Earl Warren was an American jurist and politician who served as the 14th Chief Justice of the United States and earlier as the 30th Governor of California. The Warren Court presided over a major shift in constitutional jurisprudence, with Warren writing the majority opinions in landmark cases such as Brown v. Board of Education, Reynolds v. Sims, Miranda v. Arizona. Warren led the Warren Commission, a presidential commission that investigated the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy, he is as of 2019 the last Chief Justice to have served in an elected office. Warren was raised in Bakersfield, California. After graduating from the law program at the University of California, Berkeley, he began a legal career in Oakland, he was hired as a deputy district attorney for Alameda County in 1920 and was appointed district attorney in 1925. He emerged as a leader of the state Republican Party and won election as the Attorney General of California in 1938. In that position, he played a role in the forced removal and internment of over 100,000 Japanese Americans during World War II.
In the 1942 California gubernatorial election, Warren defeated incumbent Democratic governor Culbert Olson. He would serve as Governor of California until 1953, presiding over a period of major growth for the state. Warren served as Thomas E. Dewey's running mate in the 1948 presidential election, but Dewey lost the election to incumbent President Harry S. Truman. Warren sought the Republican nomination in the 1952 presidential election, but the party nominated General Dwight D. Eisenhower. After Eisenhower won election as president, he appointed Warren as Chief Justice. Warren helped arrange a unanimous decision in Brown v. Board of Education, which ruled that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. After Brown, the Warren Court would continue to issue rulings that helped bring an end to the segregationist Jim Crow laws that were prevalent throughout the South. In Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States, the Court upheld the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a federal law that prohibits racial segregation in public institutions and public accommodations.
In the 1960s, the Warren Court handed down several landmark rulings that transformed criminal procedure and other areas of the law. Many of the Court's decisions incorporated the Bill of Rights, making the protections of the Bill of Rights apply to state and local governments. Gideon v. Wainwright established a criminal defendant's right to an attorney in felony cases, while Miranda v. Arizona required police officers to give a warning to criminal suspects in police custody. Reynolds v. Sims established that all state legislative districts must be of equal population, while the Court's holding in Wesberry v. Sanders required equal populations for congressional districts. Griswold v. Connecticut struck down a state law that restricted access to contraceptives and established a constitutional right to privacy. Warren announced his retirement in 1968, was succeeded by conservative appellate judge Warren Burger. Though the Warren Court's rulings have received criticism from many conservatives, as well as from some other quarters, few of the Court's decisions have been overturned.
Earl Warren was born in Los Angeles, California, on March 19, 1891, to Matt Warren and his wife, Crystal. Matt, whose original family name was Varren, was born in Stavanger, Norway in 1864, he and his family migrated to the United States in 1866. Crystal, whose maiden name was Hernlund, was born in Sweden. After marrying in Minneapolis, Minnesota and Crystal settled in Southern California in 1889, where Matthias found work with the Southern Pacific Railroad. Earl Warren was the second of two children, after his older sister, Ethel. Earl did not receive a middle name. In 1896, the family resettled in Bakersfield, where Warren would grow up. Though not an exceptional student, Warren graduated from Kern County High School in 1908. Hoping to become a trial lawyer, Warren enrolled in the University of California, Berkeley after graduating from high school, he majored in political science and became a member of the La Junta Club, which became part of the national Sigma Phi fraternity while Warren was attending college.
Like many other students at Berkeley, Warren was influenced by the Progressive movement, he was affected by Governor Hiram Johnson of California and Senator Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin. After his third year at Berkeley, Warren entered the school's Department of Jurisprudence, renamed the UC Berkeley School of Law. Though the dean of the law school at one point urged Warren to drop out, Warren received a Juris Doctor degree in 1914. Like his classmates, upon graduation Warren was admitted to the California bar without examination. After graduation, he took a position with the Associated Oil Company in San Francisco. Warren disliked working at the Associated Oil Company and was disgusted by the corruption he saw in San Francisco, so he took a position with the Oakland law firm of Robinson and Robinson. After the United States entered World War I in April 1917, Warren volunteered for an officer training camp, but was rejected due to hemorrhoids. Still hoping to become an officer, Warren underwent a procedure to remove the hemorrhoids, but by the time he recovered from the operation the officer training camp had closed.
