California State Assembly
The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature, the upper house being the California State Senate. The Assembly convenes, along with the State Senate, at the California State Capitol in Sacramento; the Assembly consists with each member representing at least 465,000 people. Due to a combination of the state's large population and small legislature, the Assembly has the largest population-per-representative ratio of any state lower house and second largest of any legislative lower house in the United States after the federal House of Representatives. Members of the California State Assembly are referred to using the titles Assemblyman, Assemblywoman, or Assemblymember. In the current legislative session, Democrats enjoy a three-fourths supermajority of 61 seats, while Republicans controls 19 seats; the Speaker presides over the State Assembly in the chief leadership position, controlling the flow of legislation and committee assignments. The Speaker is elected by the full Assembly.
Other leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses according to each party's strength in the chamber. The current Speaker is Democrat Anthony Rendon; the majority leader is Democrat Ian Calderon. As a result of Proposition 140 in 1990 and Proposition 28 in 2012, members elected to the Legislature prior to 2012 are restricted by term limits to three two-year terms, while those elected in or after 2012 are allowed to serve 12 years in the legislature in any combination of four-year State Senate or two-year State Assembly terms; every two years, all 80 seats in the Assembly are subject to election. This is in contrast to the State Senate, in which only half of its 40 seats are subject to election every two years; the chamber's green tones are based on the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. The dais rests along a wall shaped like an "E", with its central projection housing the rostrum. Along the cornice appears a portrait of Abraham Lincoln and a Latin quotation: legislatorum est justas leges condere.
Every decorating element is identical to the Senate Chamber. To run for the Assembly, a candidate must be a United States citizen and a registered voter in the district at the time nomination papers are issued, may not have served three terms in the State Assembly since November 6, 1990. According to Article 4, Section 2 of the California Constitution, the candidate must have one year of residency in the legislative district and California residency for three years; the chief clerk of the Assembly, a position that has existed since the Assembly's creation, is responsible for many administrative duties. The chief clerk is the custodian of all Assembly bills and records and publishes the Assembly Daily Journal, the minutes of floor sessions, as well as the Assembly Daily File; the chief clerk is the Assembly's parliamentarian, in this capacity gives advice to the presiding officer on matters of parliamentary procedure. The chief clerk is responsible for engrossing and enrolling of measures, the transmitting passed legislation to the governor.
Since 2016, the chaplain of the Assembly has been a Buddhist cleric. The chaplain from 2003 to 2016 was a Greek Orthodox priest; the position of sergeant-at-arms of the Assembly has existed since 1849. The sergeant-at-arms is tasked with law enforcement duties, but customarily has a ceremonial and protocol role. Today, some fifty employees are part of the Assembly Sergeant-at-Arms Office; the Chief Clerk, the acting Chief Sergeant-at-Arms, the Chaplains are not members of the Legislature. Elected in a special election Current committees include: Assembly Committee on Accountability and Administrative review Assembly Committee on Aging And Long-Term Care Assembly Committee on Agriculture Assembly Committee on Appropriations Assembly Committee on Arts, Sports and Internet Media Assembly Committee on Banking and Finance Assembly Committee on Budget Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 1 on Health and Human Services Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 2 on Education Finance Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 3 on Resources and Transportation Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 4 on State Administration Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 5 on Public Safety Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 6 on Budget Process Oversight and Program Evaluation Assembly Committee on Business and Consumer Protection Assembly Committee on Communications and Conveyance Assembly Committee on Education Assembly Committee on Elections and Redistricting Assembly Committee on Environmental Safety and Toxic Materials Assembly Committee on Governmental Organization Assembly Committee on Health Assembly Committee on Higher Education Assembly Committee on Housing and Community Development Assembly Committee on Human Services Assembly Committee on Insurance Assembly Committee on Jobs, Economic Development, the Economy Assembly Committee on Judiciary Assembly Committee on Labor and Employment Assembly Committee on Local Government Assembly Committee on Natural Resources Assembly Committee on Privacy and Consumer Protection Assembly Committee on Public Employees and Social Security Assembly Committee on Public Safety Assembly Committee on Revenue and Taxation Assembly Committee on Rules Assembly Committee on Transportation Assembly Committee on Utilities and Commerce Assembly Committee on Veterans Affairs Assembly Committ
California courts of appeal
The California courts of appeal are the state intermediate appellate courts in the U. S. state of California. The state is geographically divided into six appellate districts; the courts of appeal form the largest state-level intermediate appellate court system in the United States, with 105 justices. The decisions of the courts of appeal are binding on the California superior courts, both the courts of appeal and the superior courts are bound by the decisions of the Supreme Court of California. Notably, all published; this is distinct from the practice in the federal courts and in other state court systems in which trial courts are bound only by the appellate decisions from the particular circuit in which it sits, as well as the Supreme Court of the United States or the state supreme court. In contrast, "there is no horizontal stare decisis in the California Court of Appeal". Thus, all superior courts are bound by the decision of a court of appeal if it is the only published California precedent that articulates a point of law relevant to a particular set of facts if the superior court would have decided differently if writing on a fresh slate.
