New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
The Wynyard Quarter is a reclaimed piece of land on the Waitematā Harbour at the western edge of the Auckland waterfront, New Zealand. It is located to the west of the Viaduct Basin; as of 2012, a good part of the area is still covered by petrol and liquid chemical storage facilities of Ports of Auckland Ltd and various other companies, that gave the area its now disappearing "Tank Farm" moniker. However, major changes are underway, with the area intended to be redeveloped into a mixed-use residential-commercial area, with a major park to run along the northern headland and up to the point; as one of the first changes, the eastern section of the Quarter, as well as one of the main west-east roads running across it, were revitalised with new office and entertainment/restaurant areas, with several major projects finishing in time for the Rugby World Cup 2011 tournament. The Western Reclamation was progressively constructed by the Auckland Harbour Board, of which Ports of Auckland is the successor.
The last components of the reclamation were being completed in 1930 and provided the growing harbour with additional berthage capacity and increased land for port activities. Used by the timber trade, it changed to the current bulk petro-chemical storage; as of the late 2000s, the area was still used by the bulk liquid industry, with 500,000 tonnes of liquids and cement being transported via Wynyard Wharf each year. This provides NZ$1.2 billion of yearly turnover, 4000 jobs in the Auckland economy. There are more than 100 marine companies around the area, with a NZ$400 million yearly turnover, exporting items worth NZ$120 million per year. Three fishing fleets, Moana Pacific and Simunovich, are based in the area. SeaLink runs a car and passenger ferry service to Great Barrier Island from a terminal at the base of Wynyard Wharf; the company was seeking clarification of its future facilities in the area in 2007, as their lease was running out in 2010, it was unlikely to invest a planned NZ$19 million in a new terminal or start using a new, faster ferry vessel before legal concerns were sorted out.
An ARC planning committee noted that it supported the further provision of the ferry service in the area, though there had been concerns about the island freight shipping not fitting into the redevelopment vision of the area. The Waterfront Plan completed 2012 does include the island ferry terminal, to be in the same general area as before. Shipping fuel storage, once an important facility at the Tank Farm, delivered to ships in port by the Tolema refueling barge, was taken over in the late 2000s by a marine fuel tanker, the Awanuia, owned by the Seafuels company; the vessel serves Ports of Auckland shipping by bringing in fuels from the Marsden Point refinery in Whangarei. A sand mining company, McCallum Brothers, used part of the western water's edge to unload barges of dredged sand but has moved out of the area, subsequently transformed into a public park / event space. Ports of Auckland still owned 18ha of the 35ha site in 2006 when it was decided that the land would be transferred to its parent company, Auckland Regional Holdings, owned by the Auckland Regional Council.
As was noted on the Tank Farm website in 2006: Changes in bulk liquid transportation, the advent of the pipeline from Marsden Point, the progressive expiration of industrial leases in the reclamation means that Ports of Auckland's land is becoming a precinct in search of a new purpose. Following similar declarations by Auckland City and the Auckland Regional Council and design processes were underway in the mid and late 2000s to define the future shape of the area, a change process that will take up to 20 years. One of the main public inputs at that time was a wish for increased waterfront access, as well as the desire for more parkland on the point. However, some of these wishes were muted from political sources, as the redevelopment of the area is to be paid by the development of residential areas, with the available land for this use shrinking with an increase of the proposed park space. Agreed on was a bridge connecting the new quarter to the Viaduct Basin. Early plans intended to name the new area'Kahurangi', Māori for'blue/precious jewel'.
This has now been replaced with'Wynyard Quarter', though it is still referred to as Tank Farm, including when talking about the whole Western Reclamation. Others have suggested the label'Tech-Farm', referencing a 2004 call to showcase on the waterfront New Zealand's best sustainable design and technology, as well as anticipating the government's and council's 2012 initiative to establish an'innovation precinct' within the Wynyard Quarter. First stageIn June 2007, more detailed concept plans were published after a year of negotiation between stakeholders. In the first stage of the redevelopment, the eastern section of the Western Reclamation, along Jellicoe Street, was to be turned into an entertainment strip, to complement similar areas on the eastern side of the Viaduct Basin, to be completed in time for the 2011 Rugby World Cup; this area was to be linked to the Auckland CBD via a new'Te Wero' bridge, to be constructed as a lift- or swing bridge after an international design competition, expected to cost around NZ$35 million.