Warren enlisted in the United States Army as a private in August 1917, was assigned to Company I of the 91st Division's 363rd Infantry Regiment at Camp Lewis, Washington. He
William Morris Stewart
William Morris Stewart was an American lawyer and politician. Stewart was born in Wayne County, New York, on August 9, 1825; as a child he moved with his parents to Ohio. As a young man he was a mathematics teacher in Ohio. In 1849 he left in 1850 to move to California, he came to California because of the Gold Rush. He arrived in San Francisco and soon left to begin mining near Nevada City, California. In 1903 he was reputed to be one of the richest men in the Senate and the oldest member of that body. Stewart was married to Annie Elizabeth Foote, daughter of his law partner, Henry S. Foote, on May 31, 1855, his second wife was May Agnes Cone, widow of Theodore C. Cone, they were wed on October 26, 1903, in the Piedmont Hotel, Georgia. Judge Thomas M. Norwood, who had served with Stewart in the U. S. Senate was the best man. According to the book Reminiscences of William M. Stewart in May 1905 he moved with his new wife and her daughter to the Bullfrog Mining District, where he started a law firm and law library.
In 1851 Stewart ran for sheriff of Nevada County and the next year, in February, he was at the Whig State Convention in Sacramento, where he was named a delegate to the party's national convention. In 1852 he studied law in the office of Nevada County District Attorney John R. McConnell, becoming a Democrat in the process, he was appointed to succeed McConnell as district attorney in November 1852. At that time he became a "motivating force" in beginning a Democratic newspaper, Young America Stewart continued as district attorney after an election in November 1853, he was acting attorney general of California from June 1853, until December. Stewart moved to San Francisco and became a law partner with Henry S. Foote, Louis Aldrick, Benjamin Watkins Lee. In 1860 Stewart moved to Virginia City, Nevada where he participated in mining litigation and helped the development of the Comstock Lode; as Nevada was becoming a state in 1864, he helped the state develop its constitution. Stewart’s role as a lawyer and politician in Nevada has always been controversial.
He was the territory’s leading lawyer in mining litigation, but his opponents accused him of bribing judges and juries. Stewart accused the three Nevada territorial judges of being corrupt, he escaped disbarment. In 1864, Stewart was named by the Nevada State Legislature to the United States Senate as a Republican, he served in the Senate from 1865 until 1875 when he retired and practiced law again in Nevada and California. In 1873, Stewart's palatial residence, nicknamed Stewart's Castle, was built in Washington, D. C. and became a center of the city's social scene. He was elected to the Senate again in 1887 and reelected in 1893 and 1899. During the 1890s he left the Republican Party to join the Silver Party, which supported the Free Silver movement, he caucused with the Silver Republicans During his many years in the Senate, Stewart drafted or co-authored important legislation, including several mining acts and laws urging land reclamation by irrigation. Most famously, Stewart is given credit for authoring in 1868 the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution protecting voting rights regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
During his time as senator, Stewart received 50,000 acres of land for his service on the Committee on Pacific Railroads. In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant offered Stewart a seat on the United States Supreme Court. Stewart declined. Stewart was involved in an international scandal where he promoted the sale of a worthless worked out Emma Silver Mine at Alta, Utah for millions of pounds to unsuspecting English citizens. In 1902 he was in The Hague in connection with the Mexican-American arbitration case, when his wife, the daughter of Confederate Senator Henry S. Foote, was killed in a motor-car accident in California. Stewart retired from the Senate in 1905, he was a co-founder of the city of Chevy Chase, along with Francis G. Newlands, a fellow Senator from Nevada. Stewart remained in Washington, D. C. and died there four years later. He was cremated and the ashes were kept in Laurel Hill Cemetery in San Francisco before being moved to Holy Cross Cemetery in Colma, California; the actor Howard Negley played Stewart in the 1953 episode, "The Bandits of Panamint", of the syndicated television anthology series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Stanley Andrews.