However, another court of appeal division or district may rule differently on that point of law after a litigant seeks relief from an adverse trial court ruling that faithfully applied existing precedent. In that instance, all superior courts are free to pick and choose which precedent they wish to follow until the state supreme court settles the issue for the entire state, although a superior court confronted with such a conflict will follow the view of its own court of appeal, it is customary in federal courts and other state courts to indicate in case citations the particular circuit or district of an intermediate appellate court that issued the decision cited. But because the decisions of all six California appellate districts are binding upon all trial courts, district numbers are traditionally omitted in California citation style unless an actual interdistrict conflict is at issue. All California appellate courts are required by the California Constitution to decide criminal cases in writing with reasons stated.
Such procedure is not mandated for civil cases, but for certain types of civil cases where a liberty interest is implicated, the courts of appeal may, but are not required to, follow a similar procedure. Most Court of Appeal opinions have no precedential value. In addition, West Publishing traditionally included Court of Appeal opinions in its unofficial reporter, the Pacific Reporter. In 1959, West began publishing both Supreme Court and Court of Appeal opinions in West's California Reporter, no longer included Court of Appeal opinions in the Pacific Reporter. Due to their huge caseloads and volume of output, the courts of appeal in turn see the largest number of decisions appealed to the state supreme court and the Supreme Court of the United States. A few famous U. S. Supreme Court cases, such as Burnham v. Superior Court of California, came to the high court on writ of certiorari to one of the courts of appeal after the state supreme court had denied review. Many Court of Appeal opinions have become nationally prominent in their own right, such as the 1959 opinion that carved out the first judge-made exception to the at-will employment doctrine, the 1980 opinion that authorized a cause of action for wrongful life, the 1984 opinion that created the right to Cumis counsel.
The California Constitution made the Supreme Court the only appellate court for the whole state. As the state's population skyrocketed during the 19th century, the Supreme Court was expanded from three to seven justices, the Court began hearing the majority of appeals in three-justice panels; the Court became so overloaded that it issued summary dispositions in minor cases, meaning that it was saying "affirmed" or "reversed" without saying why. The state's second Constitution, enacted in 1879, halted that practice by expressly requiring the Court to issue every dispositive decision in writing "with reasons stated." In 1889, the Legislature authorized the Supreme Court to appoint five commissioners to help with its work. Despite implementing all these measures, the Supreme Court was no longer able to keep up with the state's growing appellate caseload by the end of the 19th century. Accordingly, in 1903, the Legislature proposed a constitutional amendment to create what were called the district courts of appeal.
On November 8, 1904, the electorate adopted the amendment. The district courts of appeal consisted of three appellate districts, headquartered in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Sacramento, with three justices each; these first nine justices were appointed by the Governor. Each district was assigned an ordinal number. In 1966, the word "district" was dropped from the official names of the courts of appeal by another constitutional amendment which extensively revised the sections governing the state judiciary; this left Florida as the sole state in the United States with "District Courts of Appeal." Since each of the courts of appeal has been named as "the Court of Appeal of the State of California" for a particular numb
Governor of California
The Governor of California is the head of government of the U. S. state of California. The California Governor is the chief executive of the state government and the commander-in-chief of the California National Guard and the California State Military Reserve. Established in the Constitution of California, the governor's responsibilities include making the annual State of the State address to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, ensuring that state laws are enforced; the position was created in 1849, the year. The current governor of California is Democrat Gavin Newsom, inaugurated on January 7, 2019. Governors are elected by popular ballot and serve terms of four years, with a limit of two terms, if served after November 6, 1990. Governors take the following oath: I do solemnly swear that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California against all enemies foreign and domestic, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California, that I take this obligation without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties upon which I am about to enter.
