Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia
The Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia is a twin-turboprop commuter airliner, produced by Embraer of Brazil. After the success of the EMB 110 Bandeirante, Embraer began the development of their first transport category airliner in 1974; the Family 12X comprised three models with modular concept designs: EMB 120 Araguaia, EMB 123 Tapajós and EMB 121 Xingu. EMB 121 was the sole 12X model produced. Araguaia's name was changed to Brasilia in 1979 at the official launching of the project, when at a CAAA convention at USA several suggestions from prospective operators were collected and incorporated to EMB 120 design. Thus, a new aircraft – no longer related to the 12X family – was launched. No common parts from EMB 121 Xingu were used, the capacity was revised from 24 to 30 seats. Designed to utilise the new 1500 shp Pratt & Whitney Canada PW115 turboprop, it was upgraded to the 1892 eshp PW118; the Brasilia attracted immediate interest from many regional airlines in the US. The size and ceiling allowed faster and more direct services around the US and Europe, compared to similar aircraft.
The first aircraft entered service with Atlantic Southeast Airlines in October 1985. The basic EMB 120RT was upgraded to the extended range EMB 120 ER, with older aircraft retrofitted via a Service Bulletin. Most of the EMB 120s were sold in the United States and other destinations in the Western Hemisphere; some European airlines such as Régional in France, Atlant-Soyuz Airlines in Russia, DAT in Belgium, DLT in Germany purchased EMB-120s, although the Angolan Air Force, for example, received new EMB 120s in 2007. Great Lakes Airlines operates six EMB 120s in its fleet, Ameriflight flies 10 as freighters. EMB 120 Basic production version. EMB 120ER Extended increased capacity version. All EMB-120ER S/Ns may be converted into the model EMB-120FC or into the model EMB-120QC. EMB 120FC Full cargo version. EMB 120QC Quick change cargo version. EMB 120RT Transport version. All EMB-120RT S/Ns may be converted into the model EMB-120ER. VC-97 VIP transport version for the Brazilian Air Force; as of July 2018, 105 Brasilias were in airline service: 45 in North/South America, 26 in Africa, 14 in Europe and 20 in Asia-Pacific, with major operators: 12: Ameriflight 10 Swiftair 7: Airnorth 8: Berry Aviation, InterCaribbean Airways 6: Freight Runners Express, Skippers Aviation, Freedom Airlines Express BrazilBrazilian Air Force 20 Transport UruguayUruguayan Air Force 1 Transport Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988-89General characteristics Crew: Two pilots and one flight attendant Capacity: 30 passengers Length: 20.00 m Wingspan: 19.78 m Height: 6.35 m Wing area: 39.4 m² Airfoil: NACA 23018 at root, NACA 23012 at tip Aspect ratio: 9.9:1 Empty weight: 7,070 kg Max.
Takeoff weight: 11,500 kg Maximum Landing Weight: 11,250 kg Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PW118/118A/118B turboprops, 1,340 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 608 km/h at 20,000 ft Cruise speed: 552 km/h Stall speed: 162 km/h, Range: 1,750 km Service ceiling: 9,085 m Take-off Run: 1,420 m minimumAvionics Collins 5-screen Electronic Flight Instrument System Dual autopilots On September 19, 1986, an Atlantic Southeast Airlines EMB 120RT struck a mountain near Mantiqueira, Brazil while being delivered to Atlantic Southeast, killing all five on board. On December 21, 1987, an Embraer 120 Brazilia operated by Air Littoral for Air France crashed in a forest during a wrong approach of Bordeaux–Mérignac Airport. All the 16 occupants died On July 8, 1988, Brazilian Air Force Embraer EMB 120RT Brasília FAB-2001 crashed during an engine-out landing at São José dos Campos. Five of the 9 occupants died. On April 5, 1991, Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 2311 operating for Delta Connection crashed on approach to Glynco Jetport in Brunswick, Georgia.