In the story line, Stewart enters into an agreement to gain pardons for two bandits, played Rick Vallin and Glase Lohmond, who accidentally stumble upon a rich silver strike. Stewart, however gains ownership of the mine. Sheila Ryan and Gloria Winters played young women with romantic interests in the outlaws. In another 1953 episode, "Whirlwind Courtship", Michael Hathaway, who appeared only twice on television, played Stewart as a young Nevada lawyer determined to wed Annie Foote, a daughter of former U. S. Senator Henry S. Foote of Mississippi, who had relocated to the West. United States Congress. "William Morris Stewart". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William M. Stewart, The Online Books Page, University of Pennsylvania Media related to William M. Stewart at Wikimedia Commons
Secretary of State of California
The Secretary of State of California is the chief clerk of the U. S. State of California, overseeing a department of 500 people; the Secretary of State is elected for four year terms, like the state's other constitutional officers, is restricted by term limits to only two terms. The current Secretary of State, Alex Padilla, took office on January 5, 2015; the Secretary of State is California's Chief Elections Officer, overseeing all federal and state elections in the state and maintaining a database of registered voters. They are responsible for disclosure of campaign and lobbyist financial information, under the California Political Reform Act of 1974; the Secretary of State's office has a number of responsibilities related to corporations. The Business Entities Section processes and maintains records related to corporations, limited liability companies and other business entities conducting or planning to conduct business in California; the Secretary's office maintains a number of registries, including the Safe at Home confidential address program, the Domestic Partners and Advance Health Care Directive.
Other roles include safeguarding the California State Archives, they are a trustee of the California Museum, though they have not been responsible for the California State Library since 1862. California government and California politics List of company registers Official website
Xavier Becerra is an American politician and lawyer serving as the 33rd and current Attorney General of California since 2017. Prior to becoming Attorney General, he was a member of the United States House of Representatives for California's 34th congressional district, who represented Downtown Los Angeles in Congress from 1993 to 2017. Becerra, a member of the Democratic Party, was Chairman of the House Democratic Caucus. Born in Sacramento, California, to Mexican parents, Becerra is a graduate of Stanford University, receiving his J. D. from Stanford Law School. He worked as a lawyer at the Legal Assistance Corporation of central Massachusetts, before returning to California in 1986 to work as an administrative assistant for state senator Art Torres, he served as a deputy attorney general in the California Department of Justice from 1987 to 1990, before he was elected to the California State Assembly, where he served one term from 1990 to 1992. Becerra was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1992, representing California's 34th congressional district from 1993 to 2003, California's 31st congressional district from 2003 to 2013.
During his tenure in the House, he served as Chairman of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus from 1997 to 1999, vice chairman of the House Democratic Caucus from 2009 to 2013, as a member of the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction. Becerra is a member of the Washington, D. C. based think tank The Inter-American Dialogue. Born in Sacramento, Becerra is the son of working-class immigrants from Jalisco, Mexico; as a young child Becerra grew up in a one-room apartment with his three sisters. He graduated in 1976 from C. K. McClatchy High School, located in the center of Sacramento, he studied abroad at the University of Salamanca in Salamanca, from 1978 to 1979, before earning his B. A. in economics from Stanford University in 1980, becoming the first person in his family to graduate from college. He received his Juris Doctor from Stanford Law School in 1984 and was admitted to the State Bar of California in 1985, he was a lawyer, working on cases involving individuals who had mental disorders for the Legal Assistance Corporation of Central Massachusetts.
