The Atlantic Forest is a South American forest that extends along the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the north to Rio Grande do Sul state in the south, inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina, where the region is known as Selva Misionera. The Atlantic Forest has ecoregions within the following biome categories: seasonal moist and dry broad-leaf tropical forests and subtropical grasslands and shrublands, mangrove forests; the Atlantic Forest is characterized by endemism. It was the first environment that the Portuguese colonists encountered over 500 years ago, when it was thought to have had an area of 1,000,000–1,500,000 km2, stretching an unknown distance inland. Over 85% of the original area has been deforested, threatening many plant and animal species with extinction; the Atlantic Forest region includes forests of several variations: Restinga is a forest type that grows on stabilized coastal dunes. Restinga Forests are closed canopy short forests with tree density.
Open Restinga is an open, savanna-like formation with scattered clumps of small trees and shrubs and an extensive layer of herbs and sedges. Seasonal tropical moist forests may receive more than 2000 mm of rain a year; these include Tropical Moist: Lowland Forests, Submontane Forest, Montane Forests. Tabuleiro forests are found over moist clay soils and Tabuleiro Savannas occur over faster-draining sand soils; these are humid areas. Further inland are the Atlantic dry forests, which form a transition between the arid Caatinga to the northeast and the Cerrado savannas to the east; these forests are lower in stature. These forests have between 700–1600 mm of precipitation annually with a distinct dry season; this includes Deciduous and Semideciduous Seasonal Forest each with their own lowland and montane regions. Montane forests are higher altitude wet forests across plateaus of southern Brazil; the Mussununga forests occur in northern Espirito Santo states. The Mussununga ecosystem ranges from grasslands to woodlands associated with sandy spodosols.
The word Mussununga is Amerindian Tupi-Guarani meaning wet white sand. Shrubby montane savannas occur at the highest elevations called Campo rupestre; the Atlantic Forest is unusual in that it extends as a true tropical rain forest to latitudes as far as 28°S. This is. In fact, the northern Zona da Mata of northeastern Brazil receives much more rainfall between May and August than during the southern summer; the geographic range of Atlantic Forest vary depending on institution that published them. Information on four most important boundaries as well as their union and intersection was reviewed in 2018. During glacial periods in the Pleistocene, the Atlantic Forest is known to have shrunk to small fragmented refugia in sheltered gullies, being separated by areas of dry forest or semi-deserts known as caatingas; some maps suggest the forest survived in moist pockets well away from the coastline where its endemic rainforest species mixed with much cooler-climate species. Unlike refugia for equatorial rainforests, the refuges for the Atlantic Forest have never been the product of detailed identification.
Despite having only 28% of native vegetation cover remaining, the Atlantic Forest remains extraordinarily lush in biodiversity and endemic species, many of which are threatened with extinction. 40 percent of its vascular plants and up to 60 percent of its vertebrates are endemic species, meaning they are found nowhere else in the world. The official threatened species list of Brazil contains over 140 terrestrial mammal species found in Atlantic Forest. In Paraguay there are 35 species listed as threatened, 22 species are listed as threatened in the interior portion of the Atlantic Forest of Argentina. Nearly 250 species of amphibians and mammals have become extinct due to the result of human activity in the past 400 years. Over 11,000 species of plants and animals are considered threatened today in the Atlantic Forest. Over 52% of the tree species and 92% of the amphibians are endemic to this area; the forest harbors around 20,000 species of plants, with 450 tree species being found in just one hectare in some occasions.
New species are continually being found in the Atlantic Forest. In fact, between 1990 and 2006 over a thousand new flowering plants were discovered. Furthermore, in 1990 researchers re-discovered a small population of the black-faced lion tamarin (Leontopithecus caissara thought to have been extinct. A new species of blonde capuchin, named for its distinguishing bright blonde hair, was discovered in northeastern Brazil at the Pernambuco Endemism Center in 2006. A species of endangered three-toed sloth, named the maned sloth because of its long hair, is endemic to the Atlantic Forest; the incorporation of modern human societies and their needs for forest resources has reduced the size of the Atlantic Forest, which has resulted in species impoverishment. 88% of the original forest habitat has been lost and replaced by human-modified landscapes including pastures and urban areas. This deforestation continues at up to 2.9 % in urban areas. Agriculture: A major portion of human land use in the Atlantic Rain Forest is for agriculture.
