Atlantic hurricane season

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A whiteboard at a FEMA tactical relief operation center in Louisiana notes the number of named storms and hurricanes and counts down the days remaining in the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season.
Hurricane tracks from 1980 through 2014. Green tracks did not make landfall in US; yellow tracks made landfall but were not major hurricanes at the time; red tracks made landfall and were major hurricanes.

The Atlantic hurricane season is the period in a year when hurricanes usually form in the Atlantic Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic are called hurricanes, tropical storms, or tropical depressions. In addition, there have been several storms over the years that have not been fully tropical and are categorized as subtropical depressions and subtropical storms. Even though subtropical storms and subtropical depressions are not technically as strong as tropical cyclones, the damages can still be devastating.

Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer, when the difference between temperatures aloft and sea surface temperatures is the greatest. However, each particular basin has its own seasonal patterns, on a worldwide scale, May is the least active month, while September is the most active.[1] In the Northern Atlantic Ocean, a distinct hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking from late August through September;[1] the season's climatological peak of activity occurs around September 10 each season.[2] This is the norm, but in 1938, the Atlantic hurricane season started as early as January 3.

Tropical disturbances that reach tropical storm intensity are named from a pre-determined list, on average, 10.1 named storms occur each season, with an average of 5.9 becoming hurricanes and 2.5 becoming major hurricanes (Category 3 or greater). The most active season was 2005, during which 28 tropical cyclones formed, of which a record 15 became hurricanes. The least active season was 1914, with only one known tropical cyclone developing during that year,[3] the Atlantic hurricane season is a time when most tropical cyclones are expected to develop across the northern Atlantic Ocean. It is currently defined as the time frame from June 1 through November 30, though in the past the season was defined as a shorter time frame, during the season, regular tropical weather outlooks are issued by the National Hurricane Center, and coordination between the Weather Prediction Center and National Hurricane Center occurs for systems which have not formed yet, but could develop during the next three to seven days.

Concept[edit]

The basic concept of a hurricane season began during 1935,[4] when dedicated wire circuits known as hurricane circuits began to be set up along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts,[5] a process completed by 1955.[6] It was originally the time frame when the tropics were monitored routinely for tropical cyclone activity, and was originally defined as from June 15 through October 31,[7] over the years, the beginning date was shifted back to June 1, while the end date was shifted to November 15,[5] before settling at November 30 by 1965.[8][9] This was when hurricane reconnaissance planes were sent out to fly across the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico on a routine basis to look for potential tropical cyclones, in the years before the continuous weather satellite era.[7] Since regular satellite surveillance began, hurricane hunter aircraft fly only into storm areas which are first spotted by satellite imagery.[10]

Operations[edit]

During the hurricane season, the National Hurricane Center routinely issues their Tropical Weather Outlook product, which identifies areas of concern within the tropics which could develop into tropical cyclones. If systems occur outside the defined hurricane season, special Tropical Weather Outlooks will be issued.[11] Routine coordination occurs at 1700 UTC each day between the Weather Prediction Center and National Hurricane Center to identify systems for the pressure maps three to seven days into the future within the tropics, and points for existing tropical cyclones six to seven days into the future.[12] Possible tropical cyclones are depicted with a closed isobar, while systems with less certainty to develop are depicted as "spot lows" with no isobar surrounding them.

HURDAT[edit]

The North Atlantic hurricane database, or HURDAT, is the database for all tropical storms and hurricanes for the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, including those that have made landfall in the United States, the original database of six-hourly positions and intensities were put together in the 1960s in support of the Apollo space program to help provide statistical track forecast guidance. In the intervening years, this database — which is now freely and easily accessible on the Internet from the National Hurricane Center's (NHC) webpage — has been utilized for a wide variety of uses: climatic change studies, seasonal forecasting, risk assessment for county emergency managers, analysis of potential losses for insurance and business interests, intensity forecasting techniques and verification of official and various model predictions of track and intensity.