Becerra worked as an Administrative Assistant for California State Senator Art Torres in 1986. He served as a Deputy Attorney General in the California Department of Justice under Attorney General John Van de Kamp from 1987 to 1990. After incumbent State Assemblyman Charles Calderon decided to seek a seat in the California Senate, Becerra launched a grassroots campaign for the California State Assembly, defeating Calderon's Senate aide Marta Maestas in the Democratic primary, he went on to defeat Republican Lee Lieberg and Libertarian Steven Pencall, receiving 60% of the vote. Becerra served one term in the State Assembly, representing California's 59th district, from 1990 to 1992. In 1992, 25th District Congressman Edward Roybal announced his retirement after 30 years in Congress. Becerra entered the race for the seat, renumbered as the 30th district after redistricting, he won the Democratic primary with a plurality of 32% of the vote. In the general election, he defeated Republican nominee Morry Waksberg 58%–24%.
In 1994, he won re-election to a second term with 66%,%. His district was renumbered as the 31st district after the 2000 census. After redistricting, ahead of the 2012 elections, most of Becerra's old district became the 34th district. Becerra announced, he defeated Republican Stephen Smith 85.6% to 14.4%. Becerra was a prominent member of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, of which he served as chairman during the 105th Congress, he was featured on The Colbert Report's Better Know a District on August 17, 2006. On September 29, 2008, Becerra voted against the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 because he "wanted to see direct protections for responsible homeowners" in the bill. Becerra considered running for Democratic Caucus Vice Chair for the 110th Congress. Instead, Becerra was appointed assistant to the Speaker of the House for the 110th Congress. Before the opening of the 111th Congress, Emanuel accepted a position as White House Chief of Staff in the Obama Administration. Larson succeeded Emanuel as caucus chair, Becerra won his bid to succeed Larson as Vice-Chair.
He defeated Marcy Kaptur of Ohio by a vote of 175–67. In 2011, Becerra ran for a second-term as Vice-Chair to serve during the 112th Congress. During the 111th Congress and 112th Congress, Becerra served on several high-profile committees. On March 24, 2010, Becerra was appointed to serve on the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform. On August 11, 2011, Becerra was selected to serve on the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, and on December 23, 2011, Becerra was appointed to serve on a bicameral conference committee to find bipartisan solutions on the middle class tax cuts, unemployment insurance, the Medicare physician payment rate. Becerra expressed opposition to Social Security and Medicare cuts and tax provisions seen to benefit outsourcers, he argued against the Job Protection Act and Recession Prevention Act of 2012 which would extend certain tax provisions enacted in 2001 and 2003 under G. W. Bush, on which Becerra voted against despite it passing through the House.
He voted against budget plans that would protect tax cuts for higher income brackets by cutting Medicare, Medicaid, SNAP, certain federal services. He supported legislation like the Middle Class Tax Relief and
Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown Sr. was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 32nd Governor of California from 1959 to 1967. Born in San Francisco, Brown had an early interest in speaking and politics. B. degree in 1927, subsequently began legal practice. His first elected office was as district attorney for San Francisco, he was elected attorney general of California in 1950 before becoming the state's governor in 1959; as governor, Brown embarked on massive projects, building important infrastructure and redefining the state's higher education system. He was never a serious contender in the national conventions, although on primary ballots as California's favorite son, he lost his bid for a third term as governor in 1966 to future President Ronald Reagan, but his legacy has since earned him regard as the builder of modern California. His son Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown Jr. was the 39th Governor of California. Brown was born in San Francisco, one of four children of Ida and Edmund Joseph Brown.
His father came from an Irish Catholic family, with his grandfather Joseph immigrating from County Tipperary and his mother was from a German Protestant family. He acquired the nickname "Pat" during his school years; when he was 12 and selling Liberty Bonds on street corners, he would end his spiel with, "Give me liberty, or give me death."Brown was a debate champion as a member of the Lowell Forensic Society at San Francisco's Lowell High School, where he held twelve offices of student government. Rather than pursue an undergraduate degree, he instead worked in his father's cigar store, he studied law at night, while working part-time for attorney Milton Schmitt, receiving an LL. B. degree from San Francisco Law School in spring 1927. After passing the California bar exam the following fall, he began full-time employment in Schmitt's office. Brown lost, he became a New Dealer, an active party participant. His second attempt at election to public office came in 1939, running for District Attorney of San Francisco against Matthew Brady, an incumbent of twenty-two years, who beat him handily.
