SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Atlanta

Atlanta is the capital and most populous city in the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2018 population of 498,044, it is the 37th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.9 million people and the ninth largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. Portions of the city extend eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminus of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point among multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".

During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta+" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include aerospace, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."

Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. The Atlanta area was first settled by the Cherokee tribes to trade with the English. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points. A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as Terminus, Thrasherville, after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed Marthasville to honor Governor Wilson Lumpkin's daughter Martha.

J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a strategic hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman. On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate.

On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt; the work attracted many new residents. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta had surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center, a black college made up of units for men and women, had established Atlanta as a center for higher education. In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world.

During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta enjoyed a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline grew taller with the construction of the Equitable, Flatiron and Candler buildings. Sweet Auburn emerged as a center of black commerce; the period was marked by strife and tragedy. Increased racial tensions led to the Atlanta Race Riot of 1906, when whites atta

2012 Montreal shooting

On the night of September 4, 2012, the Parti Québécois won the Quebec general election, with a minority government. Party leader Pauline Marois was partway through her victory speech to her supporters, gathered at the Métropolis in downtown Montreal, when a masked man named Richard Henry Bain approached the building and opened fire with a semi-automatic rifle, killing one stage technician and injuring another. Bain attempted to set fire to the building, but was tackled and apprehended by Montreal police, in a nearby alley. In 2016, Bain was convicted of second-degree murder. Bain, wearing a blue bathrobe and black balaclava approached the back door of the Métropolis theatre with a 9mm CZ 75 semiautomatic pistol and a Česká Zbrojovka-858 semiautomatic rifle. Initial eyewitness reports claimed the rifle was an AK-47 assault rifle, similar in appearance to the semiautomatic CZ-858. Bain opened fire, killing a 48-year-old male stage technician, his 27-year-old colleague, Dave Courage, was critically wounded.

Marois was whisked away from the stage without harm by her bodyguards, the suspect was apprehended and arrested, shortly after he had started a fire at the back entrance of the building. While being led to the police vehicle during his arrest, the suspect called out "The English are waking up!" and "It's going to be fucking payback." Although in 2012 it was reported the shooter used a Molotov cocktail, it was alleged Bain poured gasoline on a door and ignited it with a road flare. Several families living in the area had to be evacuated out of their homes due to the fire, doused; the Sûreté du Québec announced that the shooting would be investigated as a potential attempted assassination on Marois, the then-premier-designate. Richard Henry Bain, 62, was an evangelical Baptist from La Conception, Quebec. Police searched Bain's vehicle and found a 9mm Beretta pistol, a.357 Magnum revolver, a.22-calibre semi-automatic rifle, more lighter fluid and gas canisters that could have been used for the fire.

Bain faced 16 charges, including three of attempted murder. In several of the multiple court hearings, Bain claimed. After losing his legal aid lawyer, he looked for a new lawyer and read up on the criminal code to represent himself, he had a hearing scheduled on March 12. With Alan Guttman as his new defence lawyer, Bain's trial was delayed to May 2016 while Guttman sought an expert to perform another psychiatric evaluation of Bain. Guttman claimed that Bain was on anti-depressants with side effects on personality and hallucinations. During the trial, Guttman argued. However, forensic psychiatrist Dr. Joel Watts, called by the Crown, testified Bain understood his actions were wrong. On August 23, 2016 Bain was found guilty of second-degree murder. Sentencing arguments were heard in September 2016. On November 18, 2016 Bain was sentenced to life imprisonment without eligibility for parole until he has served twenty years of that sentence. Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper stated that he was'shocked and saddened' by the shooting, that "such violence has no place in Canada".

At a party caucus meeting in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, New Democratic Party Leader Thomas Mulcair issued the following statement: "Our first thoughts are with the victims and their families and those that were close to them. We're going to continue to let the police do their work before commenting any further on these tragic events." On September 6, it was reported. The funeral was held on September 10, with Marois and former premier Bernard Landry among the dignitaries in attendance. Équipe Spectra organized a benefit concert in memory of Blanchette, with funds to support Blanchette's four-year-old daughter

Gaming Act 1845

The Gaming Act 1845 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Act's principal provision was to deem a wager unenforceable as a legal contract; the Act received Royal Assent on 8 August 1845. Sections 17 and 18, though amended, remained in force until 1 September 2007. Increasing concern as to the damaging social effects of gambling gave rise to a select committee of the House of Commons whose recommendations were implemented by the Act; the policy of the Act was to discourage betting. However, following a 2001 report by Sir Alan Budd, in 2002, the UK government accepted that wagers should cease to be unenforceable as contracts, seeking to introduce a new liberalised regulatory regime in order to encourage the gambling industry. Sections 1 to 9 and 15 and 16 and 19 to 24 and 26, the First and Second Schedules, were repealed by Part I of Schedule 6 to the Betting and Gaming Act 1960. Sections 10 to 14 and the Third Schedule were repealed by section 1 of, the Schedule to, the Billiards Act 1987 Section 25 was repealed by Part XIX of Schedule 1 to the Statute Law Act 1976 This Act was repealed for Northern Ireland by article 187 of, Schedule 21 to, the Betting, Gaming and Amusements Order 1985.