The crash claimed the lives of all twenty-three people on board, including former U. S. Senator John Tower of Texas and astronaut Sonny Carter; this was due to propeller control failure. On September 11, 1991, Continental Express Flight 2574, broke up in flight and crashed at Eagle Lake, killing all 14 passengers and crew members; the NTSB determined that missing screws on the horizontal stabilizer led to part of it detaching from the aircraft. On August 21, 1995, one of the blades on Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 529's number-one propeller sheared off tearing the left engine from its mount and increasing drag on the left side, it crashed in a field near Georgia. Of the twenty-nine people on board, ten died. On January 9, 1997, Comair Flight 3272 crashed in Michigan. All of the 29 passengers and crew died; the probable cause was in-flight icing. On May 21, 1997, SkyWest Airlines Flight 724, an Embraer EMB-120, experienced a total loss of engine power to the right engine and associated engine fire, followed by a total loss of all airplane hydraulic systems, after takeoff from San Diego International-Lindbergh Field, San Diego, California.
The airplane sustained substantial damage. The 2 pilots, 1 flight attendant, 14 passengers were not injured. Skywest Airlines, Inc. was operating the airplane as a scheduled, passenger fl
Cable News Network is an American news-based pay television channel owned by WarnerMedia News & Sports, a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. CNN was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, studios in Washington, D. C. and Los Angeles. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on subscription providers throughout Canada. As of July 2015, CNN is available to about 96,374,000 pay-television households in the United States.
Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories. The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the executive vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channel's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, specialized closed-circuit channels; the company has 42 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warner's eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts.
The channel, which became known as CNN Headline News and is now known as HLN focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours. The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three" American networks for the first time in its history due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett; the moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows: This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside.... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated.... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky. Unable to broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS news anchor Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II.
Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide. The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of obscure reporters. In 2000, media scholar and director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, Robert Thompson, stated that having turned 20, CNN was now the "old guard." Shaw, known for his live-from-Bagdhad reporting during the Gulf War, became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film Three Kings. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War. Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.
CNN was the first cable news channel. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event, she broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:This just in. You are looking at a disturbing live shot there; that is the World Trade Center, we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story calling our sources and trying to figure out what happened, but something devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan; that is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center. Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employe
Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport
Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport known as Atlanta Airport, Hartsfield, or Hartsfield–Jackson, is an international airport 7 miles south of downtown Atlanta, Georgia. It is named after former Atlanta mayors William B. Maynard Jackson; the airport has 192 gates: 40 international. ATL has five parallel runways; the airport has international service within North America and to South America, Central America, Europe and Asia. As an international gateway to the United States, Hartsfield–Jackson ranks seventh. Many of the nearly one million flights are domestic flights. Atlanta has been the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 2000, by number of landings and take-offs every year since 2005 except 2014. Hartsfield–Jackson held its ranking as the world's busiest airport in 2012, both in passengers and number of flights, by accommodating 100 million passengers and 950,119 flights. In 2017, it remained the busiest airport in the world with 104 million passengers. Hartsfield–Jackson is the primary hub of Delta Air Lines, is a focus city for low-cost carriers Frontier Airlines, Southwest Airlines, Spirit Airlines.
With just over 1,000 flights a day to 225 domestic and international destinations, the Delta hub is the world's largest hub. Delta Air Lines flew 75.4% of the airport's passengers in February 2016, Southwest flew 9.2%, American Airlines flew 2.5%. In addition to hosting Delta's corporate headquarters, Hartsfield–Jackson is the home of Delta's Technical Operations Center, the airline's primary maintenance and overhaul arm; the airport is in unincorporated areas of Fulton and Clayton counties, but it spills into the city limits of Atlanta, College Park, Hapeville. The airport's domestic terminal is served by MARTA's Red and Gold rail lines. Hartsfield–Jackson began with a five-year, rent-free lease on 287 acres, an abandoned auto racetrack named The Atlanta Speedway; the lease was signed on April 16, 1925, by Mayor Walter Sims, who committed the city to develop it into an airfield. As part of the agreement, the property was renamed Candler Field after its former owner, Coca-Cola tycoon and former Atlanta mayor Asa Candler.
