The book was the basis of a 2015 film documentary, The Emperor of All Maladies, by Ken Burns for PBS Television. It was named one of the 100 most influential books written in English since 1923 by Time magazine, currently, he is an assistant professor of medicine at Columbia University and staff physician at Columbia University Medical Center in New York City. A haematologist and oncologist, Mukherjee is known for his work on the formation of blood, in 2014, the Government of India conferred its fourth highest civilian award, the Padma Shri, upon Mukherjee. Siddhartha Mukherjee was born to a Bengali family in New Delhi and his father, Sibeswar Mukherjee, was an executive with Mitsubishi, and his mother Chandana Mukherjee, was a former schoolteacher from Kolkata. He attended St. Columbas School in Delhi, where he won the schools highest award, as a biology major at Stanford University, he worked in Nobel Laureate Paul Bergs laboratory, defining cellular genes that change the behaviours of cancer cells.
After graduation, he attended Harvard Medical School, where he earned his Doctor of Medicine degree in 2000 and his postgraduate work consisted of a residency in internal medicine followed by an oncology fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital. Mukherjee is currently serving as assistant professor of medicine at the Department of Medicine of Columbia University in New York City and he is a staff cancer physician at Columbia University Medical Center. The Oprah magazine listed it in its Top 10 Books of 2010 and it was listed in The 10 Best Books of 2010 by The New York Times and the Top 10 Non-fiction Books of 2010 by Time. In 2011, The Emperor of All Maladies, A Biography of Cancer was nominated as a National Book Critics Circle Award finalist, O. Wilson Literary Science Writing Award in 2011. The magazine Time nominated Mukherjee to its 100 most influential people list, a haematologist and oncologist by training, Mukherjees scientific work addresses the links between normal stem cells and cancer cells.
Mukherjees lab has performed investigations on the microenvironment of stem cells, blood-forming stem cells reside in the bone marrow in very specific microenvironments. Two such chemicals studied in the lab – proteasome inhibitors and activin inhibitors — are currently in trials with novel therapeutic uses as defined by these studies. The lab has identified novel genetic mutations in myelodysplasia and acute myelogenous leukaemia and has played a role in finding therapies for these diseases in the clinical setting. Mukherjees lab is based at Columbia Universitys Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, previously, he was affiliated with the Harvard Stem Cell Institute and with Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Mukherjees 2016 book The Gene provides a history of genetic research, the Gene was shortlisted for the Royal Society Insight Investment Science Book Prize 2016, the Nobel prize of science writing. Mukherjee has published widely in peer reviewed journals, including papers in Nature, Neuron.
2010, The Emperor of All Maladies, A Biography of Cancer,2015, The Laws of Medicine, Field Notes from an Uncertain Science. They have two daughters and Aria, indians in the New York City metropolitan region List of Indian Americans Introducing the Biographer of Cancer
Herodotus was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire and lived in the fifth century BC, a contemporary of Socrates. The Histories is the work which he is known to have produced. Despite Herodotus historical significance, little is known of his personal life and his place in history and his significance may be understood according to the traditions within which he worked. His work is the earliest Greek prose to have survived intact, of these only fragments of Hecataeuss work survive yet they allow us glimpses into the kind of tradition within which Herodotus wrote his own Histories. In his introduction to Hecataeus’s work, This points forward to the ‘folksy’ yet ‘international’ outlook typical of Herodotus. Yet, one scholar has described the work of Hecataeus as “a curious false start to history” since despite his critical spirit. It is possible that Herodotus borrowed much material from Hecataeus, as stated by Porphyry in a recorded by Eusebius. But Hecataeus did not record events that had occurred in living memory, unlike Herodotus, Herodotus claims to be better informed than his predecessors by relying on empirical observation to correct their excessive schematism.