Four years after his defeat, Brown ran for district attorney again in 1943 with the slogan "Crack down on crime, elect Brown this time." His victory over Brady was decisive, coming to the surprise of San Francisco politicians, as well as bookmakers who had put 5 to 1 odds against his election. He was reelected to the office in 1947, after seven years in office, received the support of Governor Earl Warren, he emulated the course followed by Warren when the Governor himself was the Alameda County district attorney. While his actions against gambling and juvenile delinquency brought confidence to his office, Brown sided on the controversial, with his vocal opposition against the Internment of Japanese Americans, as well as efforts to deport Harry Bridges. In 1949, he raided Sally Stanford's elegant San Francisco bordello. In 1946, as the Democratic nominee, Brown lost the race for Attorney General of California to Los Angeles County District Attorney, Frederick N. Howser. Running again in 1950, he won election as Attorney General and was re-elected in 1954.
As Attorney General, he was the only Democrat to win statewide election in California. In 1958, he was the Democratic nominee for governor, running a campaign of "responsible liberalism," with support for labor, forcing the ballot name change of Proposition 18 from "Right-to-Work" to "Employer and Employee Relations," whereas Brown's opponent campaigned for such right-to-work laws as Proposition 18 provided. In the general election, Brown defeated Republican U. S. Senator William F. Knowland with a near three-fifths majority, Proposition 18 and other anti-labor ballot measures were voted down, Democrats were elected to a majority in both houses of the legislature, to all statewide offices, excepting Secretary of State. Brown attended the September 3, 1960 press conference of then–Democratic nominee John F. Kennedy in San Francisco, Kennedy thanking Brown for being there during his opening remarks. Brown was known for his cheerful personality, his championing of building an infrastructure to meet the needs of the growing state.
As journalist Adam Nagourney reports: With a jubilant Mr. Brown officiating, California commemorated the moment it became the nation's largest state, in 1962, with a church-bell-ringing, four-day celebration, he was the boom-boom governor for a boom-boom time: championing highways, universities and, most consequential, a sprawling water network to feed the explosion of agriculture and development in the dry reaches of central and Southern California. With his administration beginning in 1959, Brown set in motion a series of actions whose magnitude was unseen since the governorship of Hiram Johnson; the economic expansion following World War II brought millions of newcomers to the state which, along with the state's cyclical droughts strained California's water resources in dry Southern California. This began the California State Water Project, whose objective was to address the fact that one half of the state's people lived in a region containing one percent of the state's natural supply of water.
Much of the state's extant water was controlled by regional bodies, the federal government. These federally controlled areas were under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Reclamation, whic
Tirey L. Ford
Tirey Lafayette Ford was an American lawyer and politician who served as a California State Senator and the 18th Attorney-General of California. He was known in California politics and for his Republican speeches for "A Tribute to William McKinley" and "Speech on National Issues." The Ford family came to America in 1650 by French Huguenots. One of the earliest Fords was Daniel Isaac Faure, his great-grandfather, Jacob Lafayette Ford, was with General George Washington at Yorktown, Virginia when the surrender of Lord Cornwallis occurred during the American Revolutionary War. His grandfather, Pleasant Thomas Ford, was with General William Henry Harrison in the Indian campaigns which made the Battle of Tippecanoe famous. Ford, was born in Monroe County, the son of Jacob Harrison Ford and Mary Winn Abernathy. In 1877, at the age of 19, Ford came to California. For three years, he worked on his uncle's ranch. Ford became a student in the law office of Colonel Park Henshaw in California. Ford was admitted to the California bar in August 1882.