Re A 2 WLR 480 is a Court of Appeal decision on the separation of conjoined twins. The case raised several legal and religious dilemmas including whether it would be permissible to kill one of the children to save the other, whether it was permissible to act against the wishes of the twins' parents. Gracie and Rosie Attard, who were born on 8 August 2000, were conjoined twins who were joined at the abdomen. During legal proceedings, the twins were given the public pseudonyms Mary, respectively; the medical evidence indicated that Gracie was the stronger sibling, sustaining the life of Rosie. Rosie had only survived birth due to a shared common artery that enabled her sister Gracie to oxygenate blood for both twins. If surgically separated, Gracie had a 94 % survival rate. However, if they were left conjoined Gracie's health—which was rapidly deteriorating—was predicted to fail before they were six months old. Gracie's death would result in Rosie's. At first instance, Mr Justice Johnson was left to decide the case without any direct precedents to guide him but reasoned by analogy with Airedale NHS Trust v Bland where it was declared acceptable to remove life support.
Johnson ruled that separation would not be murder but a case of "passive euthanasia" in which food and hydration would be withdrawn. The Court of Appeal rejected this analysis but the three judges who presided over the case gave different legal reasoning. Lord Justice Alan Ward invoked the concept of self-defence suggesting that "If could speak she would protest, Stop it, you're killing me." Lord Justice Brooke relied upon R invoked necessity as a defence. Lord Justice Robert Walker focused upon the intention of the surgeons in concluding that surgery could go ahead; the 20-hour-long operation to separate the twins took place on 7 November 2000. As expected, Gracie survived Rosie died. Rosie's remains were buried on the Maltese island of Gozo. In 2014, when Gracie was 14 years old, she was living a reasonably normal life, had a younger sister, was thinking about studying to become a physician. Necessity in English law Text of the judgement in this case, the refusal of leave to appeal, from BAILII.
Court of Appeal judgment
The Canongate Myth Series is a series of novellas published by the independent Scottish publisher Canongate Books, in which ancient myths from various cultures are reimagined and rewritten. The project was conceived in 1999 by Jamie Byng, owner of Canongate, the first three titles in the series were published on 21 October 2005. Though the initial novellas received mixed-to-positive reviews, the project was heralded by many in the press as "bold" and "ambitious", with the tabloid Metro calling it "one of the most ambitious acts of mass storytelling in recent years"; the series is intended to have an international focus, with contributing authors that have included Russian writer Victor Pelevin and Israeli author David Grossman. The first title in the series, Karen Armstrong's A Short History of Myth, was published the same day in 33 countries and 28 languages, in what The Washington Post called "the biggest simultaneous publication ever"; as of 2008, nine books have been published in the series, with Byng hoping to publish 100.
Three titles were published in the United Kingdom on 1 November 2007: Binu and the Great Wall by Su Tong, Girl Meets Boy by Ali Smith, Where Three Roads Meet by Salley Vickers. Installments in the series are forthcoming from the authors A. S. Byatt, Chinua Achebe and Natsuo Kirino. Michel Faber's contribution, The Fire Gospel, was published in 2008. 2009 saw the publication of Baba Yaga Laid an Egg by Dubravka Ugrešić and The Hurricane Party by Klas Östergren. Orphans of Eldorado by Milton Hatoum and The Good Man Jesus and the Scoundrel Christ by Philip Pullman were published in 2010; this series was being published in hardback editions with a mass market paperback edition published but will now be published in either hardback or paperback. TheMyths.co.uk, Canongate Myths official site The Good Man Jesus and the Scoundrel Christ, official book page