California State Controller
The State Controller of California is the Chief Financial Officer of the State of California in the United States. The post has broader responsibilities and authority than the California State Treasurer, responsibilities include investigative authority for every dollar spent by the state, and being an ex-officio member of the states Board of Equalization. The State Controller is elected to a term but is limited to two terms. The current state controller is Betty Yee, as the state’s chief fiscal officer, acts as the state’s accountant and bookkeeper of all public funds. Administers the state system and unclaimed property laws. Serves on 76 boards and commissions, including the Board of Equalization, Franchise Tax Board, CalPERS, conducts audits and reviews of state operations. The office performs a multitude of financial audits, compliance audits and it is considered one of the premiere audit agencies of the State of California. Noted former Deputy State Controllers include Barrett McInerney, James Burton, and Laurette Healey
Jeannie Lynn Jean Fuller is a U. S. politician who serves as the minority leader in the California State Senate. A Republican, she was previously a member of the California Assembly, Jean Fuller was born and raised in Kern County. She supplemented her education with coursework and seminars at the University of Southern California, Harvard University and she served as an educator in the Central Valley for more than 30 years, including time as Superintendent of the Bakersfield City School District. Statewide leadership roles include the California School Boards Association, Association of School Administrators, Fuller was named California Superintendent of the Year by the American Association of School Administrators in the 2004/2005 school year. Fuller earned national recognition for school improvement in 1998 when she was awarded the AASA Leadership for Learning Award, first elected to the California State Legislature in 2006, Fuller represented the 32nd Assembly district. Fuller went on to win the election for the California State Senate in for Californias 16th State Senate district in 2010.
The 16th district includes parts of Kern and San Bernardino Counties as well as all of Inyo County, in 2015, Senator Fuller authored SB111, Securing Federal Funding for Schools that Serve Military Families. SB111, which was signed into law by Governor Jerry Brown, provides a 20% matching of funds for 11 California schools near or on a base, allocating $61 million in federal. In 2012, Fuller authored SB1367, the Archery Hunting/Firearms Bill and this bill revised the archery provisions of the Fish and Game code to authorize a peace officer to carry a firearm while hunting deer, while prohibiting use of that firearm to illegally hunt deer. SB1367 was signed into law by Governor Jerry Brown, official website State Senator - Jean Fuller
Governor of California
The position was created in 1849, the year before California became a state. The current governor is Jerry Brown, a Democrat who was inaugurated January 3,2011, in October 2013, Jerry Brown surpassed Earl Warren for the longest cumulative period of time served as governor. Governors are elected by ballot and serve terms of four years. Governors take office on the first Monday after January 1 after their election, there are two methods available to remove a governor before the expiration of the gubernatorial term of office. Impeachment and removal by the legislature The governor can be impeached for misconduct in office by the State Assembly, recall by the voters Petitions signed by California state voters equal in number to 12% of the last vote for the office of governor can launch a gubernatorial recall election. The voters can vote on whether or not to recall the incumbent governor. If a majority of the voters in the vote to recall the governor. The 2003 California recall began with a drive that successfully forced sitting Democratic Governor Gray Davis into a special recall election.
It marked the first time in the history of California that a governor faced a recall election and he was subsequently voted out of office, becoming the second governor in the history of the United States to be recalled after Lynn Frazier of North Dakota in 1921. He was replaced by Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger, the Lieutenant Governor of California is separately elected during the same election, not jointly as the running mate of the gubernatorial candidate. California has had a governor and a lieutenant governor of different parties 26 of the past 31 years, the lieutenant governor is the President of the California State Senate. In practice, there is an agreement for the Lieutenant Governor not to perform more than perfunctory duties while the Governor is away from the state. This agreement was violated when Mike Curb was in office, as he signed several executive orders at odds with the Brown administration when Brown was out of the state. Court rulings have upheld the lieutenant governors right to perform the duties, peter Burnett had the longest post-governorship,44 years.
