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Atomic Age

The Atomic Age known as the Atomic Era, is the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear weapon, The Gadget at the Trinity test in New Mexico, on July 16, 1945, during World War II. Although nuclear chain reactions had been hypothesized in 1933 and the first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction had taken place in December 1942, the Trinity test and the ensuing bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that ended World War II represented the first large-scale use of nuclear technology and ushered in profound changes in sociopolitical thinking and the course of technology development. While atomic power was promoted for a time as the epitome of progress and modernity, entering into the nuclear power era entailed frightful implications of nuclear warfare, the Cold War, mutual assured destruction, nuclear proliferation, the risk of nuclear disaster, as well as beneficial civilian applications in nuclear medicine, it is no easy matter to segregate peaceful uses of nuclear technology from military or terrorist uses, which complicated the development of a global nuclear-power export industry right from the outset.

In 1973, concerning a flourishing nuclear power industry, the United States Atomic Energy Commission predicted that, by the turn of the 21st century, one thousand reactors would be producing electricity for homes and businesses across the U. S. However, the "nuclear dream" fell far short of what was promised because nuclear technology produced a range of social problems, from the nuclear arms race to nuclear meltdowns, the unresolved difficulties of bomb plant cleanup and civilian plant waste disposal and decommissioning. Since 1973, reactor orders declined as electricity demand fell and construction costs rose. Many orders and completed plants were cancelled. By the late 1970s, nuclear power had suffered a remarkable international destabilization, as it was faced with economic difficulties and widespread public opposition, coming to a head with the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, both of which adversely affected the nuclear power industry for many decades.

In 1901, Frederick Soddy and Ernest Rutherford discovered that radioactivity was part of the process by which atoms changed from one kind to another, involving the release of energy. Soddy wrote in popular magazines that radioactivity was a “inexhaustible” source of energy, offered a vision of an atomic future where it would be possible to “transform a desert continent, thaw the frozen poles, make the whole earth one smiling Garden of Eden.” The promise of an “atomic age,” with nuclear energy as the global, utopian technology for the satisfaction of human needs, has been a recurring theme since. But "Soddy saw that atomic energy could be used to create terrible new weapons"; the concept of a nuclear chain reaction was hypothesized in 1933, shortly after Chadwick's discovery of the neutron. Only a few years in December 1938 nuclear fission was discovered by Otto Hahn and his assistant Fritz Strassmann, proved with Hahn's radiochemical methods; the first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction took place in December 1942 under the leadership of Enrico Fermi.

In 1945, the pocketbook The Atomic Age heralded the untapped atomic power in everyday objects and depicted a future where fossil fuels would go unused. One science writer, David Dietz, wrote that instead of filling the gas tank of your car two or three times a week, you will travel for a year on a pellet of atomic energy the size of a vitamin pill. Glenn T. Seaborg, who chaired the Atomic Energy Commission, wrote "there will be nuclear powered earth-to-moon shuttles, nuclear powered artificial hearts, plutonium heated swimming pools for SCUBA divers, much more"; the phrase "Atomic Age" was coined by William L. Laurence, a New York Times journalist who became the official journalist for the Manhattan Project which developed the first nuclear weapons, he witnessed both the Trinity test and the bombing of Nagasaki and went on to write a series of articles extolling the virtues of the new weapon. His reporting before and after the bombings helped to spur public awareness of the potential of nuclear technology and in part motivated development of the technology in the U.

S. and in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union would go on to test its first nuclear weapon in 1949. In 1949, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission chairman, David Lilienthal stated that "atomic energy is not a search for new energy, but more a beginning of human history in which faith in knowledge can vitalize man's whole life"; the phrase gained popularity as a feeling of nuclear optimism emerged in the 1950s in which it was believed that all power generators in the future would be atomic in nature. The atomic bomb would render all conventional explosives obsolete and nuclear power plants would do the same for power sources such as coal and oil. There was a general feeling that everything would use a nuclear power source of some sort, in a positive and productive way, from irradiating food to preserve it, to the development of nuclear medicine. There would be an age of peace and plenty in which atomic energy would "provide the power needed to desalinate water for the thirsty, irrigate the deserts for the hungry, fuel interstellar travel deep into outer space".