The first flight into Candler Field was September 15, 1926, a Florida Airways mail plane flying from Jacksonville, Florida. In May 1928, Pitcairn Aviation began service followed in June 1930 by Delta Air Service; those two airlines, now known as Eastern Air Lines and Delta Air Lines would both use Atlanta as their chief hubs. The airport's weather station became the official location for Atlanta's weather observations September 1, 1928, records by the National Weather Service, it was a busy airport from its inception and at the end of 1930 it was third behind New York City and Chicago for regular daily flights with sixteen arriving and departing. Candler Field's first control tower opened March 1939; the March 1939 Official Aviation Guide shows fourteen weekday airline departures: ten Eastern and four Delta. In October 1940, the U. S. government declared it a military airfield and the United States Army Air Forces operated Atlanta Army Airfield jointly with Candler Field. The Air Force used the airport to service many types of transient combat aircraft.
During World War II the airport doubled in size and set a record of 1,700 takeoffs and landings in a single day, making it the nation's busiest in terms of flight operation. Atlanta Army Airfield closed after the war. In 1942 Candler Field was renamed Atlanta Municipal Airport and by 1948, more than one million passengers passed through a war surplus hangar that served as a terminal building. Delta and Eastern had extensive networks from ATL, though Atlanta had no nonstop flights beyond Texas, St Louis and Chicago until 1961. Southern Airways appeared at ATL after the war and had short-haul routes around the Southeast until 1979. In 1957 Atlanta saw its first jet airliner: a prototype Sud Aviation Caravelle, touring the country arrived from Washington D. C; the first scheduled turbine airliners were Capital Viscounts in June 1956. The first trans-Atlantic flight was the Delta/Pan Am interchange DC-8 to Europe via Washington starting in 1964. Nonstops to Europe started in 1978 and to Asia in 1992–93.
Atlanta claimed to be the country's busiest airport, with more than two million passengers passing through in 1957 and, between noon and 2 p.m. each day, it became the world's busiest airport. Chicago Midway had 414 weekday departures, including 48 between 12:00 and 2:00 PM. In 1957, Atlanta was the country's ninth-busiest airline airport by flight count and about the same by passenger count; that year work began on a $21 million terminal that opened May 3, 1961. It could handle over six million travelers a year. In March 1962 the longest runway was 7,860 feet. In 1971 the airport was named William B. Hartsfield Atlanta Airport after former Atlanta mayor William B. Hartsfield, who had died that year; the name change took effect on February 28. Later
Gulfport–Biloxi International Airport
Gulfport–Biloxi International Airport is a joint civil–military public-use airport three nautical miles northeast of the central business district of Gulfport, a city in Harrison County, United States. It serves the Gulf Coast area; this airport is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a primary commercial service airport. As per Federal Aviation Administration records, the airport had 487,907 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 411,978 enplanements in 2009, 325,437 emplacements in 2014. Despite its title, all scheduled commercial passenger flights at the airport are domestic flights only; the airport was built in 1942 by the United States Army Air Forces as a training base for Air Corps Flying Training Command. Gulfport Army Airfield opened on July 7, the Eastern Technical Training Command conducted technical training and basic training unit transferred to Third Air Force on March 31, 1944 with joint use by Technical Training Command for marine training of Emergency Rescue School at Keesler Army Airfield.
