Attock

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Attock City
اٹک
Campbellpur
City
Attock Fort in Old Attock
Attock City is located in Punjab, Pakistan
Attock City
Attock City
Attock City is located in Pakistan
Attock City
Attock City
Coordinates: 33°46′0″N 72°22′0″E / 33.76667°N 72.36667°E / 33.76667; 72.36667Coordinates: 33°46′0″N 72°22′0″E / 33.76667°N 72.36667°E / 33.76667; 72.36667
Country Pakistan
Province Punjab
Established 1904
Incorporated 1978
Area
 • Total 6,857 km2 (2,648 sq mi)
Population (2017)
 • Total 18,84,000
Time zone PKT (UTC5)
Postal code span 43600
Area code(s) 057
Website www.attockonians.com

Attock City (Punjabi, Urdu: اٹک‬), formerly Campbellpore or Campbellpur (کیمبل پور‬) until 1978,[1] is a city located in northern part of Punjab province of Pakistan near the capital of Islamabad in the Panjistan region, and is the headquarters of Attock District. Attock was founded in 1908 several miles southeast of the older city of Attock Khurd,[2] which had been established by the Emperor Akbar in the 16th century,[3] and was initially named in honour of Sir Colin Campbell.[4] The city’s population was 18,84,000 in the 2017 census with contemporary estimates approaching 100,000.[5][6]

Etymology[edit]

The city was initially named Campbellpore, also spelt Campbellpur, in 1908 in honour of Sir Colin Campbell,[4] the name was changed in 1978 to Attock, which literally means "Foot of the Mountain."[3] The city's original name survives in the name of some local businesses, such as the Campbellpur Milk.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

Attock is located in a historically significant region. Gandhara was an ancient kingdom extending to the Swat valley and the Potohar plateau regions of Pakistan as well as the Jalalabad district of northeastern Afghanistan. Situated astride the middle Indus River, the region had Takshashila and Peshawar as its chief cities. The place is of both political and commercial importance, as the Indus is here crossed by the military and trade route through the Khyber Pass into Afghanistan. Alexander the Great, Timur and Nader Shah crossed the Indus at or about this spot in their respective invasions of India.[7]

The Attock fort was completed in 1583 under the supervision of Khawaja Shamsuddin Khawafi, a minister of Emperor Akbar,[8] the Battle of Attock took place at Attock Khurd on 28 April 1758 between Indian Maratha Kingdom and the Durrani Empire. The Marathas under Raghunathrao Ballal Peshwa and Maharaja Tukojirao Holkar Bahadur were victorious in the battle and Attock was captured.[9] On 8 May 1758, the Marathas defeated Durrani forces in the Battle of Peshawar and captured the city of Peshawar. Marathas had now reached the Afghanistan border. Ahmad Shah Durrani got alarmed with this success of Marathas and started planning to recapture his lost territories, after the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikhs invaded and occupied Attock District. The Sikhs established religious freedom and respected the native Muslims, the Sikh Kingdom (1799–1849) under Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) captured the fortress of Attock in 1813 from the Afghan Kingdom.

In 1849, Attock Khurd (Old Attock) was conquered by the British who created Campbellpur District. Following the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857, the region's strategic value was appreciated by the British, who established the Campbellpur Cantonment in 1857-58.[2] Campbellpore District was organised in 1904,[2] by the division of Talagang Tehsil in the Jhelum District with the Pindigheb, Fateh Jang and Attock tehsils from Rawalpindi District.

Founding[edit]

The city's foundations were laid in 1908 by Sir Colin Campbell, the British soldier for whom the city is named,[2] the new city was established near the 16th century Attock fort that had guarded the major routes between Central Asia and South Asia. Attock's first oil well was drilled in Khaur in 1915,[10] while the Attock Oil Company was established,[11] it has an oil and gas field Dakhini near Jand. Dhurnal & Sadkal in Tehsil Fateh Jang.

Modern[edit]

After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs emigrated to India, while Muslim refugees from India settled in Attock. The Pakistani Government renamed Campbellpur as Attock in 1978,[3] the city and surrounding area are known for their high representation among soldiers of the Pakistani Military.[12]

The New Islamabad International Airport is being built in Attock district, and it is scheduled to open in 2018.]] New Islamabad International Airport From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Islamabad International Airport - IIAP Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (PCAA) Logo.png اسلام آباد بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا ,اسلام آباد IATA: -- ICAO: OPIS Summary Airport type Public Owner Government of Pakistan Operator Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan Serves Islamabad-Rawalpindi region Location Fateh Jang, Attock, Punjab, Pakistan Elevation AMSL 1,761 ft / 537 m Coordinates 33°32′56.70″N 72°49′32.34″ECoordinates: 33°32′56.70″N 72°49′32.34″E Website http://www.islamabadairport.com.pk/ Map ISB is located in Pakistan ISBISB Location of New Islamabad International Airport Runways Direction Length Surface m ft 28L/10R 4,000 13,123 Asphalt 28R/10L 4,000 13,123 Asphalt Statistics Passengers Capacity 15 million (first phase)