As part of the area renewal, the'Wind Tree' sculpture, located in Queen Elizabeth II Square outside of Britomart from 1971 until 2002 was installed in the new Jellicoe Square. The August 2011 opening of the Wynyard Quarter to the general public, with the main features being the new Jellicoe Street and North Wharf areas, as well as the o
Devonport, New Zealand
Devonport is a harbourside suburb of Auckland, New Zealand. It is located on the North Shore, at the southern end of a peninsula that runs southeast from near Lake Pupuke in Takapuna, forming the northern side of the Waitematā Harbour. East of Devonport lies the northern promontory guarding the mouth of the harbour; the population of Devonport and the adjoining suburb of Cheltenham was 5,337 in the 2006 census, an increase of 126 since 2001. With the additional suburbs of Stanley Bay and Narrow Neck, the 2006 population was 11,142; the suburb hosts the Devonport Naval Base of the Royal New Zealand Navy, the main facility for the country's naval vessels, but is best known for its harbourside dining and drinking establishments and its heritage charm. Devonport has been compared to California due to its setting and scenery; the Devonport shops contain a variety of antique and book shops, a number of cafes and restaurants, making it a popular destination for tourists and Aucklanders. Day trips combining a meal in Devonport with a trip up Mt Victoria or an exploration of the military emplacements on nearby North Head are popular.
Of note is the Devonport Museum, located near Mt. Cambria. In April 2017 the museum was given a complete makeover by local volunteers and a TV production company; the navy base at Devonport features in the local character, with the North Shore City Council having signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Navy which recognises the developing partnership between them. The Torpedo Bay Navy Museum is located in Devonport. Around 40,000 years ago Devonport consisted of three islands of volcanic origin, Mount Victoria, North Head and between them Mount Cambria; the earliest evidence for settlement dates from the mid-14th century. The last remaining significant Māori settlement in the area, on North Head, was wiped out by rival tribes in the 1790s. Jules Dumont d'Urville, a French explorer, is thought to have gone ashore in the area in 1827 as the first European; the first permanent European inhabitant was a pilot and harbour master stationed on North Head in 1836. The suburb of Devonport itself was first settled by colonists in 1840 and is one of the oldest colonial settlements in Auckland, the first on the North Shore.
It was called Flagstaff because of the flagstaff raised on nearby Mount Victoria. For the first half century or so of its existence Devonport was geographically isolated from the rest of the North Shore, was sometimes called "the island" by the local inhabitants. Only a thin strip of land beside the beach at Narrow Neck connected Devonport to Belmont and the rest of the North Shore peninsula. In the late 19th century the mangrove swamp that stretched from Narrow Neck to Ngataringa Bay was filled in to form a racecourse, now a golf course. A new road was built along the western edge of the racecourse allowing more direct travel to the north. On the southern shore, to the west of the centre of Devonport, a nearby deep water anchorage suitable for Royal Navy vessels, the Devonport Naval Base was established. William Hobson the Governor of New Zealand, considered the sandspit-protected area a better choice for a naval installation than the shallower Tamaki waters on the southern side of the harbour.
While some facilities have expanded and shifted in location over time, the area is still the primary base for the Royal New Zealand Navy. The Calliope Dock at Stanley Bay, part of the base, was opened on 16 February 1888 and at the time was the largest dock in the Southern hemisphere; the suburb had one of the oldest New Zealand shipyards, now part of the Devonport Yacht Club area. The main centre of the suburb shifted west from Church Street and the original wharf at Torpedo Bay, to its current location around the ferry wharf; the settlement itself was renamed Devonport by 1859 after the English naval town of Devonport. Devonport achieved Borough status in 1886 and was incorporated into North Shore City in 1989. Devonport played a special role in the nuclear free movement. In 1981 the Devonport Borough Council voted to declare Devonport a nuclear-free zone, the first local council in New Zealand to do so. In July 2007, Devonport was given permission to be excluded from a list of local Auckland growth node centres.
