The Atomium is a landmark building in Brussels constructed for the 1958 Brussels World Expo. It is located on the Heysel Plateau, it is now a museum. Designed by the engineer André Waterkeyn and architects André and Jean Polak, it stands 102 m tall, its nine 18 m diameter stainless steel clad spheres are connected, so that the whole forms the shape of a unit cell of an iron crystal magnified 165 billion times. Tubes of 3 m diameter connect the spheres along the 12 edges of the cube and all eight vertices to the centre, they enclose stairs, escalators and a lift to allow access to the five habitable spheres, which contain exhibit halls and other public spaces. The top sphere includes a restaurant; this site is served by Heysel/Heizel metro station on line 6 of the Brussels metro The Atomium was built as the main pavilion and icon of the 1958 World Expo of Brussels. In the 1950s, faith in scientific progress was great, a structure depicting atoms was chosen to embody this; the Atomium depicts nine iron atoms in the shape of the body-centred cubic unit cell of an iron crystal, magnified 165 billion times.
The construction of the Atomium was a technical feat. Of the nine spheres, six are accessible to the public, each with two main floors and a lower floor reserved for service; the central tube contains the fastest elevator of the time at 5 m/s, installed by the Belgian branch of the Swiss firm Schlieren. It allows 22 people to reach the summit in 23 seconds; the escalators installed in the oblique tubes are among the longest in Europe. The biggest is 35 m long. Three of the four top spheres lack vertical support and hence are not open to the public for safety reasons, although the sphere at the pinnacle is open to the public; the original design called for no supports. Wind tunnel tests proved. Support columns were added to achieve enough resistance against overturning; the Atomium, designed to last six months, was not destined to survive the 1958 World Expo, but its popularity and success made it a major element of the Brussels landscape. Its destruction was therefore postponed year after year, until the city's authorities decided to keep it.
However, for thirty years, little maintenance work was done. By the turn of the millennium, the state of the building had become quite deteriorated and a comprehensive renovation was sorely needed. Renovation of the Atomium began in March 2004; the renovations included replacing the faded aluminium sheets on the spheres with stainless steel. On 21 December 2005, the new Atomium outdoor lighting was tested; the meridians of each sphere were covered with rectangular steel plates, in which LED lighting was integrated. The LED application illuminates the bulbs at night; the lights can flash or in turns at each meridian, symbolising the range of an electron around its core. On 14 February 2006, the Atomium was reopened by then-Prince Philippe, on 18 February 2006, it opened again to the public; the renovation cost €26 million. Brussels and the Atomium Association paid one-third of the costs, the Belgian government financed two thirds. To help pay for renovations, pieces of the old aluminium plates were sold to the public as souvenirs.
One triangular piece about 2 m long sold for €1,000. On the occasion of the reopening, a 2 euro commemorative coin depicting the building was issued, in March 2006, to celebrate the renovation. Though the Atomium depicts an iron unit cell, the balls were clad with aluminium. Following the 2004–2007 renovations, the aluminium was replaced with stainless steel, iron. While the subject of Atomium was chosen to depict the enthusiasm of the Atomic Age, iron is not and cannot be used as fuel in nuclear reactions. Of the six spheres accessible to the public: the bottom sphere is reserved for permanent exhibitions dedicated to the 1950s, the 1958 World Expo and the construction of the Atomium. SABAM, Belgium's society for collecting copyrights, has claimed worldwide intellectual property rights on all reproductions of the image via the United States Artists Rights Society. For example, SABAM issued a demand that a United States website remove all images of the Atomium from its pages; the website responded by replacing all such images with a warning not to take photographs of the Atomium, that A.
S. B. L. Atomium will sue. SABAM confirmed. Ralf Ziegermann remarked on the complicated copyright instructions on the Atomium's website specific to "private pictures"; the organisers of Belgian heritage, Anno Expo, in the city of Mechelen announced a "cultural guerrilla strike" by asking people to send in their old photographs of the Atomium and requested 100 photoshoppers to paint over the balls. SABAM responded that they would make an exception for 2008 and that people could publish private photographs for one year onl
PEN Hong Kong is one of the 148 centers of PEN International. Founded in 2016, it is a multilingual society of Hong Kong-based writers, publishers, translators and academics, aimed at promoting literature and defending the freedom of expression in Hong Kong; the current president of PEN Hong Kong is Tammy Lai-Ming Ho. Other officers include William Nee and Edmund Cheng. An English-language only PEN Hong Kong Center was founded in the 1980s by a number of Hong Kong-based expatriates; the organization was recognized for its work in the 1980s and 1990s providing assistance to writers who were Vietnamese refugees. The center went inactive. In 2016, a number of prominent writers and academics came together to revive the Hong Kong Center, motivated in large part by the rapid erosion of press freedom, academic freedom, the freedom of expression in general in Hong Kong. High-profile incidents such as the knife attack on Kevin Lau, the Causeway Bay Books disappearances, the University of Hong Kong pro-vice-chancellor selection controversy have bolstered the need for a bilingual platform to bring together the Chinese language and English language literary circles which for years have been segregated due to the differences in language and readership.