Governors take office on the first Monday after January 1 after their election. There are two methods available to remove a governor before the expiration of the gubernatorial term of office; the governor can be impeached for "misconduct in office" by the State Assembly and removed by a two-thirds vote of the State Senate. Petitions signed by California state voters equal in number to 12% of the last vote for the office of governor can launch a gubernatorial recall election; the voters can vote on whether or not to recall the incumbent governor, on the same ballot they can vote a potential replacement. If a majority of the voters in the election vote to recall the governor the person who gains a plurality of the votes in the replacement race will become governor; the 2003 California recall began with a petition drive that forced sitting Democratic Governor Gray Davis into a special recall election. It marked the first time in the history of California, he was subsequently voted out of office, becoming the second governor in the history of the United States to be recalled after Lynn Frazier of North Dakota in 1921.
He was replaced by Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger. The Lieutenant Governor of California is separately elected during the same election, not jointly as the running mate of the gubernatorial candidate. California has had a governor and a lieutenant governor of different parties 26 of the past 31 years; this becomes significant, since the California Constitution provides that all the powers of the governor fall to the lieutenant governor whenever the governor is not in the state of California, with the lieutenant governor signing or vetoing legislation, or making political appointments, whenever the governor leaves the state. The lieutenant governor is the president of the California State Senate. In practice, there is a gentlemen's agreement for the Lieutenant Governor not to perform more than perfunctory duties while the governor is away from the state; this agreement was violated when Mike Curb was in office, as he signed several executive orders at odds with the Brown administration when Brown was out of the state.
Court rulings have upheld the lieutenant governor's right to perform the duties and assume all of the prerogatives of governor while the governor is out of the state. Peter Burnett had 44 years, he left office in 1851 and died in 1895. Excluding governors who died in office, Robert Waterman had the shortest post-governorship, he died on a short three months and four days after the expiration of his term. Sworn in at the age of 30, J. Neely Johnson was the youngest governor from 1856 to 1858. Sworn in at the age of 72, Jerry Brown was the oldest governor from 2011 to 2019. Earl Warren was the only governor to serve more than two consecutive terms in office. Jerry Brown served as governor for eight years and returned to office 28 years to serve as governor for another eight years. Milton Latham served the shortest term in office of five days. Of the 38 governors who served in office, only eight were born in California: One was born in Santa Barbara. Five were born in San Francisco. One was born in Sacramento.
One was born in Los Angeles. Two governors were born outside the United States: John G. Downey was born in Ireland. Arnold Schwarzenegger was born in Austria. Only two governors have died in office: Washington Bartlett on September 12, 1887 James Rolph on June 2, 1934 Ronald Reagan had the longest life-span of any governor, 93 years. J. Neely Johnson had the shortest life-span of 47 years. Both governors who died in office, Washington Bartlett in 1887 and James Rolph in 1934, served as Mayor of San Francisco shortly before becoming governor. Two governors are related: Pat Brown was the father of twice-governor Jerry Brown. Five governors have resigned: Peter Burnett in 1851 "as a result of certain personal prejudices" in favor of slavery Milton Latham in 1860 to become a United States Senator Newton Booth in 1875 to become a United States Senator Hiram Johnson in 1917 to become a United States Senator Earl Warren in 1953 to be
Gavin Christopher Newsom is an American politician and businessman. He is the 40th governor of California, serving since January 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the 49th lieutenant governor of California from 2011 to 2019 and as the 42nd mayor of San Francisco from 2004 to 2011, he was sworn in as Governor of California on January 7, 2019. Newsom attended Redwood High School, graduated from Santa Clara University. After graduation, he founded the PlumpJack wine store with family friend Gordon Getty as an investor; the PlumpJack Group grew to manage 23 businesses, including wineries and hotels. Newsom began his political career in 1996, when San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown appointed him to serve on the city's Parking and Traffic Commission. Brown appointed Newsom to fill a vacancy on the Board of Supervisors the following year, Newsom was elected to the Board in 1998, 2000, 2002. In 2003, Newsom was elected the 42nd mayor of San Francisco, becoming the city's youngest mayor in a century.