The Auckland Regional Council accepted that while it was encouraging intensified growth around transport nodes such as Devonport, the character and historical nature of the Devonport Wharf area would make such a designation inappropriate in this case. In 2011 the Devonport community, led by parents and local publication the Devonport Flagstaff, launched a grassroots movement protesting the sale of the synthetic cannabis Kronic in local dairies; the battle was a success, Kronic was banned from the area. The first ferry services to Auckland city began in the 1840s; these were open sailing cutters operated by local seamen running passengers to the foot of Queen Street, Auckland's main road. In 1860 the first paddlesteamer ferries began operation; these were in turn replaced by double-ended, screw-driven ferries in 1904. Both passenger and vehicle ferries operated on the Devonport run until the opening of the Auckland Harbour Bridge in 1959. After the opening of the bridge, passenger ferry services to other North Shore destinations were cancelled, as were all vehicular ferries.
The Devonport passenger ferry was retained on a much reduced timetable. The majority of the ferries were scrapped, only a handful being retained until being replaced by more modern vessels; the last of the old-style double-end
Closed-circuit television known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not transmitted, though it may employ point to point, point to multipoint, or mesh wired or wireless links. Though all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most applied to those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks and other areas where security is needed. Though Videotelephony is called'CCTV' one exception is the use of video in distance education, where it is an important tool. Surveillance of the public using CCTV is common in many areas around the world. In recent years, the use of body worn video cameras has been introduced as a new form of surveillance used in law enforcement, with cameras located on a police officer's chest or head. Video surveillance has generated significant debate about balancing its use with individuals' right to privacy when in public.
In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans. CCTV systems may only as required to monitor a particular event. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing digital video recorders, provides recording for many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features. More decentralized IP cameras equipped with megapixel sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices, or internal flash for stand-alone operation. There are about 350 million surveillance cameras worldwide as of 2016. About 65% of these cameras are installed in Asia; the growth of CCTV has been slowing in recent years. The first CCTV system was installed by Siemens AG at Test Stand VII in Peenemünde, Nazi Germany in 1942, for observing the launch of V-2 rockets; the noted German engineer Walter Bruch was responsible for the technological design and installation of the system.
In the U. S. the first commercial closed-circuit television system became available in 1949, called Vericon. Little is known about Vericon except it was advertised as not requiring a government permit; the earliest video surveillance systems involved constant monitoring because there was no way to record and store information. The development of reel-to-reel media enabled the recording of surveillance footage; these systems required magnetic tapes to be changed manually, a time consuming and unreliable process, with the operator having to manually thread the tape from the tape reel through the recorder onto an empty take-up reel. Due to these shortcomings, video surveillance was not widespread. VCR technology became available in the 1970s, making it easier to record and erase information, the use of video surveillance became more common. During the 1990s, digital multiplexing was developed, allowing several cameras to record at once, as well as time lapse and motion-only recording; this increased savings of time and money which led to an increase in the use of CCTV.
CCTV technology has been enhanced with a shift toward Internet-based products and systems, other technological developments. Closed-circuit television was used as a form of pay-per-view theatre television for sports such as professional boxing and professional wrestling. Boxing telecasts were broadcast live to a select number of venues theaters, where viewers paid for tickets to watch the fight live; the first fight with a closed-circuit telecast was Joe Louis vs. Joe Walcott in 1948. Closed-circuit telecasts peaked in popularity with Muhammad Ali in the 1960s and 1970s, with "The Rumble in the Jungle" fight drawing 50 million CCTV viewers worldwide in 1974, the "Thrilla in Manila" drawing 100 million CCTV viewers worldwide in 1975. In 1985, the WrestleMania I professional wrestling show was seen by over one million viewers with this scheme; as late as 1996, the Julio César Chávez vs. Oscar De La Hoya boxing fight had 750,000 viewers. Closed-circuit television was replaced by pay-per-view home cable television in the 1980s and 1990s.