On 13 November 2016, PEN Hong Kong was launched at the Foreign Correspondents' Club, Hong Kong in conjunction with the Hong Kong International Literary Festival. The mission of PEN Hong Kong is to bring together individuals working in the field of the written word to celebrate and promote literature and creative expression; the organization is focused on defending the freedom of expression in Hong Kong and the rest of China. PEN International
Lectionary 88, designated by siglum ℓ 88, is a Greek manuscript of the New Testament, on paper leaves. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 14th-century; the codex contains lessons from the Gospels of John, Luke lectionary with numerous lacunae. It is written on 190 paper leaves; the writing stands in 2 columns per 22-26 lines per page. Two pages of the manuscript belong to the codex 0115; the manuscript once belonged to Colbert's. Scholz examined some passages of it, it was described by Paulin Martin. C. R. Gregory saw it in 1883; the manuscript is not cited in the critical editions of the Greek New Testament. The codex is located in the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris. List of New Testament lectionaries Biblical manuscript Textual criticism
Lodewijk De Raet was a Flemish economist and politician. He played an important role in the Flemish movement, he was co-founder of the Vlaamsche volkspartij, was a proponent of the use of Dutch instead of French at the University of Ghent in Flanders. He believed that the economic development of Flanders was necessary for the political and cultural strengthening of the region, his motto was: taalbelang is stoffelijk belang. As a teenager in highschool Lodewijk De Raet showed a commitment for the Flemish cause. Together with August Vermeylen he started the illustrated magazine Jong Vlaanderen and he had been involved in the establishment of De Vlaamsche Wacht, an organization of Flemings in Brussels. In this organization Lodewijk De Raet developed his economic program for the development of Flanders. In the meantime he studied, thanks to the support of Emiel Blauwaert, a friend of its deceased father, at the École polytechnique of the Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Here he became a member of the student group Geen Taal Geen Vrijheid, he was a member of the Femish liberal student organization.
As a student Lodewijk De Raet became convinced that education had a strong link. In order to be able to compete economically with other regions and to acquire a sufficiently strong position to be able preserve their economic independence, the Flemish people must have intellectual tools, such as a Flemish university. Together with its friends of Geen Taal Geen Vrijheid he created a Flemish University Extension. In 1899, he graduated in economic sciences at the Universite Libre de Bruxelles. In the same period he had been involved in the establishment of the Flemish society Eendracht is Macht and the Flemish publication Schild en Vriend. Beside all this he became an employee of the' Institut of sociology' of Ernest Solvay. In 1903, he started a campaign to introduce Flemish at the University of Ghent, accepted in 1906. On 31 March 1911, the bill for the use of Flemish at the University of Ghent, was submitted to the Belgian parliament by Frans Van Cauwelaert, Louis Franck and Camille Huysmans. In 1912 Lodewijk De Raet obtained a PhD in economic sciences at the Solvay Sociology Institute.
Lodewijk De Raet died some months and he would not witness the introduction of Flemish at the University of Ghent in 1930. In 1952, the Foundation Lodewijk De Raet was founded, a foundation for education of adults. Lieven Gevaert Lodewijk De Raet Max Lamberty, Lodewijk De Raet. Een levensbeeld', publ. Heideland, 1961 Works by or about Lodewijk De Raet at Internet Archive Stichting Lodewijk De Raet
Raymond Thomas "Ray" Gabelich was an Australian rules footballer who played with Collingwood in the Victorian Football League. The son of John and Elizabeth Nina "Bessie" Gabelich, Gabelich was born in Perth on 3 July 1933. Prevented by East Perth from playing for West Perth on supposed residential grounds, Gabelich was unable to play first grade football in Perth. Frustrated, he continued to play top-level, under-20s, amateur football for the Mt Hawthorn Amateur Football Club in Perth's Metropolitan Junior Football Association competition, was team captain in 1953, he made lodged numerous unsuccessful appeals against his prohibition from playing for West Perth. Gabelich, aged 18, first came to Collingwood’s attention when he was one of the best players afield for the Mt. Hawthorn team that beat South Fremantle Ex-Scholars team on 20 October 1951, which Collingwood lost 22.9 to 15.12. He came to Collingwood from Western Australia as a centre half-forward in 1954 too late to be listed. Gabelich played at centre half-back in the Grand Final where Parkside 15.19 defeated Old Xaverians 8.12.