HURDAT was not designed with all of these uses in mind when it was first put together and not all of them may be appropriate given its original motivation. HURDAT contains numerous systematic as well as some random errors in the database. Additionally, analysis techniques have changed over the years at NHC as their understanding of tropical cyclones has developed, leading to biases in the historical database. Another difficulty in applying the hurricane database to studies concerned with landfalling events is the lack of exact location, time and intensity at hurricane landfall.

Re-analysis project[edit]

HURDAT is regularly updated annually to reflect the previous season's activity, the older portion of the database has been regularly revised since 2001. The first time in 2001 led to the addition of tropical cyclone tracks for the years 1851 to 1885, the second time was August 2002 when Hurricane Andrew was upgraded to a Category 5. Recent efforts into uncovering undocumented historical hurricanes in the late 19th and 20th centuries by various researchers have greatly increased our knowledge of these past events. Possible changes for the years 1951 onward are not yet incorporated into the HURDAT database, because of all of these issues, a re-analysis of the Atlantic hurricane database is being attempted that will be completed in three years.

In addition to the groundbreaking work by Partagas[context?], additional analyses, digitization and quality control of the data was carried out by researchers at the NOAA Hurricane Research Division funded by the NOAA Office of Global Programs. This re-analysis will continue to progress through the remainder of the 20th century.[13]

The National Hurricane Center's Best Track Change Committee has approved changes for a few recent cyclones, such as Hurricane Andrew. Official changes to the Atlantic hurricane database are approved by the National Hurricane Center Best Track Change Committee, thus research conducted by Chris Landsea and colleagues as part of the Atlantic hurricane database reanalysis project are submitted through this review process. Not all Landsea's recommendations are accepted by the Committee.

1494-1850 (pre-HURDAT era)[edit]

Period Seasons Individual years
Pre-19th century Pre-17th century (pre 1600), 17th century (1600s), 18th century (1700s) 1780
1800–1849 1800–1809, 1810–1819, 1820–1829, 1830–1839, 1840–1849 1842

1850-1899 (1851-present HURDAT era)[edit]

1850s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1850 3 3 0 Not known One
1851 1851 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 3 1 24 Four Great Middle Florida Hurricane of 1851 (cat 3)
1852 1852 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 5 5 1 100+ One Great Mobile Hurricane of 1852 (cat 3)
1853 1853 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 8 4 2 40 Three
1854 1854 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 5 3 1 30+ Three Coastal Hurricane of 1854 (cat 3)
1855 1855 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 5 4 1 Not known Five Middle Gulf Shore Hurricane of 1855 (cat 3)
1856 1856 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 4 2 200+ One The Last Island Hurricane of 1856 (cat 4)
1857 1857 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 4 3 0 424 Two & Four
1858 1858 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 6 0 None Three & Six
1859 1859 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 8 7 1 Numerous Six

1860s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1860 1860 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7 6 1 60+ One
1861 1861 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 2 6 0 22+ One and Three
1862 1862 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 3 3 0 3 Two and Three
1863 1863 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 4 5 0 90 One, Two, Three & Four
1864 1864 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 2 3 0 None One, Three & Five
1865 1865 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 4 3 0 326 Four & Seven
1866 1866 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7 6 1 383 Six Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1866 (cat 4)
1867 1867 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 2 6 1 811 'San Narciso' Hurricane San Narciso of 1867 (cat 3)
1868 1868 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1 3 0 2 One, Two & Four
1869 1869 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 3 6 1 38 Six New England Gale of 1869 (cat 3)