He left office in 1851 and died in 1895, excluding governors who died in office, Robert Waterman had the shortest post-governorship. He died on April 12,1891, a three months and four days after the expiration of his term. Sworn in at the age of 30, J. Neely Johnson was the youngest governor from 1856 to 1858, sworn in at the age of 72, Jerry Brown became the oldest governor in 2011. Earl Warren was the governor to serve more than two consecutive terms in office
California courts of appeal
The California courts of appeal are the state intermediate appellate courts in the U. S. state of California. The state is divided into six appellate districts. The courts of appeal form the largest state-level intermediate appellate court system in the United States, all published California appellate decisions are binding on all trial courts. By way of contrast, there is no stare decisis in the California Court of Appeal. It is customary in federal courts and other courts to indicate in case citations the particular circuit or district of an intermediate appellate court that issued the decision cited. All California appellate courts are required by the California Constitution to decide cases in writing with reasons stated. Most Court of Appeal opinions are not published and have no precedential value, in addition, West Publishing traditionally included Court of Appeal opinions in its unofficial reporter, the Pacific Reporter. In 1959, West began publishing both Supreme Court and Court of Appeal opinions in Wests California Reporter, and no longer included Court of Appeal opinions in the Pacific Reporter.
Due to their huge caseloads and volume of output, the courts of appeal in turn see the largest number of decisions appealed to the supreme court. The California Constitution originally made the Supreme Court the only appellate court for the whole state, the Court became so overloaded that it frequently issued summary dispositions in minor cases, meaning that it was merely saying affirmed or reversed without saying why. The states second Constitution, enacted in 1879, halted that practice by requiring the Court to issue every dispositive decision in writing with reasons stated. In 1889, the Legislature authorized the Supreme Court to appoint five commissioners to help with its work, despite implementing all these measures, the Supreme Court was no longer able to keep up with the states rapidly growing appellate caseload by the end of the 19th century. Accordingly, in 1903, the Legislature proposed an amendment to create what were called the district courts of appeal. On November 8,1904, the electorate adopted the amendment, the district courts of appeal originally consisted of three appellate districts, headquartered in San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Sacramento, with three justices each.
These first nine justices were appointed by the Governor, each district was assigned an ordinal number. In 1966, the district was dropped from the official names of the courts of appeal by another constitutional amendment which extensively revised the sections governing the state judiciary. This left Florida as the state in the United States with District Courts of Appeal. Since then, each of the courts of appeal has been named officially as the Court of Appeal of the State of California for a particular numbered appellate district
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is the state legislature of the U. S. state of California. It is a body consisting of the lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members, and the upper house. New legislators convene each new session, to organize, in the Assembly and Senate Chambers, respectively. Aside from the recess, the legislature is in session year-round, the Democratic Party currently holds supermajorities in both chambers of the California Legislature. The state senate currently consists of 27 Democrats and 13 Republicans, except for the period from 1995 to 1996, the Assembly has been in Democratic hands since the 1970 election. The Senate has been in Democratic hands continuously since 1970, the first Californian State House was originally a hotel in San Jose owned by businessman Pierre Don Pedro Sainsevain and his associates. The State Legislature currently meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento, members of the Assembly are elected from 80 districts and serve two-year terms.
Members of the Senate are elected from forty districts and serve four-year terms, twenty Senate seats are up for election at each two-year election cycle. Term limits were established in 1990 following the passage of Proposition 140. In June 2012, voters approved Proposition 28 which allows legislators to serve a maximum of 12 years without regard to whether the years are served in the State Assembly or the State Senate. The proceedings of the California State Legislature are briefly summarized in regularly published journals, which show votes, reports produced by California executive agencies, as well as the Legislature, were published in the Appendices to the Journals from 1849 to 1970. Since the 1990s, the legislature has provided a video feed for its sessions. Due to the expense and the obvious political downside, California did not keep records of actual speeches made by members of the Assembly. As a result, reconstructing legislative intent outside of an acts preamble is extremely difficult in California for legislation passed before the 1990s.