In September 1968, New York was the first city in the United States to install video cameras along its main business street in an effort to fight crime. Another early appearance was in 1973 in Times Square in New York City; the NYPD installed it in order to deter crime, occurring in the area. During the 1980s video surveillance began to spread across the country targeting public areas, it was seen as a cheaper way to deter crime compared to increasing the size of the police departments. Some businesses as well those that were prone to theft, began to use video surveillance. From the mid-1990s on, police departments across the country installed an increasing number of cameras in various public spaces including housing projects and public parks departments. CCTV became common in banks and stores to discourage theft, by recording evidence of criminal activity. In 1998, 3,000 CCTV systems were in use in New York City. A study by Nieto in 2008 found many businesses in the United States had invested in video surveillance technology to protect products and promote safe workplace and consumer environments.
A nationwide survey of a wide variety of companies found. In private sector CCTV surveillance technology is operated in a wide variety of establishments such as in industry/manufacturing, financial/insurance/banking and distribution, util
An eyesore is something, considered to look unpleasant or ugly. Its technical usage is as an alternative perspective to the notion of landmark. Common examples include dilapidated buildings, litter, polluted areas, excessive commercial signage such as billboards; some eyesores may be a matter of opinion such as controversial modern architecture, transmission towers or wind turbines. Natural eyesores include feces and weeds. In the USA, the National Association of Realtors says an eyesore can shave about 10% off the value of a nearby listing. Clean-up programmes to improve or remove eyesores are started by local bodies or national governments; these are called Operation Eyesore. High-profile international events such as the Olympic Games trigger such activity. Others contend that it is best to nip such problems in the bud by addressing them while they are small, since signs of neglect encourage anti-social behaviour such as vandalism and fly-tipping; this strategy is known as fixing broken windows.
Whether some constructions are eyesores is a matter of opinion which may change over time. Landmarks are called eyesores. Eiffel Tower – Upon its construction, Parisians wanted it torn down as an eyesore. Nowadays it is one of the world's top landmarks. Golden Gate Bridge was controversial ahead of its construction, it being said in The Wasp that it "would prove an eye-sore to those now living... mar if not utterly destroy the natural charm of the harbor famed throughout the world." It is now considered a notable landmark. Millennium Dome – the ugliest building in the world in a poll by the business magazine Forbes of "15 architects, all of whom were American apart from one, British and one, Canadian". Federation Square – despite being hailed a landmark by many, it has been rejected by many notable Australians as an eyesore. Wind farms -- liked by others. Boston's Government Center, where City Hall has been called "The World's Ugliest Building". One Rincon Hill – Situated just south of San Francisco's Financial District, this high-rise condominium surrounded by shorter buildings has generated some mixed reviews.
Lloyd's building – Situated in the City of London, this building was described as an oil refinery when it was opened in 1986 for having most of its facilities, stairways and AC on the outside. Some people still say this, although the building has become more popular and liked in the recent years. Tour Montparnasse - lone skyscraper in the Montparnasse area of Paris, France, its appearance mars the Paris urban landscape, construction of skyscrapers have been banned in the city two years after its completion. A 2008 poll of editors on Virtualtourist voted the building the second ugliest building in the world, it is sometimes said that the view from the top is the most beautiful in Paris, because it is the only place from which the tower itself cannot be seen. Brisbane Transit Centre and Riverside Expressway – have been called eyesores and planning debacles by University of Queensland Associate Professor of Architecture Peter Skinner. Tricorn Centre. Built in 1964, it was highly respected. Spencer Street Power Station, Victoria – an asbestos ridden landmark regarded by many as Melbourne's biggest eyesore.
It was demolished in 2008. Cahill Expressway in Sydney – regarded by many as a major planning mistake. Sydney Harbour Control Tower – constructed in 1974 and demolished in 2016. Riverside Plaza in Minneapolis, Minnesota Embarcadero Freeway – Along The Embarcadero in San Francisco, this double-decker elevated freeway blocked The Embarcadero's view and shadowed the boulevard under it; when it was demolished in 1991, the long-abandoned Ferry Building and the boulevard under the freeway were restored. Petrobras Headquarters in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an ugly example of concrete brutalism applied to an office building; the Hole In The Road in Sheffield, filled in in 1994. City-Center in Helsinki, colloquially known as Makkaratalo because of the concrete sausage-like railing circling the third floor parking lot. Northampton Power Station, England left derelict since 1975. House of Soviets, Russia. "The ugliest building on Russian soil". School of Architecture, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. Won an opinion poll for Stockholm's ugliest building, by broad majority.