With the end of the war and the drawdown of the military, Gulfport AAF was placed into reserve status on January 31, 1946. Gulfport Field was declared excess by the Air Force and conveyed by the War Assets Administration to the City of Gulfport in 1949 for use as a civil airport; the city negotiated airline service contracts with Southern Airways and National Airlines to provide passenger and cargo service beginning in the early 1950s. Due to the large expansion of the United States Air Force as a result of the Cold War, a new lease was obtained for military use of the airport and Gulfport Air Force Base was opened as a joint-use civil–military facility. Gulfport AFB was closed as an active Air Force installation and its military facilities were transferred to the Mississippi Air National Guard, with the airport remaining a joint-use airport and Air National Guard base. Although no military aircraft are permanently assigned, the base serves as the home of the Gulfport Combat Readiness Training Center.
Through the late 1970s, Southern Airways continued as the primary airline, followed by successors Republic Airlines and Northwest Airlines into the 1990s. Gulfport–Biloxi International Airport covers an area of 1,400 acres at an elevation of 28 feet above mean sea level, it has two runways: 14/32 is 9,002 by 150 feet with an asphalt and concrete surface. For the 12-month period ending January 31, 2018, the airport had 48,868 aircraft operations, an average of 134 per day: 52% military, 26% general aviation, 8% air taxi, 14% scheduled commercial. At that time there were 29 aircraft based at this airport: 23 single-engine, 1 jet, 1 multi-engine, 3 helicopter, 1 military. A 40,000-square-foot cargo facility is at Gulfport–Biloxi International Airport, it includes 20,000 square feet of chiller space, 20,000 square feet of cargo sorting and distribution space, 6,000 square feet of office space. Airside access from the runway system has been designed with efficiency in mind; the ramp can facilitate two MD11s, B747s.
The area is expandable with 120 acres reserved for air cargo on airport property. The airport was closed for repairs following severe damage by Hurricane Katrina on August 29, 2005. On August 30, 2005 reopened the Airfield to aircraft 1st responder flights and on September 8, 2005, the airport reopened for commercial flights; the airport underwent extensive renovation completed in 2007. FAA Airport Diagram, effective March 28, 2019 FAA Terminal Procedures for GPT, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: AirNav airport information for KGPT ASN accident history for GPT FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart for KGPT FAA current GPT delay information
Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 2311
Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 2311 was a scheduled commuter flight from Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport to Glynco Jetport in Brunswick, Georgia on April 5, 1991. The flight, operated using a twin-turboprop Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia, crashed just north of Brunswick while approaching the airport for landing. All 23 people aboard the plane were killed, including passengers Sonny John Tower. Four years another Embraer Brasilia of ASA crashed in the Georgia countryside in similar circumstances, with nine fatalities; the aircraft involved in the accident was an Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia, manufactured on November 30, 1990. It was equipped with two Pratt & Whitney PW-118 engines and Hamilton Standard 14RF-9 propellers; the airplane received its U. S. standard airworthiness certificate on December 20, 1990. The aircraft had accumulated about 816 flying 845 cycles prior to the accident. Only one deferred maintenance item was noted in the maintenance logs; this was for fuel leaking from the auxiliary power unit cowling.
The circuit breaker for the APU had been pulled while spare parts could be made available to fix the cowling. Because they were not required at the time, the aircraft did not have a Cockpit Voice Recorder or Flight Data Recorder. Captain Mark Friedline, age 34, had been hired by Atlantic Southeast Airlines in May 1981, he was qualified to fly three different commercial aircraft including the EMB-120. It was estimated that at the time of the accident, he had accumulated about 11,724 total flying hours, of which 5,720 hours were in the EMB-120, he had been involved in the development of the EMB-120, its introduction to service in the United States, was trained to fly the aircraft by the manufacturer. An inspector described his knowledge of aircraft systems "extensive", his pilot techniques as "excellent". First Officer Hank Johnston, age 36, was hired by Atlantic Southeast Airlines in June 1988, he was a qualified flight instructor. Because more than 6 months had passed since he had undergone an FAA medical inspection and been issued a first-class certificate, his first-class certificate automatically reverted to a second-class certificate.