For example, He argues for continental asymmetry as opposed to the theory of a perfectly circular earth with Europe. Yet, he retains idealizing tendencies, as in his notions of the Danube. His debt to previous authors of prose ‘histories’ might be questionable, this point is one of the most contentious issues in modern scholarship. It is on account of the strange stories and the folk-tales he reported that his critics in early modern times branded him “The Father of Lies”. Even his own contemporaries found reason to scoff at his achievement, the Athenian historian Thucydides dismissed Herodotus as a “logos-writer”. Moreover, Thucydides developed a historical topic more in keeping with the Greek world-view, the interplay of civilizations was more relevant to Greeks living in Anatolia, such as Herodotus himself, for whom life within a foreign civilization was a recent memory. Modern scholars generally turn to Herodotus’s own writing for reliable information about his life, supplemented with ancient yet much sources, modern accounts of his life typically go something like this, Herodotus was born at Halicarnassus around 484 BC.
His name is not mentioned in the tribute list of the Athenian Delian League, the epic poet Panyassis – a relative of Herodotus – is reported to have taken part in a failed uprising. Herodotus expresses affection for the island of Samos, and this is an indication that he might have lived there in his youth. So it is possible that his family was involved in an uprising against Lygdamis, leading to a period of exile on Samos, Herodotus wrote his Histories in the Ionian dialect, yet he was born in Halicarnassus, which was a Dorian settlement
Cambyses II son of Cyrus the Great, was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire. Cambyses grandfather was Cambyses I, king of Anshan, after the Egyptian campaign and the truce with Libya, Cambyses invaded the Kingdom of Kush but with little success. Though numerous scholars link Cambyses to the Sanskrit tribal name Kamboja there are few scholars who suggest Elamite origin of the name, jean Przyluski had sought to find an Austric affinity for Kamboja. Friedrich von Spiegel, Sten Konow, Ernst Herzfeld, James Hope Moulton, Wojciech Skalmowski, James Hope Moulton regards Spiegels suggestions as the best of other etymological explanations of these two names. On the other hand, Arnold J, when Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon in 539 BC, Cambyses was employed in leading religious ceremonies. In the cylinder which contains Cyrus proclamation to the Babylonians, Cambyses name is joined to his fathers in the prayers to Marduk, on a tablet dated from the first year of Cyrus, Cambyses is called king of Babylon, although his authority seems to have been ephemeral.
Only in 530 BC, when Cyrus set out on his last expedition into the East, numerous Babylonian tablets of the time date from the accession and the first year of Cambyses, when Cyrus was king of the countries. After the death of his father in 530 BC, Cambyses became sole king, the tablets dating from his reign in Babylonia run to the end of his eighth year, in 522 BC. Herodotus, who dates his reign from the death of Cyrus, gives his reign a length of seven years five months, the traditions about Cambyses, preserved by the Greek authors, come from two different sources. The first, which forms the part of the account of Herodotus, is of Egyptian origin. Here Cambyses is made the son of Cyrus and a daughter of Apries named Nitetis. Intermingled are some stories derived from the Greek mercenaries, especially about their leader Phanes of Halicarnassus, who betrayed Egypt to the Persians. In the Persian tradition the crime of Cambyses is the murder of his brother, he is accused of drunkenness, in which he commits many crimes.
These traditions are found in different passages of Herodotus, and in a form and it is difficult to form a correct picture of Cambysess character from these inscriptions. It was quite natural that, after Cyrus had conquered the Middle East, Cambyses should undertake the conquest of Egypt, the war took place in 525 BC, when Amasis II had just been succeeded by his son Psamtik III. Cambyses had prepared for the march through the desert by forming an alliance with Arabian chieftains, King Amasis had hoped that Egypt would be able to withstand the threatened Persian attack through his alliance with the Greeks. In the decisive battle at Pelusium the Egyptian army was defeated, the captive king Psammetichus was executed, having attempted a rebellion. The Egyptian inscriptions show that Cambyses officially adopted the titles and the dress of the Pharaohs
Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster, it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda, as its Supreme Being. Zoroastrianism was suppressed from the 7th century onwards following the Muslim conquest of Persia of 633-654, recent estimates place the current number of Zoroastrians at around 2.6 million, with most living in India and in Iran. Besides the Zoroastrian diaspora, the older Mithraic faith Yazdânism is still practised amongst Kurds, the religious philosophy of Zoroaster divided the early Iranian gods of Proto-Indo-Iranian tradition. The most important texts of the religion are those of the Avesta, in Zoroastrianism, the creator Ahura Mazda, through the Spenta Mainyu is an all-good father of Asha, in opposition to Druj and no evil originates from him. He and his works are evident to humanity through the six primary Amesha Spentas, Spenta Mainyu adjoined unto truth oppose the Spirits opposite, Angra Mainyu and its forces born of Akəm Manah. In Zoroastrianism, the purpose in life is to be among those who renew the world. to make the progress towards perfection.