1870s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1870 1870 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 10 2 2,052 Four Hurricane of San Marcos of 1870 (cat 3)
1871 1871 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 8 6 2 30 Three and Four Central Florida Hurricane of 1871 (cat 3)
Hurricane Santa Juana of 1871 (cat 3)
1872 1872 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 5 4 0 Unknown Two
1873 1873 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 5 3 2 626 Five Central Florida Hurricane of 1873 (cat 3)
1874 1874 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 7 4 0 Unknown Seven
1875 1875 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 5 1 800 Three Great Indianola Hurricane of 1875 (cat 3)
1876 1876 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 5 4 2 19 "San Felipe" Hurricane San Felipe of 1876 (cat 3)
Cuba-South Florida Hurricane of 1876 (cat 3)
1877 1877 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 8 3 1 34 Four
1878 1878 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12 10 1 108 Seven
1879 1879 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 8 6 2 47 Four Great Beaufort Carolina Hurricane of 1879 (cat 3)
Louisiana Hurricane of 1879 (cat 3)

1880s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1880 1880 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 11 9 2 133 Eight Brownsville Hurricane of 1880 (cat 4)
1881 1881 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7 4 0 700 Five and Six Georgia Hurricane of 1881 (cat 2) 700+ dead
1882 1882 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 5 2 6 Six Pensacola Hurricane of 1882 (cat 3)
Cuba Hurricane of 1882 (cat 4)
1883 1883 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 4 3 2 236 Two and Three Bahamas-North Carolina Hurricane of 1883 (cat 3)
1884 1884 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 4 4 1 8 Two
1885 1885 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 8 6 1 25 Two
1886 1886 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12 10 4 200+ "Indianola" Indianola Hurricane of 1886 (cat 4)
Cuba Hurricane of 1886 (cat 3)
Texas-Louisiana Hurricane of 1886 (cat 3)
Seven hurricanes struck the United States, the most during a single year.[14]
Indianola, Texas struck by two major hurricanes (1875 and 1886) which effectively closed down the town.[15][better source needed]
1887 1887 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 19 11 2 2 Seven Tied for third most active season on record following very active 1886 season.
Has the most storms forming outside the normal hurricane season
One of only 4 seasons to have both a preseason and postseason storm
1888 1888 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 9 6 2 924 Three and Four Louisiana Hurricane of 1888 (cat 3)
Hurricane San Gil of 1888 (cat 3)
1889 1881 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 9 6 0 40 Six

1890s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1890 1890 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 4 2 1 9 Three
1891 1891 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 10 7 1 700+ "Martinique" Martinique Hurricane of 1891 (cat 3)
1892 1892 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 9 5 0 16 Three, Five, and Seven
1893 1893 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12 10 5 4,028 "Cheniere Caminada" Hurricane San Roque of 1893 (cat 3)
New York Hurricane of 1893 (cat 3)
1893 Sea Islands Hurricane (cat 3)
Great Charleston Hurricane (cat 3)
1893 Cheniere Caminada hurricane (cat 4)
5 major hurricanes made landfall this year.
Two hurricanes caused more than 2,000 deaths in the United States.
Four simultaneous hurricanes on August 22, one of two times on record.
1894 1894 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7 5 4 200+ Six The Florida Pan Handle Hurricane of 1894 (cat 3)
1895 1895 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 2 0 56 Two
1896 1896 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7 6 2 130 Four Hurricane San Ramon of 1896 (cat 3)
Cedar Keys Hurricane of 1896 (cat 3)
1897 1897 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 3 0 None One
1898 1898 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 5 1 562 "Georgia" Georgia Hurricane of 1898 (cat 4) Major hurricane last struck Georgia in 1881
1899 1899 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9 5 2 3,439 "San Ciriaco" Hurricane San Ciriaco of 1899 (cat 4) The San Ciriaco hurricane was the longest lasting Atlantic hurricane on record

1900s[edit]

NOTE: In the following tables, all estimates of damage costs are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars (USD).