Newsom was re-elected in 2007 with 72 percent of the vote. He was elected Lieutenant Governor of California in 2010 as the running mate of Jerry Brown, was re-elected in 2014. In February 2015, Newsom announced his candidacy for Governor of California in the 2018 election. On June 5, 2018, he finished in the top two of the non-partisan blanket primary. Newsom defeated Republican John H. Cox in the general election on November 6. Newsom hosted The Gavin Newsom Show on Current TV and wrote the 2013 book Citizenville. Despite speculation, he has denied any interest in running for President of the United States. Gavin Christopher Newsom was born in San Francisco, California, to Tessa Thomas and William Alfred Newsom III, a state appeals court justice and attorney for Getty Oil, he is a fourth-generation San Franciscan. His father is of Irish descent. Newsom is the second cousin, twice removed, of musician Joanna Newsom. Newsom's parents separated when he was two, divorced in 1972. At age ten, Newsom moved with his mother and sister to nearby Marin County.
While Newsom reflected that he did not have an easy childhood, he attended kindergarten and first grade at the French American bilingual school in San Francisco. He transferred because of severe dyslexia that still affects him, his dyslexia has made it difficult for him to write, spell and work with numbers. He attended third through fifth grades at Notre Dame des Victoires, where he was placed in remedial reading classes. In high school, Newsom played basketball and baseball and graduated from Redwood High School in 1985. Newsom was an outfielder in baseball and his baseball skills placed him on the cover of the Marin Independent Journal. Tessa Newsom worked three jobs to support Gavin and his sister Hilary Newsom Callan, the president of the PlumpJack Group, named after the opera Plump Jack composed by family friend Gordon Getty. In an interview with The San Francisco Chronicle, his sister recalled Christmas holidays when their mother told them there wouldn't be any gifts. Tessa opened their home to foster children, instilling in Newsom the importance of public service.
His father's finances were strapped in part because of his tendency to give away his earnings. Newsom worked several jobs in high school to help support his family. Newsom attended Santa Clara University on a partial baseball scholarship, where he graduated in 1989 with a B. S. in political science. Newsom was a left-handed pitcher for Santa Clara, but he threw his arm out after two years and hasn't thrown a baseball since, he lived in the Alameda Apartments, which he compared to living in a hotel. He reflected on his education fondly, crediting the Jesuit approach of Santa Clara that he said has helped him become an independent thinker who questions orthodoxy. While in school, Newsom spent a semester studying abroad in Rome. Newsom's aunt was married to Ron Pelosi, the brother-in-law of Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi. On May 14, 1991, Newsom and his investors created the company PlumpJack Associates L. P. In 1992, the group started the PlumpJack Winery with the financial help of his family friend Gordon Getty.
PlumpJack was the name of an opera written by Getty, who invested in 10 of Newsom's 11 businesses. Getty told the San Francisco Chronicle that he treated Newsom like a son and invested in his first business venture because of that relationship. According to Getty business investments were because of "the success of the first". One of Newsom's early interactions with government occurred when Newsom resisted the San Francisco Health Department requirement to install a sink at his PlumpJack wine store; the Health Department argued that wine was a food and required the store to install a $27,000 sink in the carpeted wine shop on the grounds that the shop needed the sink for a mop. When Newsom was appointed supervisor, he told the San Francisco Examiner: "That's the kind of bureaucratic malaise I'm going to be working through."The business grew to an enterprise with more than 700 employees. The PlumpJack Cafe Partners L. P. opened the PlumpJack Café on Fillmore Street, in 1993. Between 1993 and 2000, Newsom and his investors opened several other businesses that included the PlumpJack Squaw Valley Inn with a PlumpJack Café, a winery in Napa Valley, the Balboa Café Bar and Grill, the PlumpJack Development Fund L.
P. the MatrixFillmore Bar, PlumpJack Wines shop Noe Valley branch, PlumpJackSport retail clothing, a second Balboa Café at Squaw Valley. Newsom's investm
Anthony Michael Rendon is an American baseball third baseman for the Washington Nationals of Major League Baseball. Rendon played college baseball for the Rice University Owls, where he won the 2010 Dick Howser Trophy. Rendon was selected sixth overall in the 2011 Major League Baseball Draft by the Nationals. Rendon is the second son of Bridget Rendon, his parents say Rendon started playing baseball at a early age. Rendon excelled academically and in sports, he was a star basketball player, track athlete, baseball player at Hodges Bend Middle School. For the first two and a half years of high school, Rendon attended George Bush High School, before transferring to Lamar High School; as a senior, he was a first team 5A all-state shortstop and an All-Greater Houston selection by the Houston Chronicle after he hit.570 with eight home runs, 17 doubles, 56 Runs batted in, 56 runs scored, 13 stolen bases. Out of high school, Rendon was drafted in the 27th round of the Major League Baseball Draft by the Atlanta Braves.