Its basic maxims include, Hukhta, which mean, Good Thoughts, Good Words, there is only one path and that is the path of Truth. Do the right thing because it is the thing to do. The full name by which Zoroaster addressed the deity is, The Lord Creator and he proclaimed that there is only one God, the singularly creative and sustaining force of the Universe. He stated that human beings are given a right of choice, Zoroasters teachings focused on responsibility, and did not introduce a devil per se. The contesting force to Ahura Mazda was called Angra Mainyu, or angry spirit, post-Zoroastrian scripture introduced the concept of Ahriman, the Devil, which was effectively a personification of Angra Mainyu. The name Zoroaster is a Greek rendering of the name Zarathustra and he is known as Zartosht and Zardosht in Persian and Zaratosht in Gujarati. The Zoroastrian name of the religion is Mazdayasna, which combines Mazda- with the Avestan language word yasna, meaning worship, in English, an adherent of the faith is commonly called a Zoroastrian or a Zarathustrian.
An older expression still used today is Behdin, meaning The best Religion | Beh < Middle Persian Weh + Din < Middle Persian dēn < Avestan Daēnā. In Zoroastrian liturgy the term is used as a title for an individual who has formally inducted into the religion in a Navjote ceremony. The term Mazdaism /ˈmæzdə. ɪzəm/ is a typical 19th century construct, taking Mazda- from the name Ahura Mazda, the March 2001 draft edition of the Oxford English Dictionary records an alternate form, perhaps derived from the French Mazdéisme, which first appeared in 1871. In older English sources, the terms Gheber and Gueber were used to refer to Zoroastrians, Zoroastrian philosophy is identified as having been known to Italian Renaissance Europe through an image of Zoroaster in Raphaels School of Athens by Giorgio Vasari in 1550. The Oxford English Dictionary records use of the term Zoroastrianism in 1874 in Archibald Sayces Principles of Comparative Philology, Zoroastrians believe that there is one universal, supreme god, Ahura Mazda, or the Wise Lord
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Aeschylus was an ancient Greek tragedian. He is often described as the father of tragedy, academics knowledge of the genre begins with his work, and understanding of earlier tragedies is largely based on inferences from his surviving plays. According to Aristotle, he expanded the number of characters in theater allowing conflict among them, fragments of some other plays have survived in quotes and more continue to be discovered on Egyptian papyrus, often giving us surprising insights into his work. He was probably the first dramatist to present plays as a trilogy, at least one of his plays was influenced by the Persians second invasion of Greece. This work, The Persians, is the surviving classical Greek tragedy concerned with contemporary events. Despite this, Aeschylus work – particularly the Oresteia – is generally acclaimed by modern critics and scholars. As soon as he woke from the dream, the young Aeschylus began to write a tragedy, and his first performance took place in 499 BC and he won his first victory at the City Dionysia in 484 BC.
In 510 BC, when Aeschylus was 15 years old, Cleomenes I expelled the sons of Peisistratus from Athens, Cleisthenes reforms included a system of registration that emphasized the importance of the deme over family tradition. In the last decade of the 6th century and his family were living in the deme of Eleusis, the Persian Wars played a large role in the playwrights life and career. In 490 BC, Aeschylus and his brother Cynegeirus fought to defend Athens against the army of Darius I of Persia at the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians emerged triumphant, a victory celebrated across the city-states of Greece, however, died in the battle, receiving a mortal wound while trying to prevent a Persian ship retreating from the shore, for which his countrymen extolled him as a hero. In 480, Aeschylus was called into service again, this time against Xerxes Is invading forces at the Battle of Salamis. Ion of Chios was a witness for Aeschyluss war record and his contribution in Salamis, Salamis holds a prominent place in The Persians, his oldest surviving play, which was performed in 472 BC and won first prize at the Dionysia.