Since 1993, the Legislature has hosted a web/ftp site in one form or another, the most sought-after legislative committee appointments are to banking and insurance. A bill is a proposal to change, repeal, or add to existing state law, an Assembly Bill is one introduced in the Assembly, a Senate Bill, in the Senate. Bills are designated by number, in the order of introduction in each house, for example, AB16 refers to the 16th bill introduced in the Assembly. The numbering starts afresh each session, there may be one or more extraordinary sessions
William Bill Monning is an American politician currently serving in the California State Senate. A Democrat, he is the current Senate Majority Leader, Monning currently represents the 17th Senate District, which encompasses the Central Coast. Before his election to the State Senate in 2012, Monning served in the California State Assembly and he is the former president and co-founder of Global Majority, Inc. an organization committed to education and advocacy in the field of non-violent conflict resolution. Monning served as a Senior Fulbright Specialist, receiving Fulbright scholarships to teach and research in Peru, Monning received a B. A. at University of California, Berkeley and a law degree from the University of San Francisco School of Law. He and his wife, Dana T. Kent, a physician, reside in Carmel. About three months later, the bill died in committee
Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein is the senior United States Senator from California. A member of the Democratic Party, she has served in the Senate since 1992 and she served as the 38th Mayor of San Francisco from 1978 to 1988. Born in San Francisco, Feinstein graduated from Stanford University in 1955 with a B. A. in history, in the 1960s she worked in city government, and in 1970 she was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. She served as the boards first female president in 1978, during which time the assassinations of Mayor George Moscone, during her tenure as San Franciscos first female mayor she led a revamp of the citys cable car system and oversaw the 1984 Democratic National Convention. After a failed campaign in 1990, she won a 1992 special election to the U. S. Senate. Feinstein was first elected on the ballot as her peer Barbara Boxer. Feinstein was the author of the 1994 Federal Assault Weapons Ban which expired in 2004, in 2013 she introduced a new assault weapons bill, which failed to pass.
Feinstein is the first and only woman to have chaired the Senate Rules Committee and the Select Committee on Intelligence from 2009 to 2015 and she is the only woman to have presided over a U. S. presidential inauguration. At the age of 83, Feinstein is the oldest currently serving United States Senator, Feinstein was born Dianne Emiel Goldman in San Francisco, to Betty, a former model, and Leon Goldman, a surgeon. Feinstein graduated from Convent of the Sacred Heart High School, San Francisco in 1951, prior to elected service, Feinstein was appointed by then-California Governor Pat Brown to serve as a member of the California Womens Parole Board. Feinstein served as a fellow at the Coro Foundation in San Francisco, in 1969, Feinstein was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. She remained on the Board for nine years and she was elected president of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1978 with initial opposition from Quentin Kopp. Feinstein was close by in City Hall at the time of the shootings and discovered Milks body after hearing the gunshots, both Mayor Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk have been shot and killed.
Feinstein appears in footage and is credited in the Academy Award-winning documentary film The Times of Harvey Milk. She appears again briefly in footage, announcing the death of Moscone. Feinstein and her position as President of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors are alluded to several times in the movie, as President of the Board of Supervisors upon the death of Moscone, Feinstein succeeded to the mayoralty on December 4,1978. Feinstein served out the remainder of Moscones term and she made no staffing changes to his team until she was elected in her own right in 1979. She was re-elected in 1983 and served a second term
Judiciary of California
The Judiciary of California is defined under the California Constitution and regulations as part of the Government of California. Its administration is effected by the Judicial Council and its staff, the judicial system of California is the largest in the United States that is fully staffed by professional law-trained judges. As of 2012, the judiciary has more than 2,000 judicial officers that hear over 10 million cases each year In comparison. Although New York and Texas each technically have more judicial officers than California, the judiciary has a hierarchical structure with the Supreme Court at the apex, courts of appeal as the primary appellate courts, and the superior courts as the primary trial courts. The Supreme Court of California consists of the Chief Justice of California, the Court deals with about 8,800 cases per year, although review is discretionary in most cases, and it dismisses the vast majority of petitions without comment. It hears arguments and drafts full opinions for about 100 to 120 cases each year, the Supreme Court is headquartered in San Francisco, with branch offices in Los Angeles and Sacramento.