Ford moved to Oroville to practice law, but after about three years moved to Downieville, the county seat of Sierra County. On February 1, 1888, he married Miss Mary Emma Byington, sister of Lewis Francis Byington in Downieville, They had three children, Byington Ford, Mary Relda Ford, Tirey Lafayette Ford. Mary Relda Ford married Samuel Finley Brown Morse on February 18, 1919. In 1888, Ford was elected as District Attorney of Sierra County on the Republican ticket by the largest majority than any candidate for that office in 17 years, he re-elected in 1890 to the office without opposition, the Democrats making no nomination against him. Ford became Republican State Senator in 1892 and 1895 for California's 3rd State Senate district, Plumas and Nevada Counties. On March 23, 1893, Senator Ford introduced two bills known as the Ford’s Mining Bills, Senate Bill No. 50, which would allow hydraulic mining where it can be done without material injury to the navigable rivers, Senate Bill No. 389, which would appropriate $250,000 for building restraining dams, provided by the United States Government.
He was appointed attorney to the State Board of Harbor Commissioners in 1894, which office he held until elected Attorney General for the state of California in 1898. Ford solved a difficult legal dispute over ownership of an area known as Channel Street located in the San Francisco’s harbor leading to the bay. A judgment gave this land for public use to the city of San Francisco. In 1898, Ford was elected president of the Union League Club in San Francisco; the Republican club extended fellowship to distinguished guests of the city. Annual meetings were held at the Palace Hotel in San Francisco, he served as the 18th California Attorney General 1899-1902. He resigned as Attorney General in order to become General Counsel for the United Railroads of San Francisco. In 1905, Governor George Pardee selected Ford to be the State Prison Director. Ford wrote a book called California State Prisons: their history and management, published in 1910. On March 7, 1892, Ford was elected President of the California Miners' Association.
He was a successful mining lawyer in Downieville, engaged as counsel by the Miners' Association to conduct important cases. Ford went to Washington in January 1896 to expedite the passage through Congress for bills to appropriate money for the construction of works to protect the rivers and streams of California. In August 1902, Ford was appointed general counsel for the United Railroads of San Francisco. "His knowledge of railroad law as of other departments of jurisprudence is comprehensive and accurate, he stands to-day as one of the foremost representatives of the legal interests of California." As attorney for URR, he was involved in a bribery scandal in 1906, but was found to be innocent. The bribery scandal was one of the many San Francisco graft trials. Adolphus Frederic St. Sure joined Ford's law firm in San Francisco. During the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire, he became a member of Mayor Eugene Schmitz's Committee of Fifty. Ford was a member of the Pacific-Union Club, Bohemian Club, Union League Club of San Francisco, Commonwealth Club of California, Transportation, Merchants Institute and Southern Clubs, as a Knight Templar.
He was a golf enthusiast and belonged to the Presidio Golf Club. After his retirement, Ford took up literary pursuits. In 1926 he published the well-received novel and the Dons: The Romance of Monterey, with vignettes and sketches by artist Jo Mora; the book was reviewed in the California Historical Society Quarterly, which said: "It is a pleasure to read a book, a labor of love for the author. His sketches are finely artistic and, they are correct historically." On June 26, 1928, Ford died at the Pacific-Union Club in San Francisco, aged 70. A funeral service was held at 10 o'clock at Gary's Chapel on Divisadero Street at Post, he was interred at the family mausoleum, at Holy Cross Cemetery, San Mateo County, California. Dawn and the Dons, its Light on the Political Situation, 1896 The Law and the Miner, 1896 A Tribute to William McKinley, 1896 Speech on National Issues, 1900 The City Imperishable, 1917" Tirey L. Ford at the Henderson Family website Tirey Lafayette Ford Biography Tirey L. Ford on Find A Grave website
Edward C. Marshall
Edward Colston Marshall was an American politician who served as congressman from California's at-large district and as California attorney general from 1883 to 1887. He was a member of the Democratic Party. United States Congress. "Edward C. Marshall". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress