SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Atmosphere

An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, held in place by the gravity of that body. An atmosphere is more to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low; the atmosphere of Earth is composed of nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide and other gases in trace amounts. Oxygen is used by most organisms for respiration; the atmosphere helps to protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation, solar wind and cosmic rays. The current composition of the Earth's atmosphere is the product of billions of years of biochemical modification of the paleoatmosphere by living organisms; the term stellar atmosphere describes the outer region of a star and includes the portion above the opaque photosphere. Stars with sufficiently low temperatures may have outer atmospheres with compound molecules. Atmospheric pressure at a particular location is the force per unit area perpendicular to a surface determined by the weight of the vertical column of atmosphere above that location.

On Earth, units of air pressure are based on the internationally recognized standard atmosphere, defined as 101.325 kPa. It is measured with a barometer. Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude due to the diminishing mass of gas above; the height at which the pressure from an atmosphere declines by a factor of e is called the scale height and is denoted by H. For an atmosphere with a uniform temperature, the scale height is proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the product of the mean molecular mass of dry air and the local acceleration of gravity at that location. For such a model atmosphere, the pressure declines exponentially with increasing altitude. However, atmospheres are not uniform in temperature, so estimation of the atmospheric pressure at any particular altitude is more complex. Surface gravity differs among the planets. For example, the large gravitational force of the giant planet Jupiter retains light gases such as hydrogen and helium that escape from objects with lower gravity.

Secondly, the distance from the Sun determines the energy available to heat atmospheric gas to the point where some fraction of its molecules' thermal motion exceed the planet's escape velocity, allowing those to escape a planet's gravitational grasp. Thus and cold Titan and Pluto are able to retain their atmospheres despite their low gravities. Since a collection of gas molecules may be moving at a wide range of velocities, there will always be some fast enough to produce a slow leakage of gas into space. Lighter molecules move faster than heavier ones with the same thermal kinetic energy, so gases of low molecular weight are lost more than those of high molecular weight, it is thought that Venus and Mars may have lost much of their water when, after being photodissociated into hydrogen and oxygen by solar ultraviolet radiation, the hydrogen escaped. Earth's magnetic field helps to prevent this, as the solar wind would enhance the escape of hydrogen. However, over the past 3 billion years Earth may have lost gases through the magnetic polar regions due to auroral activity, including a net 2% of its atmospheric oxygen.

The net effect, taking the most important escape processes into account, is that an intrinsic magnetic field does not protect a planet from atmospheric escape and that for some magnetizations the presence of a magnetic field works to increase the escape rate. Other mechanisms that can cause atmosphere depletion are solar wind-induced sputtering, impact erosion and sequestration—sometimes referred to as "freezing out"—into the regolith and polar caps. Atmospheres have dramatic effects on the surfaces of rocky bodies. Objects that have no atmosphere, or that have only an exosphere, have terrain, covered in craters. Without an atmosphere, the planet has no protection from meteoroids, all of them collide with the surface as meteorites and create craters. Most meteoroids burn up as meteors before hitting a planet's surface; when meteoroids do impact, the effects are erased by the action of wind. As a result, craters are rare on objects with atmospheres. Wind erosion is a significant factor in shaping the terrain of rocky planets with atmospheres, over time can erase the effects of both craters and volcanoes.

In addition, since liquids can not exist without pressure, an atmosphere allows liquid to be present at the surface, resulting in lakes and oceans. Earth and Titan are known to have liquids at their surface and terrain on the planet suggests that Mars had liquid on its surface in the past. A planet's initial atmospheric composition is related to the chemistry and temperature of the local solar nebula during planetary formation and the subsequent escape of interior gases; the original atmospheres started with a rotating disc of gases that collapsed to form a series of spaced rings that condensed to form the planets. The planet's atmospheres were modified over time by various complex factors, resulting in quite different outcomes; the atmospheres of the planets Venus and Mars are composed of carbon dioxide, with small quantities of nitrogen, argon and traces of other gases. The composition of Earth's atmosphere is governed by the by-products of the life that it

Paderu (ST) (Assembly constituency)

Paderu Assembly constituency is an ST reserved constituency in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, representing the state legislative assembly in India. It is one of the seven assembly segments of Araku, along with Kurupam, Salur, Araku Valley and Rampachodavaram. Bhagya Lakshmi Kottagulli is the present MLA of the constituency, who won the 2019 Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election from YSR Congress Party; as of 25 March 2019, there a total of 227,042 electors in the constituency. The five mandals that forms the assembly constituency are: List of constituencies of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly

Kai Budde

Kai Budde, is a semi-retired professional Magic: The Gathering player, who holds the record for Pro Tour victories, for a long time held the records for earnings and lifetime Pro Points. His performances earned him the nicknames "The Juggernaut" and "King of the Grand Prix". Kai left the game in late 2004 to focus on his studies, his appearances in tournaments are less frequent than in earlier years. Budde is considered to be one of the all-time greatest Magic: The Gathering players, he has won five individual Pro Tour titles, two Team Pro Tour titles. Budde won the 1999 Magic World Championship in Tokyo, his cash winnings in six years of premier Magic: The Gathering tournaments are well over $300,000. He has been awarded a record four Player of the Year titles: 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003. Budde won the 2001 Magic Invitational tournament in Cape Town, his prize was the rare opportunity to design an actual card. In 2007, Kai Budde was inducted into the Pro-Tour Hall of Fame. Budde started playing Magic in 1994.

As a player from Cologne he became acquainted with more experienced players from the city such as Pro Tour winner Frank Adler. His rise to professional play coincided with that of Dirk Baberowski, another Magic player who had moved to Cologne. Being at a comparable level of playing, both worked together to qualify for the Pro Tour. Budde succeeded on his second attempt; as he had not yet turned eighteen Kai chose to attend the Junior Division of the tournament finishing among the best 32. Afterwards, the Junior Pro Tour was discontinued and Budde was automatically qualified for the following Pro Tour in Mainz. Kai finished 52nd in Mainz and for a while struggled to qualify for another Pro Tour but managed to qualify for the 1998 Pro Tour Chicago. Fellow player and now friend Baberowksi had managed to qualify for the Pro Tour, too. While Kai finished 19th Baberowski won the whole tournament. After a second place at Grand Prix Birmingham Budde added three Grand Prix titles within six months; the third one in Amsterdam came by defeating Baberowski in the finals.

With these finishes Budde had racked up enough Pro Points to be in contention for the Pro Player of the Year title in the final event of the 1998–99 season. Having not made a Pro Tour Top 8 appearance yet the leader in the Pro Player of the Year race did not consider him to be a threat, though; when Budde advanced to the final of the 1999 World Championship in Tokyo he had secured the Pro Player of the year race. He added the World Champion title by defeating Mark Le Pine in one of the quickest Pro Tour finals ever. After adding an 11th-place finish at the next Pro Tour in London the rest of the 1999–2000 season turned out to be disappointing, he was not able to make it beyond the first round in any of the newly introduced Masters events nor did he finish better than Top 64 at any of the succeeding Pro Tours. It took Kai until November 2000 to make another final eight appearance. A third place at Grand Prix Florence was followed by his second Pro Tour win; the 2000 Pro Tour Chicago title made him the third player to win more than one Pro Tour, the other two being Jon Finkel and Tommi Hovi.

Winning Pro Tour Barcelona in the same season, Kai managed to surpass Finkel and Hovi to become the first player to win three Pro Tours. In the semi-final at Barcelona Budde had asked if he could concede to his friend Patrick Mello to make him eligible for the next Masters, but the officials had refused. A 44th-place finish at the World Championship in Toronto sufficed to make Kai the first double Pro Player of the Year; the 2001–02 season started well for Kai Budde with consecutive wins at Grand Prix London and Pro Tour New York. For the Team Pro Tour New York Kai had chosen his friends Dirk Baberowski and Marco Blume, despite being able to play with anybody he would have liked. Dirk had retired from the game for some time, but Kai managed to convince him to come along for the Pro Tour. Team "Phoenix Foundation" as they called themselves went on to become the most successful team in the Pro Tour history. Pro Tour New York is the origin of the saying "Kai doesn't lose on Sunday". Several Pro Players had answered something to that extent when asked who their favorite amongst the final four teams was.

Less than two months Kai added another Pro Tour title, this time in New Orleans. He is still the only player in the game to have won back to back Pro Tours. In between, Budde had won the Invitational which gave him the chance to create a Magic card of his own design; the card became Voidmage Prodigy. Throughout the season a few more Grand Prix titles followed and he managed another Top 8 appearance at Pro Tour Nice, this time losing in the quarter-final to Bram Snepvangers. Before the final event of the season, the World Championship in Sydney, Kai was locked in to succeed himself as Pro Tour Player of the Year. Only a week after Nice, Budde won the German Nationals, securing another title he had not won before and thus making the national team. While he finished 44th individually at the World Championship, Kai led the German team with Felix Schneiders, a fellow player from his Cologne days, Mark Ziegner to the team title. Phoenix Foundation won the first Pro Tour of the 2002–03 season, giving Kai an early lead in the Pro Player of the Year race.

This set the three Phoenix Foundation members in the top three spots in lifetime Pro Tour wins until Jon Finkel overtook Blume with his victory in Kuala Lumpur five years lat