The team won the VAFA Lightning Premiership conducted on the Queen's Birthday weekend as a prelude to the Interstate match between the Victorian and South Australian Amateur representative teams. The only loss the team experienced in 1954 — in fact the team had won 29 matches consecutively over two seasons — was when it was defeated, 10.6 to 4.11, by the 1954 Canberra Australian National Football League premiers, Queanbeyan-Acton, in a post-Grand Final match in Canberra on 19 September 1954. Gabelich, at centre half-back was one of Parkside's best players; when working as a fitter and turner in Melbourne, he lost the top of his middle finger in an industrial accident in 1955, before he had played his first game for Collingwood. Gabelich made his debut for Collingwood in the 30 April 1955 match against St Kilda — one commentator's view of his performance: "Gabelich: Nice mark and kick. Promising, except for ground play" — he replaced an injured Murray Weideman at centre half-forward in the selected team.
Gabelich played for Collingwood in its end-of-season match against Perth Football Club, who had won the 1955 West Australian Football League premiership team on the previous Saturday, in Perth, on 15 October 1955. He was described as "a superb athlete … deceptively quick and athletic for a man of his massive dimensions",Gabelich only played seven games in 1957. In the third quarter of the match against North Melbourne on 25 May 1957, Gabelich was kicked in the lower leg and sustained a broken fibula. Rejecting the offer of a stretcher, Gabelich "walked unaided more than half the length of the ground" to the dressing room, where " asked in the dressing room how he knew the leg was broken Gabelich shocked the club doctor by inviting him to listen to the bones grate". Gabelich's first post-injury appearance was for Collingwood's Second XVIII, playing against North Melbourne on 17 August 1957, where "until his condition gave out, did well and was not troubled by his leg", he was selected in the First XVIII for the important last match of the season against St Kilda on 24 August 1957, was one of Collingwood's best players in a losing team.
In his eleven-season, 160 game career with Collingwood, he played in 17 final matches, including 5 Grand Finals. In 1958, when Collingwood won the Grand Final, defeating Melbourne 12.10 to 9.10 — and, in the process, preventing Melbourne from matching Collingwood's record of winning four premierships in a row — Gabelich played a strong robust game as a back-pocket ruckman and, "with his terrific strength control of the packs", Gabelich was instrumental in Collingwood turning a 17-point deficit at quarter-time into a two-point lead at half-time, a 33-point lead at three-quarter time. He was runner-up in the 1959 Brownlow to St Kilda's Verdun Howell and South Melbourne's Bob Skilton, he won the Copeland Trophy as Collingwood's best and fairest in 1960, he played as a back-pocket resting ruckman for the combined VFL and VFA team against the VAFA in the demonstration match of Australian rules football, during the Melbourne Olympic Games, on Friday, 7 December 1956. At the end of the 1959 season, Gabelich and surviving only on his football payments from Collingwood, sought a clearance to West Perth—where, in addition to his football payments, he had been promised "a full directorship of an estate agency which would guarantee him a minimum income of £4,000 a year"—and had been told, by Collingwood, that no decision could be made until a new, 1960, committee had been elected.
A frustrated Gabelich flew to Darwin on Friday, 8 January 1960, played with the Waratah Football Club on the Saturday, on the following Monday commenced work as a storeman in a hardware store. On the following Saturday morning, Gabelich contacted the Collingwood secretary and, having received an assurance from Carlyon that Collingwood would support his request to the VFL to be allowed to play for the Waratah Football Club in the Victorian off-season, he agreed to not play on that Saturday, in the hope that would not further prejudice his request. After a d
Anthony Joseph Shetler is a professional skateboarder who, as of July 2019, is pro for World Industries and is the owner of All I Need Skateboards. Shetler was born in Massachusetts, to Lisa Marie Oliver and Elwood Reginald Shetler, he started skateboarding in New Hampshire with his friend Dale Raymond. He moved back to Massachusetts, where he would develop a deep relationship with the skateshop Solstice, who helped him get his first sponsorship with 5boro Skateboards. Shetler has appeared in numerous skateboard magazines, including Focus, Transworld Skateboarding and others, he now owns All I Need. He partnered up with 88 Eyewear in fall of 2013 to make a limited edition line of sunglasses. A wide variety of online magazines, stores and skate companies host interviews and photos of Shetler: Alli Sports,Skatepark of Tampa, SkateboardREV, True Skateboard Magazine, ESPN. An interview with Shetler aired on the action sports channel FuelTV. FKD Bearings Pro Team World Industries Solstice Skateshop Thunder Trucks Spitfire Wheels Project Hardware All I Need Apparel[ EZ Pass Vacation Surviving the Times All I Need State of Mind It's Your World Shetler is an unlockable character in the Tony Hawk series of video games.
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