Sky Tower (Auckland)
The Sky Tower is a telecommunications and observation tower in Auckland, New Zealand. Located at the corner of Victoria and Federal Streets within the city's CBD, it is 328 metres tall, as measured from ground level to the top of the mast, making it the tallest freestanding structure in the Southern Hemisphere and the 25th tallest tower in the world, it has become an iconic landmark in Auckland's skyline unique design. The tower is part of the SkyCity Auckland casino complex built in 1994–1997 for Harrah's Entertainment. Several upper levels are accessible to the public; the Sky Tower has several upper levels that are accessible to the public: Level 50: Sky Lounge Level 51: Main Observation Deck Level 52: Orbit 360° Dining Level 53: The Sugar Club restaurant, SkyWalk and SkyJump Level 60: Sky DeckThe upper portion of the tower contains two restaurants and a cafe—including New Zealand's only revolving restaurant, located 190 m from the ground, which turns 360 degrees every hour. There is a brasserie-style buffet located one floor above the main observatory level.
It has three observation decks at different heights, each providing 360-degree views of the city. The main observation level at 186 m has 38 mm thick glass sections of flooring giving a view straight to the ground; the top observation deck labeled "Skydeck" sits just below the main antenna at 220 m and gives views of up to 82 km in the distance. The tower features the "SkyJump", a 192-metre jump from the observation deck, during which a jumper can reach up to 85 km/h; the jump is guide-cable-controlled to prevent jumpers from colliding with the tower in case of wind gusts. Climbs into the antenna mast portion are possible for tour groups, as is a walk around the exterior; the tower is used for telecommunications and broadcasting with the Auckland Peering Exchange being located on Level 48. The aerial at the top of the tower hosts the largest FM combiner in the world which combines with 58 wireless microwave links located above the top restaurant to provide a number of services; these include television, wireless internet, RT, weather measurement services.
The tower is Auckland's primary FM radio transmitter, is one of four infill terrestrial television transmitters in Auckland, serving areas not covered by the main transmitter at Waiatarua in the Waitakere Ranges. A total of twenty-three FM radio stations and six digital terrestrial television multiplexes broadcast from the tower. Two VHF analogue television channels broadcasting from the tower were switched off in the early hours of Sunday 1 December 2013 as part of New Zealand's digital television transition. H = Horizontal V = Vertical The following table contains television and radio frequencies operating from the Sky Tower: Fletcher Construction was the contracted builder for the project while engineering firm Beca Group provided the design management and coordination, geotechnical, mechanical, plumbing and fire engineering services. Harrison Grierson provided surveying services, it was designed by Gordon Moller of Craig Craig Moller architects and has received a New Zealand Institute of Architects National Award as well as regional awards.
The Project Architect was Les Dykstra. Taking two years and nine months to construct, the tower was opened on 3 August 1997; the tower is constructed of high-performance reinforced concrete. Its 12-metre diameter shaft is supported on eight "legs" based on 16 foundation piles drilled over 12 m deep into the local sandstone; the main shaft was built using climbing formwork. The upper levels were constructed from composite materials, structural steel, precast concrete and reinforced concrete, the observation decks clad in aluminium with blue/green reflective glass. A structural steel framework supports the upper mast structure. During construction 15,000 cubic metres of concrete, 2,000 tonnes of reinforcing steel, 660 tonnes of structural steel were used; the mast weighs over 170 tonnes. It had to be lifted into place using a crane attached to the structure, as it would have been too heavy for a helicopter to lift. To remove the crane, another crane had to be constructed attached to the upper part of the Sky Tower structure, which dismantled the big crane, was in turn dismantled into pieces small enough to fit into the elevator.
The tower is designed to withstand wind in excess of 200 km/h and designed to sway up to 1 metre in excessively high winds. As a safety precaution the Sky Tower’s lifts have special technology installed to detect movement and will automatically slow down. If the building sway exceeds predetermined safety levels the lifts will return to the ground floor and remain there until the high winds and building sway have abated; the Sky Tower is built to withstand an 8.0 magnitude earthquake located within a 20-kilometre radius. There are three fireproof rooms on levels 44, 45, 46 to provide refuge in the event of an emergency, while the central service lift shaft and stairwells are fire-safety rated. SkyCity Auckland lights the Sky Tower to show support for a range of charities. Common lighting events include: The top half of the Sky Tower is lit by energy efficient LED lighting which replaced the original metal halide floodlights in May 2009; the LEDs can produce millions of different colour combinations controlled by a computer system.