He turned down their signing bonus to play for head coach Wayne Graham. As a freshman in 2009, Rendon was named Baseball America's Freshman of the Year, All-America, Freshman All-American, NCBWA's District VII Player of the Year, NCAA All-Regional Team, Conference USA Player of the Year, All-Conference USA, Conference USA All-Tournament Team, MVP of the Silver Glove Series with cross-town rival, University of Houston; as a true freshman, he hit.388 with 20 home runs and 72 runs batted in, starting in all 61 of the Owls' games. Rendon was nominated for both the Dick Howser Trophy and the Golden Spikes Award in his first season at the college level, he led the conference in numerous offensive categories, including batting average, slugging percentage and home runs, setting a new Rice freshmen record at 20. He added 31 walks to his gaudy offensive numbers, giving him a.496 on-base percentage. In addition to his batting prowess, he stole 9 bases in 11 attempts, two away from leading the team, showed defensive ability at third base as well.
However, in Rice's last game, in the Baton Rouge Super Regional, Rendon suffered an ankle injury that required surgery. As a sophomore in 2010, he was the winner of the Dick Howser Trophy and was Baseball America's College Player of the Year, becoming the first underclassman in a decade to win the award. Additionally, he was named the Rawlings Sporting Goods National Player of the Year, Conference USA Male Athlete of the Year, District VII Player of the Year, First Team All-American, All-south Region, Most Outstanding Player of the NCAA Austin Regional, All-Conference USA, All-Conference USA Tournament, Conference USA Academic Honor Roll, he is only the second player to be named Conference USA Player of the Year twice. He finished the season hitting.394 with 26 home runs and 85 runs batted in, again starting in every one of the Owls' 63 games. Rendon's 26 home runs were the second highest single season total in school history. In his sophomore campaign, Rendon hit more home runs than he struck out, his walks nearly tripled his strike out total.
Again, Rendon flashed the leather, raising his fielding percentage to.978, making only four errors all season at third base. After his Rice season ended, Rendon was invited to represent his country playing on the international circuit for Team USA, he suffered another right ankle injury in the first game against South Korea. Houston mayor Annise Parker declared June 29, 2010 to be "Anthony Rendon Day in Houston." Rendon was a member of Wiess College while at Rice. Rendon was selected sixth overall by the Washington Nationals in the 2011 Major League Baseball Draft. Following the 2012 season, many scouts rated Rendon as the best prospect in the Nationals organization and one of the top prospects in the MLB. Rendon started the 2013 season with the Double-A Harrisburg Senators, he was called up by the Washington Nationals on April 20 when Ryan Zimmerman was placed on the disabled list. Rendon was optioned back to the Harrisburg Senators when Zimmerman came off the disabled list on May 3. Rendon was recalled by the Nationals on June 4, 2013, replaced second baseman Danny Espinosa.
Days on June 15, Rendon clubbed his first major league home run off Vinnie Pestano of the Cleveland Indians. The ninth-inning solo shot put the Nationals on top and they won 7–6. Rendon finished the season with the Nationals, putting up a.265/.329/.396 triple slash with seven home runs across 98 games with the major league club. After playing second base the previous year, Rendon was moved back to his "natural position" as the Nationals' third baseman in the 2014 season; the year would be a breakout one for Rendon, who led the National League in runs scored with 111 while putting up a.287/.351/.473 slash line, hitting 21 home runs and stealing 17 bases over the course of the season. Rendon placed fifth in National League Most Valuable Player voting and was awarded a Silver Slugger for his performance as a top-hitting third baseman, he ranked second among National League position players in wins above replacement, just behind Andrew McCutchen of the Pittsburgh Pirates. While Rendon emerged as a key cog in the Nationals' offense during the season, his prowess in the playoffs was noteworthy as well, as he hit.368 in the 2014 National League Division Series against the San Francisco Giants.
