In Norse mythology, Auðumbla is a primeval cow. The primordial frost jötunn Ymir fed from her milk, over the course of three days she licked away the salty rime rocks and revealed Búri, grandfather of the gods and brothers Odin, Vili and Vé; the creature is attested in the Prose Edda, composed in the 13th century by Icelander Snorri Sturluson. Scholars identify her as stemming from a early stratum of Germanic mythology, belonging to larger complex of primordial bovines or cow-associated goddesses; the cow's name variously appears in Prose Edda manuscripts as Auðumbla, Auðhumla, Auðumla, is accepted as meaning'hornless cow rich in milk'. The compound presents some level of semantic ambiguity. A parallel occurs in Scottish English humble-cow'hornless cow', Northern Europeans have bred hornless cows since prehistoric times; as highlighted above, Auð- may mean'rich' and in turn'rich hornless cow' remains accepted among scholars as a gloss of the Old Icelandic animal name. However, auðr can mean'fate' and'desolate.

This semantic ambiguity may have been intentional. Auðumbla's sole attested narrative occurs in the Gylfaginning section of the Prose Edda, her name appears among ways to refer to cows in the Nafnaþulur section of the book. In Gylfaginning, Gangleri asks what he ate. High says. Gylfi asks what Auðumbla ate, High says that she licked salty rime stones for sustenance, he recounts that Auðumbla once licked salts for three days, revealing Búri: The first day she licked free his hair, the second day his head, the third day his entire body. The second and final mention of Auðumbla occurs in the Nafnaþulur, wherein the author provides a variety of ways to refer to cows. Auðumbla is the only cow mentioned by name, the author adds that "she is the noblest of cows". On the topic of Auðumbla, John Lindow says that cows appear in creation narratives around the world, yet "what is most striking about Audhumla is that she unites the two groups of warring groups in the mythology, by nourishing Ymir, ancestor of all the giants, bringing into the light Búri, progenitor of the æsir."Rudolf Simek highlights that Roman senator Tacitus's first century CE work ethnography of the Germanic peoples Germania mentions that they maintained hornless cattle, notes that the Germania describes that an image of the Germanic goddess Nerthus was led through the countryside by way of a cattle-driven wagon.

Simek compares the deity to a variety of cow-associated deities among non-Germanic peoples, such as the Egyptian goddess Hathor and Isis, the Ancient Greek Hera. Heiðrún, a nanny goat in Norse mythology whose teats produce mead for the Einherjar Swedish Red Polled, a hornless breed of domestic cattle in Sweden Amalthea, goat who raised Zeus, who suckled on her breast milk, in Classical Greek mythology Gavaevodata, primordial cow in Zoroastrian mythology Kamadhenu, cow from Hindu mythology MyNDIR Illustrations of Auðhumbla from manuscripts and early print books. Clicking on the thumbnail will give you the full image and information concerning it

Grantray-Lawrence Animation

Grantray-Lawrence Animation was an animation studio active from 1954 to 1967 and founded by Grant Simmons, Ray Patterson, Robert Lawrence. This animation company produced commercials and low-budget animated television shows until it went bankrupt in 1967 and its distributor, Krantz Films, took over production. Productions include: Planet Patrol The Marvel Super Heroes syndication Max, the 2000-Year-Old Mouse Rocket Robin Hood Spider-Man ABC taken over by Ralph Bakshi The Spider-Man theme song has been covered and parodied in various commercials, TV shows, video games, films, including The Simpsons Movie; the Big Cartoon DataBase entry for Grantray-Lawrence Animation

Chris Prelitz

'"Christopher Prelitz" is an author, sustainability consultant, Founder of Prelitz Design + Build, based in Laguna Beach, Ca. Author, "'Green Made Easy: The Everyday Guide for Transitioning to a Green Lifestyle was published by Hay House in April 2009. Prelitz co-founded the Orange County Green Chamber, Transition Laguna Beach, the 10th Transition Town in the U. S. and CASBA, The California Straw Builders Organization, a California NGO responsible for California code and DOE adoption of strawbale construction. Prelitz built the first permitted solar powered residence in Southern California in 1993. Paul Christopher Prelitz was born in 1956 in Memphis, the oldest of 6 siblings. Son of Paul Philip Prelitz, an ocean and aerospace engineer and a mother of Native American Mississippi Choctaw descent. Prelitz holds a Bachelor of Arts from California State University, is a graduate of Duke University's Environmental Leadership program. Prelitz worked in the Art and Entertainment departments of Disney Corporation, California.

President and Co-founder of "Transition Laguna Beach", the 10th U. S Transition Town. Chair, City of Laguna Beach Environmental Committee, 2009 - 2012 Board of Directors of the Eos Institute, publishers of Earthword, the first U. S. journal on sustainability. Past president and present board member, Orange County Green Chamber Juror - Land Art Generator Project 2010, United Arab Republic Discovery Channel's Greenovate July 10, 2008 Mercedes Benz, Az. Sustainability Consultant 2007 First LEED Silver Rated Auto Dealership in U. S. City of Lancaster, CA - Prime Desert Interpretive Center Green Made Easy: The Everyday Guide for Transitioning to a Green Lifestyle The Hybrid House: Designing with Sun, Wind and Earth Interview, Interview with Chris Prelitz By Terence Loose, August 2008 Home, Green Home Riviera Magazine 2006, By Kersten Wehde, Photos by Geoff Ragatz Eco-Speakers Meet the Greenovate Hosts: Chris Prelitz Orange County Green Chamber Coast Magazine Permaculture Blog