Damaged by a fire in 2011. Spire of Dublin in Dublin, Republic of Ireland American Dream Meadowlands. Most politicians and the public have criticized the building's appearance calling it "The ugliest building in New Jersey". Waldschlösschen Bridge in Dresden, Germany; the Dresden Elbe Valley lost the UNESCO World Heritage Site status because of this bridge. Barclays Center in Brooklyn, New York. Regarded as a jarring and aesthetically unappealing addition to the local landscape. Cebu City Hall, considered an eyesore by many during the early to mid 2000's, until it was renovated in 2007, is now considered as one of the best city halls in the Philippines. Majesty Building in Altamonte Springs, Florida locally known as the I-4 Eyesore, a building, under construction since 2001. Torre de Manila, a high-rise development by DMCI Homes that dwarfs the Rizal Monument; the dictionary definition of eyesore at Wiktionary
Wellington is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with 418,500 residents. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Remutaka Range. Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Island, is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region, which includes the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, its latitude is 41°17′S, making it the world's southernmost capital of a sovereign state. Wellington features a temperate maritime climate, is the world's windiest city by average wind speed; the Wellington urban area comprises four local authorities: Wellington City, on the peninsula between Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour, contains the central business district and about half the population. As the nation's capital since 1865, the New Zealand Government and Parliament, Supreme Court and most of the public service are based in the city. Architectural sights include the Government Building—one of the largest wooden buildings in the world—as well as the iconic Beehive.
Wellington is home to several of the largest and oldest cultural institutions in the nation such the National Archives, the National Library, the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, numerous theatres. It plays host to many artistic and cultural organisations, including the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra and Royal New Zealand Ballet. One of the world's most liveable cities, the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world. Wellington's economy is service-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, government, it is the centre of New Zealand's film and special effects industries, a hub for information technology and innovation, with two public research universities. Wellington is one of New Zealand's chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping; the city is served by the third busiest airport in the country. Wellington's transport network includes train and bus lines which reach as far as the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, ferries connect the city to the South Island.
Wellington takes its name from Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo: his title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset. It was named in November 1840 by the original settlers of the New Zealand Company on the suggestion of the directors of the same, in recognition of the Duke's strong support for the company's principles of colonisation and his "strenuous and successful defence against its enemies of the measure for colonising South Australia". One of the founders of the settlement, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, reported that the settlers "took up the views of the directors with great cordiality and the new name was at once adopted". In the Māori language, Wellington has three names. Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara refers to Wellington Harbour and means "the great harbour of Tara". In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by raising the index and ring fingers of one hand, palm forward, to form a "W", shaking it from side to side twice.
The city's location close to the mouth of the narrow Cook Strait leads to its vulnerability to strong gales, leading to the city's nickname of "Windy Wellington". Legends recount that Kupe explored the district in about the 10th century; the earliest date with hard evidence for Maori living in New Zealand is about 1280. Situated near the geographic centre of the country, Wellington was well placed for trade. In 1839 it was chosen as the first major planned settlement for British immigrants coming to New Zealand; the settlement was named in honour of Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo. European settlement began with the arrival of an advance party of the New Zealand Company on the ship Tory on 20 September 1839, followed by 150 settlers on the Aurora on 22 January 1840. Food processing plants, engineering industries, vehicle assembly and oil refineries were located in the NE which caused the main industrial growth in Hutt valley; the settlers constructed their first homes at Petone on the flat area at the mouth of the Hutt River.
When that proved swampy and flood-prone they transplanted the plans, drawn without regard for the hilly terrain. In 1865, Wellington became the capital city in place of Auckland, which William Hobson had made the capital in 1841; the New Zealand Parliament had first met in Wellington on 7 July 1862, on a temporary basis. There had been some concerns that the more populous South Island would choose to form a separate colony in the British Empire. Several Commissioners invited from Australia, chosen for their neutral status, declared that Wellington was a suitable location because of
Britomart Transport Centre
Britomart Transport Centre is the public transport hub in the central business district of Auckland, New Zealand, the northern terminus of the North Island Main Trunk railway line. It combines a railway station in a former Edwardian post office, extended with expansive post-modernist architectural elements, with a bus interchange, it is at the foot of Queen Street, the main commercial thoroughfare of Auckland city centre, with the main ferry terminal just across Quay Street. The centre was the result of many design iterations, some of them being larger and including an underground bus terminal and a large underground car park. Political concerns and cost implications meant. However, at the time of its inception in the early 2000s the centre was still Auckland's largest transport project built to move rail access closer to the city's CBD and help boost Auckland's low usage of public transport, it is one of the few underground railway stations in the world designed for use by diesel trains. Seen as underused and too costly, it is now considered a great success, heading for capacity with the growing uptake of rail commuting.