The 2015 Washington Nationals season got off to a rough start for Rendon, as he sprained the medial collateral ligament in his left knee early during spring training in Viera, Flor
California State Superintendent of Public Instruction
The State Superintendent of Public Instruction of California is the nonpartisan elected executive officer of the California Department of Education. The SPI directs all functions of the Department of Education, executes policies set by the California State Board of Education, heads and chairs the Board; the superintendents serves a four-year term, serves as the state’s chief spokesperson for public schools, provides education policy and direction to local school districts, serve as an ex officio member of governing boards of the state’s higher education system. The current Superintendent of Public Instruction is Tony Thurmond. Under Section 2 of Article 9 of the California Constitution, the Superintendent must be directly "elected by the qualified electors of the State at each gubernatorial election." But the State Board of Education is not directly elected, its members are not appointed by the Superintendent. They are appointed by the Governor subject to the approval of the state Senate. Therefore, if the Governor's party has a majority in the Senate and the Governor has different views on state education policy than the Superintendent, the Governor could put the Superintendent in the position of chairing a board of members whom he or she disagrees with.
The California Constitutional Revision Commission proposed that the Superintendent should be converted from an elected official into an appointed one, but the Commission's proposal was rejected by the state electorate in 1968. G. Vernon Bennett, Los Angeles City Council member, 1935–49, ran for state superintendent of public instruction Official website
Government of California
The government of California is the governmental structure of the state of California as established by the California Constitution. It is composed of three branches: the executive, consisting of the Governor of California and the other constitutionally elected and appointed officers and offices. There is local government, consisting of counties, special districts, school districts, as well as government entities and offices that operate independently on a constitutional, statutory, or common law basis; the state allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum and ratification. California's elected executive officers are: All offices are elected separately to concurrent four-year terms, each officer may be elected to an office a maximum of two times; the Governor has the powers and responsibilities to: sign or veto laws passed by the Legislature, including a line item veto. The Lieutenant Governor is the President of the California Senate and acts as the governor when the Governor is unable to execute the office, including whenever the Governor leaves the state.
The Governor and Lieutenant Governor serve as ex officio members of the University of California Board of Regents and of the California State University Board of Trustees. Regulatory activity is published in the California Regulatory Notice Register and the general and permanent rules and regulations are codified in the California Code of Regulations. State government is organized into many departments, of which most have been grouped together into several huge Cabinet-level agencies since the administration of Governor Pat Brown; these agencies are sometimes informally referred to as superagencies by government officials, to distinguish them from the general usage of the term "government agency." The Cabinet-level agencies are the: California Business, Consumer Services and Housing Agency California Government Operations Agency California Environmental Protection Agency California Health and Human Services Agency California Labor and Workforce Development Agency California Natural Resources Agency California State Transportation Agency The independently elected officers run separate departments not grouped within the superagencies, there are other Cabinet-level departments: Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation Department of Education Department of Finance Department of Food and Agriculture Department of Insurance Department of Justice Department of the Military There are several state government entities and offices that are supposed to be independent of direct control by the executive and judicial branches of the state government, as well as any local government.
Most of the leaders of these entities are appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the state Senate. Examples include the: Regents of the University of California California State University Board of Trustees California Community Colleges Board of Governors California Public Utilities Commission California State Auditor Fair Political Practices Commission The California State Legislature is the state legislature, it is a bicameral body consisting of the California State Assembly, the lower house with 80 members, the California State Senate, the upper house with 40 members. Members of the Assembly serve two-year terms; the Speaker of the California State Assembly presides over the State Assembly. The Lieutenant Governor is the ex officio President of the Senate and may break a tied vote, the President pro tempore of the California State Senate is elected by the majority party caucus; the Legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. Its session laws are codified into the 29 California Codes.
The state allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative and recall. The Judiciary of California interprets and applies the law, is defined under the Constitution and regulations; the judiciary has a hierarchical structure with the Supreme Court at the apex. The Superior Courts are the primary trial courts, the Courts of Appeal are the primary appellate courts; the Judicial Council is the rule-making arm of the judiciary. The California Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of six Associate Justices; the Court has original jurisdiction in a variety of cases, including habeas corpus proceedings, has discretionary authority to review all the decisions of the California Courts of Appeal, as well as mandatory review responsibility for cases where the death penalty has been imposed. The Courts of Appeal are the intermediate appellate courts; the state is geographically divided into six appellate districts. Notably, all published California appellate decisions are binding on all Superior Courts, regardless of appellate district.
The California superior courts are the courts of general jurisdiction that hear and decide any civil or criminal action, not specially designated to be heard before some other court or governmental agency. As mandated by the Constitution, each of the 58 counties has a superior court; the superior courts have appellate divisions (superior