Aeschylus was one of many Greeks who were initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries, initiates gained secret knowledge through these rites, likely concerning the afterlife. Firm details of specific rites are sparse, as members were sworn under the penalty of not to reveal anything about the Mysteries to non-initiates. Nevertheless, according to Aristotle, Aeschylus was accused of revealing some of the secrets on stage. Other sources claim that a mob tried to kill Aeschylus on the spot. Heracleides of Pontus asserts that the tried to stone Aeschylus
Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius Max Wolf was a German astronomer and a pioneer in the field of astrophotography. He was Chairman of Astronomy at the University of Heidelberg and director of the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory from 1902 until his death and he was born in Heidelberg, Germany on June 21,1863, the son of a popular medical doctor, Dr. Franz Wolf. His father encouraged an interest in science and built an observatory for his son in the garden of the family home and it is from here that Wolf is credited with his first astronomical discovery, comet 14P/Wolf, in 1884. He attended the world famous university and, in 1888, at the age of 25. He spent one year of study in Stockholm, the only significant time he would spend outside of Heidelberg in his life. He returned to the University of Heidelberg and accepted the position of privat-docent in 1890, a popular lecturer in astronomy, he declined offers of positions from other institutions. In 1902 he was appointed Chair of Astronomy and Director of the new Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl observatory, positions he would hold until his death in 1932.
While the new observatory was being built Wolf was appointed to supervise the construction and he proved to be a not only a capable supervisor but a successful money raiser. Wolf immediately designed and ordered a double refractor telescope from American astronomer and instrument builder and this instrument, known as the Bruce double-astrograph, with parallel 16 in lenses and a fast f/5 focal ratio, became the observatorys primary research telescope. He raised money for a 28 in reflector telescope, the first for the observatory, in 1910 Wolf proposed to the Carl Zeiss optics firm the creation of a new instrument, now known as the planetarium. World War I intervened before this could be developed, but the Carl Zeiss company resumed this project after peace was restored, the first official public showing was at the Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany on October 21,1923. During his trip to America he was interested in learning more about the new field of astrophotography. The two would become lifelong correspondents, competitors and friends, Wolf was clearly moved by the death of his friend in 1923 and wrote a long obituary.
The University, already world-renowned in many fields, became well known for astronomy. Wolf himself was a researcher, contributing numerous papers in many areas of astronomy up to the end of his life. Like his friend, E. E. Barnard, he died rather young for an astronomer and he died in Heidelberg on October 3,1932, at the age of 69. He was survived by his widow and three sons, Wolf started his career as a comet hunter and continued to discover them throughout his life. He discovered or co-discovered several comets, including 14P/Wolf and 43P/Wolf-Harrington and he won a competition with E. E. Barnard on who would be the first to observe the return of Halleys Comet in April,1910
Creation is an epic historical fiction novel by Gore Vidal published in 1981. In 2002 he published a version, reinstating four chapters that a previous editor had cut and adding a brief foreword explaining what had happened. Over the course of his life, he meets many influential figures of his time, including Zoroaster, the Buddha, Lao Tsu. Cyrus, who is the grandson of Zoroaster and who survives his murder, grows up at the Achaemenid court as a quasi-noble, upon returning home, Cyrus witnesses the defeat of Xerxes and the end of the Greco-Persian wars. Cyrus goes into retirement, but is called upon by Xerxes successor, Artaxerxes I, to serve as ambassador to Athens, the story is related in the first person as recalled to his Greek great-nephew Democritus. Cyruss recollection is said to be motivated in part by his desire to set the record following the publication by Herodotus of an account of the Greco-Persian wars. Vidal evokes a theme which Robert Graves had previously explored, a skepticism of the reported facts, the story features a rather amusingly sarcastic treatment of the pretensions to glory of Classical Golden Age of Athens.
