bodies have defended their use of Native American likenesses if the institution views the use of Native American likenesses as respectful or so intimately tied with history to be inseparable from the institution, such as if the name of institution derives from the name of a tribe.
Still other schools have embarked on a series of failed attempts to find a replacement. Certain nicknames become common. However, some nicknames are unique to that school/team such as Demon Deacons or Fords. List of college sports team nicknames List of college sports teams in the United States with different nicknames for men's and women's teams Lists of nicknames – nickname list articles on Wikipedia
Sir Proby Thomas Cautley, KCB, English engineer and palaeontologist, born in Stratford St Mary, Suffolk, is best known for conceiving and supervising the construction of the Ganges canal during East India Company rule in India. The canal stretches some 350 miles between its headworks at Haridwar and, after bifurcation near Aligarh, its confluences with the Ganges river mainstem in Kanpur and the Yamuna river in Etawah. At the time of completion, it had the greatest discharge of any irrigation canal in the world. Proby Cautley was educated at Charterhouse School, followed by the East India Company's Military Seminary at Addiscombe. After less than a year there, he was commissioned second lieutenant and dispatched to India, joining the Bengal Presidency artillery in Calcutta. In 1825, he assisted Captain Robert Smith, the engineer in charge of constructing the Eastern Yamuna canal called the Doab canal, he was in charge of this canal for 12 years between 1831 and 1843. By 1836, he was Superintendent-General of Canals.
In 1840 Cautley reported on the proposed Ganges canal, for the irrigation of the country between the rivers Ganges and Yamuna, his most important work. Cautley began working towards his dream of building a Ganges canal, spent six months walking and riding through the area taking each measurement himself, he was confident. There were many obstacles and objections to his project financial, but Cautley persevered and persuaded the British East India Company to back him; this project was sanctioned in 1841, but the work was not begun till 1843, then Cautley found himself hampered in its execution by the opposition of Lord Ellenborough. Digging of the canal began in April 1842. Cautley had to make brick kiln and mortar, he was opposed by the Hindu priests at Haridwar, who felt that the waters of the holy river Ganges would be imprisoned. He further appeased the priests by undertaking the repair of bathing ghats along the river, he inaugurated the dam by the worship of Lord Ganesh, the god of good beginnings.
Construction of the dam faced many complications, including the problem of the mountainous streams that threatened the canal. Near Roorkee, the land fell away and Cautley had to build an aqueduct to carry the canal for half a kilometre; as a result, at Roorkee the canal is 25 metres higher than the original river. From 1845 to 1848 he was absent in England owing to ill-health, on his return to India he was appointed director of canals in the North-Western Provinces; when the canal formally opened on 8 April 1854, its main channel was 348 miles long, its branches 306 miles long and the various tributaries over 3,000 miles long. Over 767,000 acres in 5,000 villages were irrigated, he was instrumental in the establishment of the Roorkee college, named the Thomason College of Civil Engineering in 1854 and now known as IIT Roorkee. One of the twelve student hostels of IIT Roorkee is named after him. Cautley was involved in Dr Hugh Falconer's fossil expeditions in the Siwalik Hills, he presented a large collection of mammalian fossils, including hippopotamus and crocodile fossils indicating that the area had once been a swampland.
Other animal remains that he found here included the sabre-toothed tiger, Elephis ganesa, the bones of a fossil ostrich and the remains of giant cranes and tortoises. He contributed numerous memoirs, some written in collaboration with Falconer, to the Proceedings of the Bengal Asiatic Society and the Geological Society of London on the geology and fossil remains of the Sivalik Hills. Cautley's writings indicated his varied interests, he wrote on a submerged city, twenty feet underground, in the Doab: on the coal and lignite in the Himalayas. In 1860 he published a full account of the making of the Ganges canal. In 1837, he received Wollaston medal of the Geological Survey of Great Britain; the plant genus. A student hostel in Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee is named after him. After the Ganges canal was opened in 1854 he went back to England, where he was made KCB, from 1858 to 1868 he occupied a seat on the Council of India, he died at Sydenham, near London, on 25 January 1871. Cautley, Proby T..
Report on the Ganges Canal Works: from their commencement until the opening of the Canal in 1854. London: Smith, Elder. Cautley, Proby Thomas. Ganges canal: a disquisition on the heads of the Ganges of Jumna canals, North-western Provinces. London. Brown, Joyce, "A Memoir of Colonel Sir Proby Cautley, F. R. S. 1802–1871, Engineer and Palaeontologist", Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 34: 185–225, doi:10.1098/rsnr.1980.0008, JSTOR 531808 Stone, Canal Irrigation in British India: Perspectives on Technological Change in a Peasant Economy and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 392, ISBN 0-521-52663-9 Vibart, H. M.. Addiscombe: its heroes and men of note. Westminster: Archibald Constable. Pp. 333–6
The Henry Fork is a tributary of the West Fork Little Kanawha River, 21.8 miles long, in west-central West Virginia in the United States. Via the West Fork and the Little Kanawha and Ohio rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River, draining an area of 91 square miles in a rural region on the unglaciated portion of the Allegheny Plateau; the Henry Fork rises southeast of the community of Tariff in southeastern Roane County and flows northward, through Tariff and Linden. From the mouth of its tributary the Beech Fork, it flows along the boundary of Roane and Calhoun counties for the remainder of its course, to its mouth at Rocksdale, where it flows into the West Fork from the south. List of rivers of West Virginia