25 million (planned) Cost ₨81.17 billion (US$770 million)[1] Islamabad International Airport (Urdu: اسلام آباد بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا) is an international airport for Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area currently under construction.[2][3]

The airport project was conceived initially in 1984 for which the acquisition of land in Attock started the same year, the project location is around 20 km west of the twin cities and it is being built to replace the existing Benazir Bhutto Airport. After repeated delays, the new airport is expected to become operational by April 20, 2018.[4] The airport is connected to Islamabad via the Kashmir Highway and Rawalpindi via the GT Road and the proposed ring road.[5] A four-lane highway is also under construction to serve cargo traffic.[6] The Islamabad Metrobus is also being expanded to connect the airport.[7]

Once completed, it will be the first greenfield airport in Pakistan as well as the first to be capable of handling the Airbus A380 . Built on an area of 3,571.5 acres (14.45 sq km / 5.58 sq mi), the airport has two runways. It will be capable of serving 15 million passengers every year in its first phase. Further planned expansions will allow it to serve up to 25 million passengers every year, the terminal includes 15 gates with ten remote gates, a four-star hotel, duty-free shops, food court and 42 immigration counters.[8] Additionally, Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan is acquiring 2,833 acres (11.46 sq km / 4.42 sq mi) of land to build a third runway at the airport.[9] Project details It is a joint project of Capital Development Authority (CDA), National Highway Authority (NHA) and the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and designed by French company Aéroports de Paris Ingenierie (ADPi) and CPG Corporation of Singapore. It is being built on more than 3200 acres of land and consists of a passenger terminal building, 2 runways (28L/10R, 28R/10L), taxiways, apron and parking bays for wide-body aircraft. There will also be a cargo terminal, air traffic control complex, fuel farm, as well as a fire, crash, and rescue facility, it would be equipped to handle all types of aircraft including the new generation aircraft such as the Airbus A380, Boeing 747-8 and Airbus A350 XWB aircraft . The construction site of the airport is near the Rawalpindi-Fateh Jang Road near Fateh Jang, Attock, some 20 km from Zero Point, Islamabad and 23 km from Saddar, Rawalpindi.[11] The airport is being developed to be at par with international standards to serve as a major hub for all aviation activities in Pakistan.Project Management consultancy Services provided by Mott Macdonald Ltd and MMPakistan (Pvt) Ltd.

New Islamabad International Airport will have an 180,000m² modular terminal building which will initially be able to handle 9 million passengers and 80,000 metric tons cargo per annum, the numbers are expected to reach 25 million passengers by 2024.[12] Being a new airport, a significant portion of the land has been earmarked for commercial purposes such as duty-free shops, hotel and convention center, air malls, business centre, food courts, leisure and recreational facilities.

Geography[edit]

Attock is located near the Haro River, a tributary of the Indus River, 80 km (50 mi) from Rawalpindi, 100 km (62 mi) from Peshawar, and 10 km (6 mi) from the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Kamra.

Education[edit]

According to the Alif Ailaan Pakistan District Education Rankings 2014, Attock is ranked 3 out of 146 districts in Pakistan in terms of the quality of education. For facilities and infrastructure, the district is ranked 17 out of 146.[13] A detailed picture of the district's education performance is also available online.[14] Army Public School & College, Government Polytechnic Institute, Noble Grammar, The City School, The Smart School System, Beaconhouse are few of the many educational institutes in Attock.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shackle, Christopher (1980). "Hindko in Kohat and Peshawar". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 43 (3): 482. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00137401. ISSN 0041-977X. 
  2. ^ a b c d Pike, John. city.htm "Attock City Cantonment" Check |url= value (help). www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2018-03-09. 
  3. ^ a b c Everett-Heath, John (2017-12-07). The Concise Dictionary of World Place Names. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192556462. 
  4. ^ a b Everett-Heath, John (2017-12-07). city%20campbell&f=false The Concise Dictionary of World Place Names Check |url= value (help). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192556462. 
  5. ^ Haryana (India). Gazetteers Organisation (2000). Haryana District Gazetteers: Imperial gazetteer of India (provincial series), Punjab, 1908 (v. 2). Gazetteers Organisation, Revenue Dept., Haryana. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  6. ^ "Attock". World Gazeteer. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  7. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Attock". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 886. 
  8. ^ Hasan, Shaikh Khurshid (2005). Historical forts in Pakistan. National Institute of Historical & Cultural Research Centre of Excellence, Quaid-i-Azam University. p. 37. ISBN 978-969-415-069-7. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  9. ^ "Attock to Cuttack, PM Narendra Modi causes a stir". The Economic Times. June 27, 2017. 
  10. ^ World oil. Gulf Publishing Company. March 1947. p. 12. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  11. ^ (India), Punjab (1932). Punjab District Gazetteers: Attock district, 1930. Superintendent, Government Printing. 
  12. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (2015-08-15). The Pakistan Paradox: Instability and Resilience. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190613303. 
  13. ^ "Alif Ailaan Pakistan District Education Rankings, 2014" (PDF). Alif Ailaan. Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  14. ^ "Individual district profile link, 2014" (PDF). Alif Ailaan. Retrieved 2014-05-06. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Attock". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.