This use would render the Atomic Age as significant a step in technological progress as the first smelting of Bronze, of Iron, or the commencement of the Industrial Revolution. This included cars, leading Ford to display the Ford Nucleon concept car to the public in 1958. There was the promise of golf ba

Al Terzi

Al Terzi is a news anchor who works for WTIC-TV. Terzi has worked in Connecticut for all but two years since 1968, he is considered "the Dean of Connecticut news anchors." Al began with WTIC/WTIC-FM/WTIC-TV in June 1968 as a staff announcer. The station was owned by Travelers Insurance; when the Washington Post bought the station in 1973, Terzi remained as newscaster and talk show host. He was the original host when New England Journal, a one-hour daily talk show, debuted in 1974. Terzi continued as news co-anchor until he left in June 1978 and became News Anchor News Director, at WPEC-TV12 in West Palm Beach, FL. In October 1978, Terzi was injured when the twin-engine Cessna he piloted, with 4 other WPEC senior staff on board, had engine/fuel problems on approach to the Tallahassee, FL airport, he was forced to make an emergency landing in a small clearing, in the Appalachicola National Forest, south of the airport. During the landing, Terzi was injured and knocked unconscious, when his face slammed into the plane's instrument panel.

The other occupants, who were injured, exited the plane and moved away from it, in case a fire broke out. They had left Terzi inside the plane. One of the passengers said it was assumed that he was dead, because of his severe bleeding and the fact that he was not moving, he soon regained consciousness, exited the plane on his own and joined the passengers who were awaiting medical help. After several surgeries, over a period of several months, Terzi returned to the anchor desk in May 1979. Terzi returned to Connecticut in April 1980 to work as prime anchor at WTNH-TV8 in New Haven, CT, he remained there until January 1994, when he returned to Channel 3. Terzi's colleague Janet Peckinpaugh alleged that he sexually harassed her when the two anchored at WTNH. Peckinpaugh was fired from WFSB in 1995, she sued the previous owners in court made allegations about Terzi. Peckinpaugh was awarded more than eight million dollars. Terzi has shared in two Emmy awards since rejoining Channel 3; the first was for a series of specials on the UConn Huskies basketball team, the second, for "Best Newscast."Terzi is a long-standing member of the Society of Professional Journalists.

Terzi left WFSB as their evening anchor February 24, 2012 after he and WFSB could not come to terms on a new contract. On July 8, 2012, FOXCT announced. Al Terzi earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in East Asian Languages, from Charter Oak State College following studies at Yale University and Central Connecticut State University. Al holds a law degree from the University of Connecticut School of Law in Hartford, CT. Al Terzi served over seven years of active duty with the U. S. Air Force intelligence operations, working in the Far East, as an instructor at an air base in Texas. WFSB Profile WTIC Alumni Profile

Volvo Olympian

The Volvo Olympian was a rear-engined 2-axle and 3-axle double decker bus chassis manufactured by Volvo at its Irvine, Scotland factory. The first was entered production in March 1993, replacing the Leyland Olympian; the design was based on its predecessor, the Leyland Olympian, but the chassis was modified such that only the chassis design and layout remained, with the grade of steel for the chassis members being changed, Volvo's standard electrical system was used, as well as standard Volvo steering/"Z cam" braking systems. The early Volvo Olympians were offered with Cummins L10 or Volvo TD102KF engine, coupled to Voith DIWA or ZF Ecomat gearbox. From late 1996, only the 9.6-litre Volvo D10A-245 Euro II engine with electronic diesel control was offered. It was available with Alexander R-type, Northern Counties Palatine/Palatine 2 and East Lancs E Type/Pyoneer bodywork; the Volvo Olympian is to be built as either closed top or open top. The Volvo Olympian remained as popular as the Leyland Olympian in Ireland.