The whole Act was repealed in the Republic of Ireland by the Gaming and Lotteries Act 1956. This Act was excluded by section 16 of the Gaming Act 1968. Section 1 repealed the Unlawful Games Act 1541, as to so much whereby any game of mere skill, such as bowling, cloyshcayls, half bowl, tennis or the like, was declared an unlawful game, which enacted any penalty for playing at any such game of skill as aforesaid, which enacts any penalty for lacking bows or arrows, or for not making and continuing butts, which regulates the making, selling, or using of bows and arrows, requires the mayors, bailiffs and other head officers within every city and town within the Realm, to make search weekly, or at the farthest once a month, in all places where houses, plays, or places of dicing, carding, or gaming shall be suspected to be had and maintained, as makes it lawful for every master to license his or their servants, for every nobleman and other having manors, tenements, or other yearly profits for term of life, in his own right or in his wife's right, to the yearly value of an hundred pounds or above, to command, appoint, or license, by his or their discretion, his or their servants or family of his or their house or houses to play at cards, dice, or tables, or any unlawful game.

It provides such commandment, appointment, or licence shall not avail any person to exempt him from the danger or penalty of playing at any unlawful game or in any common gaming house. Section 15 repeals the following: Gaming Act 1664 16 Cha. 7 Gaming Act 1710 9 Ann, c. 19 as was not amended by Gaming Act 1835 5 & 6 Wil. 4 c. 41 Gaming Act 1744 18 Geo, 2 c.34* as relates to Gaming Act 1710 9 Ann c. 19 and * as renders any person liable to be indicted and punished for winning or losing, at play or by betting, at any one time, the sum or value of ten pounds, or within the space of twenty-four hours the sum or value of twenty pounds. This section created an offence. At the time of its repeal this section read:... every person who shall, by any fraud or unlawful device or ill practice in playing at or with cards, tables, or other game, or in bearing a part in the stakes, wages, or adventures, or in betting on the sides or hands of them that do play, or in wagering on the event of any game, pastime, or exercise, win from any other person to himself, or any other or others, any sum of money or valuable thing, shall - The words of enactment at the start were repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1891.

The words in square brackets were substituted for the words "be deemed guilty of obtaining such money or valuable thing from such other person by a false pretence, with intent to cheat or defraud such person of the same, being convicted thereof, shall be punished accordingly" by sections 33 and 36 of, Part III of Schedule 2 to, the Theft Act 1968. Two hundred pounds Section 32 of the Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 provided that the reference to two hundred pounds was to be construed as a reference to the prescribed sum; the following cases are relevant: R v Darley 1 Stark NP 359, 171 ER 497 Cooke v Stratford 13 M & W 379, 2 Dow & L 399, 4 LT 138a R v Hudson Bell CC 263 R v O'Connor and Brown 45 LT 512, 46 JP 214, 15 Cox 3 R v Moore, 10 Cr App R 54, CCA R v Lawler, 14 JP 561 R v Governor of Brixton Prison, ex parte Sjoland and Metzler 3 KB 568, 29 TLR 10, 77 JP 23 R v Leon KB 136, 30 Cr App R 120, 61 TLR 100, CCA R v Butler, 38 Cr App R 57, CCA R v Clucas and O'Rourke 1 WLR 244, 1 All ER 438, 43 Cr App R 98, 123 JP 203, CCA R v Harris and Turner 2 QB 442, 2 WLR 851, 2 All ER 294, 47 Cr App R 125, CCAIn 2005, Kwong Lee, Martin Fitz and Shuhal Miah were found guilty of cheating at roulette under this section.

This section concerned whether unpaid winnings accrued from gambling could be sued for in a court of law. The Act made it clear that they could not because winnings from gambling were to be treated as a "debt of honour" and as such could not be treated as a financial debt; the Act read: All contracts or agreements, whether by parole or in writing, by way of gaming or wagering, shall be null and void.