A second-class certification was adequate for his duties as a first officer. At the time of the accident, it was estimated that he had accumulated about 3,925 total flying hours, of which 2,795 hours were in the EMB-120. Flight Attendant Cindy Crabtree, age 30, was hired by Atlantic Southeast Airlines in 1986. On the morning of the accident, the captain and first officer arrived at the Dothan Regional Airport by taxi about 06:15 Eastern Standard Time; the taxi cab driver reported that the crew was in good spirits and engaged in conversation. The crew flew first to Atlanta performed a round trip to Montgomery, before returning to Atlanta. After this round trip, the crew had a scheduled break for around two and a half hours, in which they were described to be well rested and talkative. Flight 2311 was scheduled to be operated by N228AS, another EMB-120. However, this airplane experienced mechanical problems, so the flight was switched to N270AS; this aircraft had flown four times on the day of the accident with no reports of any problems.
Flight 2311 departed operating N270AS, at 13:47, 23 minutes behind schedule. Flight 2311 deviated in its flight path to Brunswick to avoid poor weather. Just after 14:48, the flight crew acknowledged to Jacksonville air route traffic control center that the airport was in sight, Flight 2311 was subsequently cleared for a visual approach to Glynco Jetport, which the flight crew acknowledged; the last transmission received from Flight 2311 was to the ASA manager at the airport, who reported that the flight made an “in-range call” on the company radio frequency and that the pilot gave no indication that the flight had any mechanical problems. Witnesses reported seeing the aircraft approaching the airport in visual meteorological conditions at a much lower than normal altitude. Several witnesses estimated that the aircraft flew over them at an altitude of 100 to 200 feet above the ground. According to a majority of the interviewed witnesses, the airplane rolled to the left until the wings were perpendicular to the ground.
The aircraft descended in a nose-down attitude and disappeared from sight behind trees near the airport. One witness told investigators that they saw a puff of smoke emanate from the aircraft prior to or subsequent to the airplane rolling to the left. Others reported loud engine noises described as a squeal, whine, or an overspeeding or accelerating engine during the last moments of the flight, although they said that these noises seemed to have stopped, or at least faded before the aircraft impacted with flat ground two miles short of the runway. One witness interviewed by the NTSB, a pilot driving on a road southwest of the airport, told investigators that he saw the airplane in normal flight at normal altitudes, that he believed that the approach was not abnormal; the airplane completed a 180-degree turn from the downwind leg of the approach and continued the turn. He saw the aircraft pitch before it rolled to the left until the wings were vertical; the airplane turned nose-down and smashed into the ground.
He saw no fire or smoke during the flight and he believed both propellers were rotating. An investigation carried out by the National Transportation Safety Board determined that a malfunction of the flight control surfaces, including a rudder or ailerons hardover or asymmetric flaps, could not have caused the accident, after multiple pilots in simulators managed to keep the aircraft under control. Engine failure was ruled out by detai
National Transportation Safety Board
The National Transportation Safety Board is an independent U. S. government investigative agency responsible for civil transportation accident investigation. In this role, the NTSB investigates and reports on aviation accidents and incidents, certain types of highway crashes and marine accidents, pipeline incidents, railroad accidents; when requested, the NTSB will assist the military and foreign governments with accident investigation. The NTSB is in charge of investigating cases of hazardous materials releases that occur during transportation; the agency is based in Washington, D. C; as of December 2014, it has four regional offices located in Alaska. The agency operates a national training center at its Ashburn facility; the origin of the NTSB was in the Air Commerce Act of 1926, which assigned the United States Department of Commerce responsibility for investigating domestic aviation accidents. Before the NTSB, the FAA independence was questioned as it was investigating itself and would be biased to find external faults, coalescing with the 1931 crash killing Notre Dame coach Knute Rockne.