1900s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1900 1900 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7 3 2 8,000+ $60 million "Galveston" Great Galveston Hurricane of 1900 (cat 4) The Galveston hurricane was the deadliest disaster in the United States.
1901 1901 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12 5 1 10 $1 million Seven
1902 1902 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 5 3 0 None Unknown Four
1903 1903 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 10 7 1 228 $1.15 million Two Jamaica Hurricane of 1903 (cat 3)
1904 1904 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 5 3 0 87 $1 million Two
1905 1905 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 5 1 1 1 Unknown Four
1906 1906 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 6 3 367 $2.48 million Four Mississippi Hurricane of 1906 (cat 3)
Florida Keys Hurricane of 1906 (cat 3)
1907 1907 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 5 0 0 None Unknown One One of two seasons with no recorded hurricanes
1908 1908 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 10 6 1 None Unknown Six Includes the only known March tropical cyclone in the basin
1909 1909 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 6 4 4,614 $75 million "Grand Isle" 1909 Velasco hurricane (cat 3)
1909 Monterrey hurricane (cat 3)
1909 Grand Isle hurricane (cat 3)
3 major hurricanes made landfall this year

1910s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1910 1910 Atlantic hurricane season map.png 5 3 1 100 $1.25 million "Cuba" The Great Cuba Hurricane of 1910 (cat 4)
1911 1911 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 3 0 27 $3 million Three
1912 1912 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7 4 1 116 $67,000 Seven The Jamaica Hurricane of 1912 (cat 3)
1913 1913 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 4 0 5 $4 million Four
1914 1914 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 1 0 0 0 Unknown One Least active season on record.
One of two seasons with no recorded hurricanes.
1915 1915 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 5 4 675 $63 million "New Orleans" Great Galveston Hurricane of 1915 (cat 4)
New Orleans Hurricanes of 1915 (cat 4)
Two cat 4 hurricanes made landfall in US in same year.
Galveston last struck with major hurricane in 1900.
1916 1916 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 15 10 5 31 $5.9 million "Texas" Gulf Coast Hurricane of 1916 (cat 3)
Charleston Hurricane of 1916 (cat 3)
Great Texas Hurricane of 1916 (cat 4)
3 major hurricanes made landfall this year following a very active 1915 season.
1917 1917 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 4 2 2 5 $170,000 "Nueva Gerona" Nueva Gerona Hurricane of 1917 (cat 4)
1918 1918 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 4 1 34 $5+ million One Louisiana Hurricane of 1918 (cat 3)
1919 1919 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 5 2 1 ~900 $22 million "Florida Keys" Great Florida Keys Hurricane of 1919 (cat 4)

1920s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1920 1920 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 5 4 0 2 $15.75 million One
1921 1921 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7 5 2 6 $36.5 million "Tampa Bay" Hurricane San Pedro of 1921 (cat 3)
Great Tampa Bay Hurricane of 1921 (cat 4)
1922 1922 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 5 3 1 Unknown Unknown Two
1923 1923 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9 4 1 0 Unknown Five
1924 1924 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 5 2 150+ Unknown "Cuba" Great Cuba Hurricane of 1924 (cat 5) The earliest officially classified Category 5 Atlantic hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Scale
1925 1925 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 4 2 0 59+ $19.9 million One
1926 1926 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 8 6 1,315+ $1.4+ billion "Miami" The Nassau Hurricane of 1926 (cat 4)
Nova Scotia Hurricane of 1926 (cat 3)
Louisiana hurricane of 1926 (cat 3)
Great Miami Hurricane of 1926 (cat 4)
Great Havana-Bermuda Hurricane of 1926 (cat 4)
6 major hurricanes this year, 5 major landfalls
1927 1927 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 8 4 1 184 Unknown "Nova Scotia" Nova Scotia Hurricane of 1927 (cat 3)
1928 1928 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 4 1 4,000+ $952.5+ million "Okeechobee" Great Okeechobee Hurricane of 1928 (cat 5) The Okeechobee hurricane is the only known hurricane to strike Puerto Rico at Category 5 strength.
1929 1929 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 5 3 1 51 $9.0 million "Florida" Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1929 (cat 4)