It hears oral arguments each year in all three locations, the California courts of appeal are the intermediate appellate courts. The state is divided into six appellate districts, all published California appellate decisions are binding on all superior courts. The districts are divided into 19 divisions sitting throughout the state at 9 locations. In practice, this out to about 16,000 appeals per year. Under the common law, judicial opinions themselves have legal effect through the rule of stare decisis, but because of their crushing caseloads, the courts of appeal are permitted to take the shortcut of selecting only the best opinions for publication. This way, they can draft opinions fast and quickly dispose of the vast majority of cases, about 7% of their opinions are ultimately selected for publication and become part of California law. The first Court of Appeal to rule on a new issue will bind all lower superior courts statewide. However, litigants in other appellate districts may still appeal a superior courts ruling to their own Court of Appeal.
However, where a superior court lies within one of the appellate districts actually involved in such a conflict, as mandated by the California Constitution, each of the 58 counties in California has a superior court. The Judicial Council of California is the arm of the judiciary of California. Pursuant to this role, they have adopted the California Rules of Court as their regulations, the Judicial Councils staff is responsible for implementing council policies. In addition, every court may make rules for its own government
Supreme Court of California
The Supreme Court of California is the court of last resort in the courts of the State of California. It is headquartered in San Francisco and regularly holds sessions in Los Angeles and its decisions are binding on all other California state courts. Under the original 1849 California Constitution, the Court started with a chief justice, the court was expanded to five justices in 1862. Under the current 1879 constitution, the Court expanded to six associate justices and one chief justice, the justices are appointed by the Governor of California and are subject to retention elections. The Commission holds a hearing and if satisfied with the nominees qualifications. The nominee can immediately fill a vacancy, or replace a departing justice at the beginning of the next judicial term. If a nominee is confirmed to fill a vacancy that arose partway through a judicial term, voters determine whether to retain the justice for the remainder of the judicial term. At the terms conclusion, justices must again undergo a statewide election for a full 12-year term.
If a majority votes no, the seat vacant and may be filled by the Governor. The electorate has occasionally exercised the power not to retain justices, Chief Justice Rose Bird and Associate Justices Cruz Reynoso and Joseph Grodin were staunchly opposed to capital punishment and were subsequently removed in the 1986 general election. Newly reelected Governor George Deukmejian was able to elevate Associate Justice Malcolm M. Lucas to Chief Justice, four current justices were appointed by Republicans and three by a Democrat. There is one Filipino-American justice, one Hispanic, one African-American, the justices do not publicly discuss their religious views or affiliations. Two justices earned undergraduate degrees from a University of California school, in March 2017, Werdegar announced her intent to retire on August 31,2017. Between 1879 and 1966, the court was divided into two panels, Department One and Department Two. The chief justice divided cases evenly between the panels and decided which cases would be heard en banc by the Court sitting as a whole, after a constitutional amendment in 1966, the Court currently sits as a whole when hearing all appeals.