In the parts of the book that comment on history, Vidal makes obvious use of the Histories of Herodotus, the era which Vidal covers in this novel has been referred to by some historians as the Axial Age. In Vidals story, Darius is portrayed as a usurper who murdered King Cambyses and stole the throne from the heir, Prince Smerdis. This account of Dariuss ascension is in contrast to the historical sources. The figure usually given credit for the founding Legalism, Han Feizi was born than the book is set. However, most historians believe that Zoroaster lived centuries before any of the Achaemenid kings. This issue is dealt with throughout the novel, explained by the characters own attitudes. In reality, there is no record of Zoroasters family having survived into the Achaemenid era, the central character, Cyrus Spitama, is intentionally a fictional construct and not based on a real historical figure
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus II of Persia, commonly known as Cyrus the Great and called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, under his successors, the empire eventually stretched at its maximum extent from parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east. His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, the reign of Cyrus the Great lasted between 29 and 31 years. Cyrus built his empire by conquering first the Median Empire, the Lydian Empire, either before or after Babylon, he led an expedition into central Asia, which resulted in major campaigns that were described as having brought into subjection every nation without exception. Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, as he died in battle. He was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II, who managed to add to the empire by conquering Egypt, Cyrus the Great respected the customs and religions of the lands he conquered.
This became a successful model for centralized administration and establishing a government working to the advantage. In fact, the administration of the empire through satraps and the principle of forming a government at Pasargadae were the works of Cyrus. Cyrus the Great is recognized for his achievements in human rights, politics. Having originated from Persis, roughly corresponding to the modern Iranian province of Fars and this view has been criticized by some historians as a misunderstanding of the Cylinders generic nature as a traditional statement that new monarchs make at the beginning of their reign. The name Cyrus is a Latinized form derived from the Greek Κῦρος, Kỹros, the name and its meaning has been recorded in ancient inscriptions in different languages. This may point to a relationship to the mythological first king of Persia, Jamshid. Karl Hoffmann has suggested a translation based on the meaning of an Indo-European-root to humiliate, in the Persian language and especially in Iran, Cyruss name is spelled as کوروش.
In the Bible, he is known as Koresh, the Persian domination and kingdom in the Iranian plateau started by an extension of the Achaemenid dynasty, who expanded their earlier domination possibly from the 9th century BC onward. The eponymous founder of dynasty was Achaemenes. Achaemenids are descendants of Achaemenes as Darius the Great, the king of the dynasty, traces his genealogy to him. Ancient documents mention that Teispes had a son called Cyrus I, Cyrus I had a full brother whose name is recorded as Ariaramnes. In 600 BC, Cyrus I was succeeded by his son, Cambyses I, Cyrus the Great was a son of Cambyses I, who named his son after his father, Cyrus I
The ceremony can be conducted for the monarchs consort, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event. A ceremony without the placement of a crown on the head is known as an enthronement. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom, Tonga, in addition to investing the monarch with symbols of state, Western-style coronations have often traditionally involve anointing with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called. Wherever a ruler is anointed in this way, as in Great Britain and Tonga, some other lands use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country, in the past, concepts of royalty and deity were often inexorably linked. Rome promulgated the practice of worship, in Medieval Europe. Coronations were once a direct expression of these alleged connections. Thus, coronations have often been discarded altogether or altered to reflect the nature of the states in which they are held.
However, some monarchies still choose to retain an overtly religious dimension to their accession rituals, others have adopted simpler enthronement or inauguration ceremonies, or even no ceremony at all. In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites. The ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC, judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11,12 and II Chronicles 23,11. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one gradually evolved over the following century, the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers, he wore a jewel-studded diadem.
Later emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperors head. Historians debate when exactly this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II. This ritual included recitation of prayers by the Byzantine prelate over the crown, after this event, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the ecclesiastical element in the coronation ceremonial rapidly develop. This was usually performed three times, following this, the king was given a spear, and a diadem wrought of silk or linen was bound around his forehead as a token of regal authority