Limitations on further patronage are due to the access tunnel from the east which provides only two rail tracks, the lack of a through connection via a rail link to the North Shore or to the Western line via an underground tunnel, which would change it into a through station. A tunnel to the Western Line is now as part of the City Rail Link project. Britomart is on reclaimed land in the middle of, it is named after a former headland at Commercial Bay's eastern end. In the 1870s and 1880s the headland was levelled in order to extend the railway line to the bottom of Queen Street, was used to fill in Commercial Bay. Auckland Railway Station moved west from its original 1873 site to Britomart in 1885 and remained there after the Post Office was built on the Queen Street frontage in 1911. In 1930 the station was relocated 1.2 km east to Beach Road and the former station site became a bus terminal in 1937 and car park in 1958. Many proposals were made to locate the station back in the CBD, most notably in 1973 and 1987, with the 1970s proposal of the Mayor of Auckland, Dove-Myer Robinson, envisaging an underground station at Britomart and a tunnel loop, but, stopped by the Muldoon National Government, which claimed it was unjustified and too costly.
In 1995, Auckland City Council purchased the old Post Office building and proposed to redevelop the area as a transit centre. Early designs called for both the bus terminal and the railway to be underground, but these plans were scrapped as consultation showed that buses were preferred above ground by both users and operators, projected costs soared due to the difficulties with potential water ingress; the developer defaulted on contractual deadlines, the project failed. In 1998, a cheaper option was decided on after a consultation process with stakeholders and citizens; the architectural design was chosen via a competition. It used part of Queen Elizabeth II Square and surrounding streets as a bus terminal, with the existing dilapidated bus terminal redeveloped to incorporate both bus services and a pedestrianised area; when nearby Quay Street was realigned in the late 1990s, a tunnel was built to provide the underground railway link. Bus services using the old bus terminal were diverted to other locations in June 2001.
Designed by California architect Mario Madayag in collaboration with local Auckland architects Jasmax, construction of Britomart commenced in October 2001, with structural design having been provided by OPUS. It involved 14 km of piling, some being 40 m long and driven 16 m into the underlying bedrock to provide good earthquake protection, to futureproof the area for potential construction of buildings on top of the station. 200,000 cubic metres were excavated for the station, 40,000 cubic metres of concrete poured. The station includes 236 m ² retail area; the main chamber of Britomart is one of the best interiors in New Zealand and shows the influence of the main hall of the Austrian Postal Savings Bank building by Otto Wagner. The station opened to passengers on 7 July 2003, with the official opening on 25 July 2003 by Sir Edmund Hillary and government ministers. Services to the Beach Road terminus ceased, except for some peak-time commuter services and excursion trains using the former Platform 4, renamed'The Strand'.
The commuter services ceased after a few months. Cost over-runs and differing tastes made the centre politically controversial, the design being described as a large hole in the ground and figuratively. Despite this and a NZ$204 million price tag, it has won numerous design awards and is internationally recognised for its innovative but heritage-sympathetic architecture; the main source of contention was the great expense of this public transport development in the Auckland Region, where for many decades the focus had been on private vehicle ownership and travel. Initial plans included underground pedestrian walkways to Queen Elizabeth II Square, the nearby downtown ferry terminal and the main shopping street of Queen St. Due to cost over-runs only the short walkway under Queen Street to the square was built, the other two being dropped in favour of a sizeable rain-proof canopy that ran from the square's above-ground exit northward toward the ferry terminal and southward toward the Queen Street-Customs Street intersection.
The underground walkway was closed to pedestrians from 29 March 20