1930s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1930 1930 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 3 2 2 8,000 $50 million "Dominican Republic" Dominican Republic Hurricane of 1930 (cat 4) The fifth deadliest hurricane on record
1931 1931 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 13 3 1 2,502 $7.5 million "Belize" Belize Hurricane of 1931 (cat 4)
1932 1932 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 15 6 4 3,315 $37 million "Cuba" Freeport Texas Hurricane of 1932 (cat 4)
Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1932 (cat 5)
Hurricane San Ciprián of 1932 (cat 4)
Great Cuba Hurricane of 1932 (cat 5)
Two Category 5 hurricanes; one in November (the latest such on record); four major hurricanes made landfall
1933 1933 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 20 11 6 651 $86.6 million "Tampico" Chesapeake–Potomac Hurricane of 1933 (cat 4)
Great Cuba-Brownsville Hurricane of 1933 (cat 5)
Treasure Coast Hurricane of 1933 (cat 4)
Outer Banks Hurricane of 1933 (cat 4)
Tampico Yucatán Hurricane of 1933 (cat 5)
Second most active season on record following very active 1932 season.
Two Category 5 hurricanes.
Five major hurricanes made landfall
1934 1934 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 13 7 1 2,017 $4.26 million Thirteen
1935 1935 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 8 5 3 2,604 $12.5 million "Labor Day" Great Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 (cat 5)
Cuba Hurricane of 1935 (cat 4)
The Labor Day hurricane is most intense landfalling tropical cyclone in the Atlantic known to date
1936 1936 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 17 7 1 5 $1.23 million Thirteen Very active season with no major landfalling hurricanes
1937 1937 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 4 1 0 Unknown Six
1938 1938 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9 4 2 ~700 $290.3 million "New England" Long Island Express Hurricane (cat 5) Earliest starting season on record (January 3).
Long Island express made landfall as a fast moving category 3.
1939 1939 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 3 1 5 Unknown Five

1940s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1940 1940 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9 6 0 101 $4.7 million Four
1941 1941 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 4 3 63 $10 million "Florida" Texas Hurricane of 1941 (cat 3)
Nicaraqua Hurricane of 1941 (cat 4)
Florida Hurricane of 1941 (cat 3)
3 major hurricanes made landfall this year
1942 1942 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 4 1 17 $30.6 million Three Matagorda Texas Hurricane of 1942 (cat 3)
1943 1943 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 10 5 2 19 $17.2 million Three First year of Hurricane Hunters
1944 1944 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 14 8 3 1,153 $202 million "Great Atlantic" Great Atlantic Hurricane of 1944 (cat 4)
Cuba-Florida Hurricane of 1944 (cat 4)
Atlantic hurricane only category 2 at landfall
1945 1945 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 5 2 80 $80 million "Southeast Florida" Texas Hurricane of 1945 (cat 3)
Homestead Florida Hurricane of 1945 (cat 4)
1946 1946 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7 3 0 5 $5.2 million Four
1947 1947 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 10 5 2 94 $145.3 million "Fort Lauderdale" Fort Lauderdale Hurricane of 1947 [George] (cat 4) First year of Atlantic tropical cyclone naming.[16]
1948 1948 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 10 6 4 94 $30.9 million "Florida" Florida Hurricane of 1948 [Easy] (cat 4)
Miami Hurricane of 1948 [Fox] (cat 3)
1949 1949 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 16 7 3 3 $58.2 million "Florida" Florida Hurricane of 1949 (cat 4)