A large number of Olympians were exported to Hong Singapore. The buses were popular in the United Kingdom. London United, Stagecoach London, London Central, London General, Capital Citybus, MTL London, Harris Bus and First CentreWest had received 687 Volvo Olympians between 1994 and 1999; because of a low-floor rule that had to be complied with by 2006, these buses were not in service for long. Only two buses from London United survived for rail replacement services. In 2008, the Low Emission Zone puts a final class of the Volvo Olympians in London. Metroline quit Volvo Olympians service in June 2008, displaced by Alexander Dennis Enviro200Darts; some of them went to Ensignbus for rail replacement work. In April 2000, Singapore Bus Services had sent two Volvo Olympians, one to Nottingham and one to Metroline. Metroline replaced the tropical windows and the doors with British standard products and reregistered it, it was the first to be sent to Ensignbus in September 2005. Many other operators outside London did receive the main operator being FirstGroup.

Dublin Bus had continued their orders with the RA batch being ordered first, 150 buses in 1994. In January 1997, Dublin Bus ordered further 315 Volvo Olympians, RV. During the period, new liveries had been introduced, of which it is CitySwift and the changing of the livery from two-tone green/orange to white/blue/orange. All buses were withdrawn by 2012. Kowloon Motor Bus had ordered 531 Volvo Olympian 11m, 338 Volvo Olympian 12m and 30 Volvo Olympian non-aircon buses between 1994 and 1999. Long Win sold 10 12-metre Volvo Olympians to KMB in 1999. Due to the modernisation of the fleet, all Volvo Olympians have been withdrawn or converted to training buses, but they were withdrawn in November 2017. Citybus had ordered 10 Volvo Olympian 10.4m, 2 Volvo Olympian 12m, 310 Volvo Olympian 12m and 142 Volvo Olympian 11m between 1994 and 1998. Due to the modernisation of the fleet, most of the buses were either withdrawn, sold or converted to training buses; these were withdrawn in March 2019. China Motor Bus ordered 64 Volvo Olympians between 1996 and 1998.

62 were sold to New World First Bus in 1998 and 5 of them were converted to open-top for Rickshaw Sightseeing Bus. New World First Bus received 2 12-metre Volvo Olympians from HACTL in 1999 and 10 from Citybus in 2014. All buses were withdrawn as they aged 16 – 17 years and the last batch of buses were withdrawn in October 2015. NWFB transferred two second-hand buses to Citybus for private hire fleet, these were withdrawn again by March 2019. In 1993, Singapore Bus Services had ordered 100 Volvo Olympian 2-Axle and 201 Volvo Olympian 3-Axle to replace the retiring earlier batches of Leyland Atlanteans with Walter Alexander Royale bodywork; these Volvo Olympians were delivered between June 1994 and June 1995. The Volvo Olympian 2-Axle are the last non-air conditioned buses to be brought in by Singapore Bus Services and the last non air-conditioned buses in Singapore. Due to the additional weight of the air-compressor which necessitated a third axle, they were unable to be retrofitted with air-conditioning.

In late 2003, most of these buses were redeployed to industrial routes to replace the outgoing Leyland Olympian 2-Axles. Half of this batch had their lifespan extended by 2 years due to insufficient deliveries of new buses. All units were retired between June 2011 and November 2013, the non-airconditioned bus fare structure was abolished shortly after; the first batch of Volvo Olympian 3-Axle were similar in appearance to the Leyland Olympian 3-Axle, except for some minor technical differences. To maximise capacity, all buses except one were retrofitted with a standee area on the offside by removing 4 pairs of seats in the early 2000s. In 2011, most of these buses were given a 2 year lifespan extension, with some units receiving an additional six months to 1 year extension owing to insufficient deliveries of replacements. All units of this batch were retired between March 2012 and June 2015. In 1996, SBS ordered a second batch of 200 Volvo Olympian 3-Axle to replace some of the then-retiring Mercedes-Benz O305 and Leyland Atlantean.

These buses were delivered between August 1996 and February 1998. To maximise capacity, all buses had 4 pairs of seats removed on the offside to create a standee area in the early 2000s. In 2014, most of these buses in this batch were given a lifespan extension of 2 years due to insufficient deliveries of new buses. All units were retired between August 2013 and October 2016; these buses were the last double deck buses in Singapore to