The procedure for all justices recuse themselves from a case has varied over time. In an average year the Court will decide to hear 83 cases, the Court is open for business year-round. The Court hears oral argument at least one week per month,10 months each year, since 1878, it has regularly heard oral argument each year at San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Sacramento
Peace and Freedom Party
The Peace and Freedom Party is a nationally organized left-wing political party, with affiliates in more than a dozen American states, including California, Florida and Hawaii. The Peace and Freedom Party went national in 1968 as an organization opposed to the Vietnam War. In 2004,2008, and 2012, the presidential candidates were Leonard Peltier, Ralph Nader. According to its website, PFP is committed to socialism, ecology and racial equality. It is an advocate of environmentalism, aboriginal rights, rights to sexuality, health care, education, employment. The Peace and Freedom Party grew out of unhappiness with the Democratic Partys support for the war in Vietnam, in 1966, three men ran for the U. S. House using the Peace and Freedom Party label. Herbert Aptheker received 3,562 votes in New Yorks 12th Congressional District, shaw received 1,974 votes in Washingtons 7th Congressional District, and Frank L. Patterson received 1,105 votes in Washingtons 2nd Congressional District. The party achieved ballot status in California in January 1968 by registering over 105,000 voters under its banner.
It got ballot status in 13 other states, but in most of those, the PFPs first national convention to nominate candidates for President and Vice President was held in Ann Arbor, Michigan on August 17-August 18,1968. Eldridge Cleaver was nominated for President over Richard C. Dick Gregory by a margin of 161.5 to 54. Cleaver, a felon and Black Panther spokesman, was technically not eligible to run. Cleaver personally preferred Yippie leader Jerry Rubin, Gregory appeared on the ballot in several states as the Peace and Freedom Party candidate as well as in New York and New Jersey as the candidate of the Freedom and Peace Party. Two states refused to list Cleaver on the ballot, although each state listed the Presidential Electors, a variety of people joined the PFP in its first election. Bob Avakian was a spokesman for the party in the San Francisco Area, the New York Peace and Freedom Party consisted of a fractious coalition of competing Marxist groups, along with libertarians led by economist Murray Rothbard.
In the election of 1968, the PFP fared fairly well for a new third party, Gregory outpolled Cleaver, receiving 47,097 votes to Cleavers 36,623. In California and Utah, where no presidential nominee appeared on the ballot, the full nationwide vote for Presidential Electors was thus 111,607. PFP candidates for the U. S. Senate garnered an aggregate total of 105,411 votes. In Utah, the PFP fielded folk musician Bruce Utah Phillips for Congress, the PFP retained ballot status in California, which it retained except for the brief period 1999-2003
Alejandro Alex Padilla is an American politician, Democratic Party activist and civil servant. He has served as the Secretary of State of California since winning the election on November 5,2014 against Republican Pete Peterson. He served in the California State Senate, representing the 20th District after his election to the position in November 2006, prior to serving in the Senate he served 7½ years on the Los Angeles City Council representing the 7th District. First elected in 1999, he was elected president in July 2001. Padilla is one of three children of Santos and Lupe Padilla, both of whom emigrated from Mexico before meeting and marrying in Los Angeles. Padilla grew up in the community of Pacoima in Los Angeles and is a graduate of San Fernando High School in the northeast San Fernando Valley and he earned a degree in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1994. After graduation, he moved back to Pacoima and briefly worked as an engineer for Hughes Aircraft and he has served as president of the League of California Cities and was its youngest-ever president and the first Latino to lead the league.
He serves as chair of the Los Angeles Leadership Council for the American Diabetes Association, Padilla had been a staff member to United States Senator Dianne Feinstein and California State Assembly member Tony Cardenas. On July 1,1999 at the age of 26, Padilla was sworn in as a member of the Los Angeles City Council, two years his council colleagues elected him council president. Padilla was the first Latino and the youngest person elected president of the Los Angeles City Council, Padilla was elected to the State Senate in 2006 and re-elected in 2010, with nearly 70% of the vote. He left office on November 30,2014, after two terms in the body, on April 11,2013, Alex Padilla, a term limited State Senator, announced his intention to run for the position. He was expected to face an intraparty battle with fellow Democrat Leland Yee, Padilla won the election in November against Republican Pete Peterson, who was endorsed by the Los Angeles Times, with 53. 6% of the vote. Secretary of State website Official State Senate website State Senate campaign website Padilla profile at JoinCalifornia.
com Senator Padillas official YouTube channel