1950s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1950 1950 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 16 11 6 20 $37 million Dog None Record 8 tropical storms in October
1951 1951 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12 8 3 257 $80 million Easy None
1952 1952 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 5 2 607 $3.75 million Fox None Includes the only known February tropical cyclone in the basin
1953 1953 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 14 7 3 1 $6 million Carol None First year of female names for storms.
One of only 4 seasons to have both a preseason and postseason storm.
1954 1954 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 16 7 3 1,069 $752 million Hazel Carol, Edna, Hazel Includes Alice, one of only two storms in the basin to span two calendar years, tying for the latest storm in a season
1955 1955 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 13 9 4 1,518 $1.2 billion Janet Connie, Diane, Ione, Janet
1956 1956 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12 4 1 76 $67.8 million Betsy None
1957 1957 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 8 3 2 513 $152.5 million Carrie Audrey
1958 1958 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12 7 3 41 $12 million Helene None
1959 1959 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 14 7 2 59 $23.3 million Gracie Gracie? Status of Gracie's retirement is unclear

1960s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1960 1960 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 8 4 2 385 $410 million Donna Donna Current extent of the reanalysis project as of July 2016
1961 1961 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 8 7 345 $392 million Hattie Carla, Hattie Two Category 5 Hurricanes
Tied for most major hurricanes
1962 1962 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 5 3 1 4 $10 million Ella None
1963 1963 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9 7 2 7,225 $589 million Flora Flora The sixth deadliest hurricane on record
1964 1964 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12 6 6 261 $605 million Hilda Cleo, Dora, Hilda
1965 1965 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 4 1 76 $1.45 billion Betsy Betsy
1966 1966 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 7 3 1,094 $410 million Inez Inez One named storm de-classified in post-analysis
1967 1967 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 8 6 1 64 $217 million Beulah Beulah
1968 1968 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 8 4 0 10 $10 million Gladys None The name "Edna" was retired due to the storm in 1954,; also includes one subtropical storm.
No major hurricanes.
1969 1969 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 18 12 5 364 $1.7 billion Camille Camille Fourth most active season on record.
Tied for second most hurricanes in a season on record.
Includes one subtropical storm.

1970s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1970 1970 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 10 5 2 71 $454 million Celia Celia First season of a 24-year period of decreased activity in the Atlantic (-AMO)
1971 1971 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 13 6 1 45 $213 million Edith None Includes first documented Hurricane to cross Central America, Irene
1972 1972 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7 3 0 122 $2.1 billion Betty Agnes Includes three subtropical storms
No major hurricanes
1973 1973 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 8 4 1 15 $18 million Ellen None Includes one subtropical storm
1974 1974 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 4 2 8,260+ $1.97 billion Carmen Carmen, Fifi Includes four subtropical storms
Fifi was the fourth deadliest hurricane on record
1975 1975 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9 6 3 80 $100 million Gladys Eloise Includes one subtropical storm
1976 1976 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 10 6 2 72 $100 million Belle None Includes two subtropical storms
1977 1977 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 6 5 1 10 $10 million Anita Anita
1978 1978 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12 5 2 37 $45 million Greta Greta Includes the January subtropical storm in the Atlantic
1979 1979 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9 5 2 2,118 $4.3 billion David David, Frederic First year for alternating male/female names.
Includes one subtropical storm.

1980s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical cyclones
Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1980 1980 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 15 11 9 2 256 $1 billion Allen Allen Includes the storm with the highest sustained winds attained so far in the Atlantic
1981 1981 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 18 12 7 3 10 $45 million Harvey None
1982 1982 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9 6 2 1 141 $100 million Debby None Includes one subtropical storm
1983 1983 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 7 4 3 1 22 $2.6 billion Alicia Alicia Least active hurricane season in the satellite era
1984 1984 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 17 13 5 1 35 $66 million Diana None Includes one subtropical storm
1985 1985 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 13 11 7 3 241 $4.5 billion Gloria Elena, Gloria Hurricane Kate struck Florida on November 21, the latest United States hurricane landfall
1986 1986 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 10 6 4 0 70 $57 million Earl None No major hurricanes
1987 1987 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 14 7 3 1 10 $90 million Emily None
1988 1988 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 19 12 5 3 550 $7 billion Gilbert Gilbert, Joan Included strongest hurricane on record until 2005; first hurricane since 1978 to cross Central America
1989 1989 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 15 11 7 2 112 $10.7 billion Hugo Hugo

1990s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical cyclones
Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1990 1990 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 16 14 8 1 116 $150 million Gustav Diana, Klaus No tropical storms or hurricanes made landfall in the United States
1991 1991 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12 8 4 2 30 $2.5 billion Claudette Bob
1992 1992 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9 7 4 1 66 $27 billion Andrew Andrew Hurricane Andrew was the costliest U.S. hurricane until 2005.
Includes one subtropical storm.
1993 1993 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 10 8 4 1 274 $271 million Emily None
1994 1994 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12 7 3 0 1,184 $1.56 billion Florence None No major hurricanes
1995 1995 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 21 19 11 5 115 $9.3 billion Opal Luis, Marilyn, Opal, Roxanne Tied for third most active season on record
First season of an ongoing period of increased activity in the Atlantic (+AMO)
1996 1996 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 13 13 9 6 179 $3.8 billion Edouard Cesar, Fran, Hortense Cesar was renamed Douglas after it crossed Central America.
Most amount of major hurricanes at the time
1997 1997 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9 8 3 1 11 $110 million Erika None Includes one subtropical storm
1998 1998 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 14 14 10 3 12,000+ $12.2 billion Mitch Georges, Mitch Four simultaneous hurricanes on September 26, the first time since 1893.
Hurricane Mitch was the deadliest hurricane in over 200 years.
1999 1999 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 16 12 8 5 465 $5.9 billion Floyd Floyd, Lenny Most Category 4 hurricanes on record

2000s[edit]

NOTE: In the following tables, all estimates of damage costs are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars (USD).

2000s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical cyclones
Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
2000 2000 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 19 15 8 3 79 $1.2 billion Keith Keith Includes one subtropical storm
2001 2001 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 17 15 9 4 105 $7.1 billion Michelle Allison, Iris, Michelle
2002 2002 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 14 12 4 2 53 $2.6 billion Isidore Isidore, Lili Record-tying 8 named storms formed in September
2003 2003 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 21 16 7 3 92 $4.4 billion Isabel Fabian, Isabel, Juan 3 off-season storms
2004 2004 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 17 15 9 6 3,100+ $60.1 billion Ivan Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne Includes one subtropical storm
Record-tying 8 named storms forming in August
2005 2005 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 31 28 15 7 2,280+ $180.4 billion Wilma Dennis, Katrina, Rita, Stan, Wilma Second costliest hurricane season on record
Season holds most activity records, including cyclones, storms, hurricanes, major hurricanes and Category 5's (4)
Most retired names
Only year to use the Greek alphabet
Includes 1 subtropical storm and 1 subtropical depression
2006 2006 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 10 10 5 2 14 $500 million Gordon and Helene None
2007 2007 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 17 15 6 2 423 $3 billion Dean Dean, Felix, Noel Includes one subtropical storm
Two Category 5 Hurricanes that made landfall
2008 2008 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 17 16 8 5 1,047 $47.5 billion Ike Gustav, Ike, Paloma Tied for fifth most active season on record
Only year on record in which a major hurricane existed in every month from July through November
2009 2009 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 11 9 3 2 6 $77 million Bill None

2010s[edit]