The USA's first "independent" Air Safety Board was established in 1938: it lasted only fourteen months. In 1940, this authority was transferred to the Civil Aeronautics Board's newly formed Bureau of Aviation Safety. In 1967, Congress created a separate cabinet-level Department of Transportation, which among other things established the Federal Aviation Administration as an agency under the DOT. At the same time, the NTSB was established as an independent agency which absorbed the Bureau of Aviation Safety's responsibilities. However, from 1967 to 1975, the NTSB reported to the DOT for administrative purposes, while conducting investigations into the Federal Aviation Administration a DOT agency. To avoid any conflict, Congress passed the Independent Safety Board Act, on April 1, 1975, the NTSB became a independent agency; as of 2015, the NTSB has investigated over 140,000 aviation incidents and several thousand surface transportation incidents. Formally, the "National Transportation Safety Board" refers to a five-manager investigative board whose five members are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate for five-year terms.
No more than three of the five members may be from the same political party. One of the five board members is nominated as the Chairman by the President and approved by the Senate for a fixed 2-year term; this board is authorized by Congress under Chapter 11, Title 49 of the United States Code to investigate civil aviation, marine and railroad accidents and incidents. This five-member board is authorized to establish and manage separate sub-offices for highway, aviation, railroad and hazardous materials investigations. Collectively, "National Transportation Safety Board", the "Safety Board" or "NTSB" is used to refer to the entire investigative agency established and managed by this five-member board; as of 2017, Robert Sumwalt is chairman of the NTSB. Since its creation, the NTSB's primary mission has been "to determine the probable cause of transportation accidents and incidents and to formulate safety recommendations to improve transportation safety". Based on the results of investigations within its jurisdiction, the NTSB issues formal safety recommendations to agencies and institutions with the power to implement those recommendations.
The NTSB considers safety recommendations to be its primary tool for preventing future civil transportation accidents. However, the NTSB does not have the authority to enforce its safety recommendations. Robert L. Sumwalt Bruce Landsberg Earl F. Weener Jennifer Homendy The NTSB is the lead agency in the investigation of a civil transportation accident or incident within its sphere. An investigation of a major accident within the United States starts with the creation of a "go team," composed of specialists in fields relating to the incident who are deployed to the incident location; the "go team" can have as few as 3–4 people or as many as a dozen, depending on the nature of the incident. Following the investigation, the agency may choose to hold public hearings on the issue, it will publish a final report which may include safety recommendations based on its findings. The NTSB has no legal authority to implement or impose its recommendations, which must be implemented by regulators at either the federal or state level or individual transportation companies.
Aviation: The NTSB has primary authority to investigate every civil aviation accident in the United States. For certain accidents, due to resource limitations, the Board will ask the FAA to collect the factual information at the scene of the accident. Surface Transportation: The NTSB has the authority to investigate all highway accidents and incidents, including incidents at railway grade crossings, "in cooperation with a State"; the NTSB has primary jurisdiction over railway accidents and incidents which result in death or significant property damage, or which involve a passenger train. Marine: For marine investigations, jurisdiction into investigations is divided between the NTSB and the U. S. Coast Guard; the division of investigative jurisdiction and responsibilities is prescribed in a detailed Memorandum of Understanding between the two agencies. Pipeline: The NTSB has primary jurisdiction over pipel
The Houston Chronicle is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, United States. As of April 2016, it is the third-largest newspaper by Sunday circulation in the United States, behind only the New York Times and Los Angeles Times. With its 1995 buy-out of long-time rival the Houston Post, the Chronicle became Houston's newspaper of record; the Houston Chronicle is the largest daily paper owned and operated by the Hearst Corporation, a held multinational corporate media conglomerate with $10 billion in revenues. The paper employs nearly 2,000 people, including 300 journalists and photographers; the Chronicle has bureaus in Washington, D. C. and Austin. It reports; the publication serves as the "newspaper of record" of the Houston area. Headquartered in the Houston Chronicle Building at 801 Texas Avenue, Downtown Houston, the Houston Chronicle is now located at 4747 Southwest Freeway, it has two websites: houstonchronicle.com. Chron.com is free and has breaking news, traffic, pop culture, events listings, city guides.