Year Map Number of
tropical
cyclones
Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major
hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
2010 2010 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 21 19 12 5 314 $4.53 billion Igor Igor, Tomas Tied for third most active season on record
Tied for second most hurricanes in a season on record
Record tying 8 named storms forming in September
2011 2011 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 20 19 7 4 114 $18.59 billion Ophelia Irene Tied for third most active season on record
2012 2012 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 19 19 10 2 354 $77.97 billion Sandy Sandy Tied for third most active season
Tied (with 2016) for most active season before July
Record tying 8 named storms forming in August
2013 2013 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 15 14 2 0 47 $1.51 billion Humberto Ingrid Includes one subtropical storm
No major hurricanes
Tied (with 1982) for fewest hurricanes since 1930
2014 2014 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 9 8 6 2 21 $439.2 million Gonzalo None
2015 2015 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 12 11 4 2 89 $731.8 million Joaquin Erika, Joaquin
2016 2016 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 16 15 7 4 748 ≥ $16.1 billion Matthew Matthew, Otto Earliest start since 1938
Record for earliest formation of 3rd and 4th storm
Tied (with 2012) for most active season before July
Includes southernmost Category 5 on record, and the first since 2007
First hurricane in 20 years to cross Central America into the Eastern Pacific basin
2017 2017 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png 18 17 10 6 ≥ 416–1,437 (with uncertainty) ≥ $282.16 billion Maria Harvey, Irma, Maria, Nate Costliest hurricane season on record
First April system since 2003
Earliest Main Development Region named storm on record
First U.S. major hurricane landfall since Wilma in 2005
Highest rainfall produced by a tropical cyclone in the United States and its territories
First-ever three Category 4 U.S. hurricane landfalls in a single season
Second season to feature multiple Category 5 landfalls after 2007.
Only one of four seasons to produce ten hurricanes in a row
Only season on record with three hurricanes with an ACE value over 40
Most ACE produced in a single month in Atlantic basin

Number of tropical storms and hurricanes per season[edit]

This bar chart shows the number of named storms and hurricanes per year from 1851-2017.

A 2011 study analyzing one of the main sources of hurricanes - the African easterly wave (AEW) - found that the change in AEWs is closely linked to increased activity of intense hurricanes in the North Atlantic, the synoptic concurrence of AEWs in driving the dynamics of the Sahel greening also appears to increase tropical cyclogenesis over the North Atlantic.[17]

See also[edit]

Parent topics[edit]

Atlantic hurricane topics[edit]

Other tropical cyclone basins[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. "Frequently Asked Questions: When is hurricane season?". NOAA. Archived from the original on July 18, 2006. Retrieved July 25, 2006. 
  2. ^ McAdie, Colin (May 10, 2007). "Tropical Cyclone Climatology". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on May 28, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2007. 
  3. ^ "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". Hurricane Research Division (Database). Miami, FL: National Hurricane Center. April 11, 2017. Retrieved May 14, 2018. 
  4. ^ Associated Press (June 15, 1941). "Hurricane Bureau Begins Season's Vigil Tonight". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved July 9, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b Associated Press (June 15, 1959). "1959 Hurricane Season Opens Officially Today". Meridian Record. Retrieved July 9, 2011. 
  6. ^ Associated Press (June 15, 1955). "Hurricane Season Opens; New England Joins Circuit". The Robesonian. Retrieved July 9, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b Associated Press (June 15, 1960). "1960 Hurricane Season Open As Planes Prowl". The Evening Independent. Retrieved July 9, 2011. 
  8. ^ Neal Dorst (January 21, 2010). "Subject: G1) When is hurricane season ?". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2011. 
  9. ^ Brownsville Herald (June 1, 1965). Hurricane Season Officially Opened.
  10. ^ United Press International (May 30, 1966). "Hurricane Season Opens This Week". The News and Courier. Retrieved July 9, 2011. 
  11. ^ National Hurricane Center (2011). "Atlantic Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on June 23, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2011. 
  12. ^ United States Department of Commerce (2006). Assessment: Hurricane Katrina, August 23–31, 2005. Retrieved on 2008-09-03.
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2011.  [1]
  14. ^ Hurricane Research Division (2008). "Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2007". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 21, 2008. 
  15. ^ Indianola, Texas
  16. ^ Dorst, Neal (October 23, 2012). "They Called the Wind Mahina: The History of Naming Cyclones" (PPTX). Hurricane Research Division, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. p. Slides 49–51. 
  17. ^ Wang and Gillies (2011). "Observed Change in Sahel Rainfall, Circulations, African Easterly Waves, and Atlantic Hurricanes Since 1979". doi:10.1155/2011/259529.