Houstonchronicle.com, launched in 2012 and accessible after subscription purchase, contains analysis, reporting and everything found in the daily newspaper. From its inception, the practices and policies of the Houston Chronicle were shaped by strong-willed personalities who were the publishers; the history of the newspaper can be best understood. The Houston Chronicle was founded in 1901 by a former reporter for the now-defunct Houston Post, Marcellus E. Foster. Foster, covering the Spindletop oil boom for the Post, invested in Spindletop and took $30 of the return on that investment — at the time equivalent to a week's wages — and used it to fund the Chronicle; the Chronicle's first edition was published on October 14, 1901 and sold for two cents per copy, at a time when most papers sold for five cents each. At the end of its first month in operation, the Chronicle had a circulation of 4,378 — one tenth of the population of Houston at the time. Within the first year of operation, the paper consolidated the Daily Herald.
In 1908, Foster asked Jesse H. Jones, a local businessman and prominent builder, to construct a new office and plant for the paper, "and offered half-interest in the newspaper as a down payment, with twenty years to pay the remainder. Jones agreed, the resulting Chronicle Building was one of the finest in the South."Under Foster, the paper's circulation grew from about 7,000 in 1901 to 75,000 on weekdays and 85,000 on Sundays by 1926. Foster continued to write columns under the pen name Mefo, drew much attention in the 1920s for his opposition to the Ku Klux Klan, he sold the rest of his interest to Jesse H. Jones on June 1926 and promptly retired. In 1911, City Editor George Kepple started Goodfellows. On a Christmas Eve in 1911, Kepple passed a hat among the Chronicle's reporters to collect money to buy toys for a shoe-shine boy. Goodfellows continues today through donations made by its readers, it has grown into a citywide program that provides needy children between the ages of two and ten with toys during the winter holidays.
In 2003, Goodfellows distributed 250,000 toys to more than 100,000 needy children in the Greater Houston area. In 1926, Jesse H. Jones became the sole owner of the paper, he had approached Foster about selling, Foster had answered, "What will you give me?". Jones described the buyout of Foster as follows: Wanting to be liberal with Foster if I bought him out, since he had created the paper and owned most of the stock, had made a success of it, I thought for a while before answering and asked him how much he owed, he replied,'On real estate and everything about 200,000 dollars.' I said to him that I would give him 300,000 dollars in cash, having in mind that this would pay his debts and give him 100,000 spending money. In addition, I would give him a note for 500,000 secured by a mortgage on the Chronicle Building, the note to be payable at the rate of 35,000 a year for thirty-five years, which I figured was about his expectancy. I would pay him 20,000 dollars a year as editor of the paper and 6,000 dollars a year to continue writing the daily front-page column,'MEFO,' on the condition that either of us could cancel the editorship and/or the MEFO-column contracts on six months notice, that, if I canceled both the column and the editorship, I would give him an additional 6,000 dollars a year for life.
I considered the offer more than the Chronicle was worth at the time. No sooner had I finished stating my proposition than he said,'I will take it,' and the transaction was completed accordingly. In 1937, Jesse H. Jones transferred ownership of the paper to the newly established Houston Endowment Inc. Jones retained the title of publisher until his death in 1956. According to The Handbook of Texas Online, the Chronicle represented conservative political views during the 1950s: "...the Chronicle represented the conservative political interests of the Houston business establishment. As such, it eschewed controversial political topics, such as integration or the impacts of rapid economic growth on life in the city, it did not perform investigative journalism. This resulted in a stodgy newspaper. By 1959, circulation of the rival Houston Post had pulled ahead of the Chronicle."Jones, a lifelong Democrat who organized the Democratic National Convention to be in Houston in 1928, who spent long years in public service first under the Wilson administration, helping to found the Red Cross