The original lights used 66 per cent more energy than the current LED
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Kiwitea Street known as Freyberg Field, is a multi-purpose stadium in the suburb of Sandringham in Auckland, New Zealand. It is used for football is the home stadium of both Auckland City FC and Central United. Terraced seating can accommodate 250 patrons; the stadium is named for 1st Baron Freyberg. Kiwitea Street was the venue of the 2007 Chatham Cup final; the Central club played their home games at either the Auckland Domain or the Oakley Ground in Waterview. A move to a permanent home site came in 1965, when Freyberg Field, situated on the borders of the suburbs of Sandringham and Mount Albert in Kiwitea Street, was made available for use as a football pitch, in spite of it being just forty-five metres wide; the next quarter of a century saw Central increase the width of the pitch on three occasions, each time at club members' personal expense. The last such exercise took place in the late 1980s. After buying up adjoining properties, a massive timber retaining wall was erected, 5000 cubic meters of earth was removed.
However, only six first-team games could be played at Kiwitea Street in 1992, due to its poor condition. Following consultations with the Auckland City Council and the New Zealand Turf Culture Institute, a bold plan was implemented to develop an all-weather, sand carpeted pitch at Central – similar to those at Eden Park and the MCG – over a three-year period; the final result saw Kiwitea Street boasting the finest football-playing surface in the country by 1995. In addition to these extensive works the club has undertaken further major developments at the ground including: 1; the construction of a covered grandstand in 2004. Major additions to the clubrooms to incorporate a new boardroom, administration office, corporate hospitality wing and dedicated medical and physiotherapy room. Further sand-slitting, sand-carpeting and a full resurfacing of the pitch in 2007
Ramon Tribulietx Santolaya is a Spanish football coach and former football player, the current manager of ISPS Handa Premiership club Auckland City, having been appointed in July 2010. Tribulietx holds the world record for the most trophies in continental competitions, winning seven straight OFC Champions League titles with Auckland City between 2011 and 2017. Born in Barcelona, Tribulietx enjoyed an low-profile playing career in New Zealand, signing for would-be North Island Soccer League champions Central United in 1999. However, he stayed for only two months before breaking his arm in a reserve fixture and returning to Spain, he came out of retirement while manager of Auckland City in 2014, playing several games for Northern League Division Two side Warkworth AFC in 2014 under current Wellington Phoenix goalkeeping coach Paul Gothard. Having gained a degree in physical education at the Institut Nacional d'Educació Física de Catalunya in 1998, Tribulietx's first foray into management came as the assistant coach of newly promoted Segunda División B side UE Sant Andreu.
The next season, Tribulietx moved to UE Figueres at the same level and, after the club's dissolution, moved to UE Castelldefels. Tribulietx became the assistant manager at Auckland City under Paul Posa in 2008. In 2010, he was named as co-manager of Auckland City along with Aaron McFarland. Tribulietx has won an astonishing seven consecutive OFC Champions League titles between 2011 and 2017, the highest consecutive streak of any manager for any continental or international competition; as a result, Auckland City has qualified for seven consecutive Club World Cup competitions. Tribulietx guided the Navy Blues to a historic third-placed finish in the 2014 FIFA Club World Cup, falling to Copa Libertadores champions San Lorenzo in extra time in the semi-final before defeating Cruz Azul in a penalty shootout in the third-placed playoff. In addition to his management duties at Auckland City, Tribulietx has enjoyed external coaching roles, acting as technical advisor for the Canada women's national football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics, for the Solomon Islands national football team during the 2016 OFC Nations Cup.
Auckland City FCFIFA Club World Cup Third Place: 2014 OFC Champions League Champions: 2010–11, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14, 2014-15, 2016, 2017 New Zealand Football Championship Premiers: 2011-12, 2013-14, 2014-15, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2017–18 New Zealand Football Championship Champions: 2014, 2015, 2018 Charity Cup: 2011, 2013, 2015, 2016, 2018 OFC President's Cup Champions: 2014 Lunar New Year Cup Champions: 2017 Canada Women's Olympic Team2012 London Olympics Third Place: 2012 Auckland City FC Profile at the Wayback Machine Ramon Tribulietx at FootballDatabase.eu Canada soccer
2009 FIFA Club World Cup
The 2009 FIFA Club World Cup was a football tournament played from 9 December to 19 December 2009. It was played in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Australia and Portugal placed bids to host the tournament, but Portugal withdrew from the process; the final was played on 19 December 2009 and was won by European champions Barcelona, who came from behind to defeat the South American entrants, Estudiantes, 2–1 after extra time. Mauro Boselli put Estudiantes ahead in the 37th minute, but Pedro equalised with one minute left in normal time before Lionel Messi scored the winning goal five minutes into the second half of extra time; this made Barcelona the first Spanish side to win the FIFA Club World Cup, it meant that they had won a total of six competitions in the 2009 calendar year, beating Liverpool's record five trophies won in 2001. Abu Dhabi was the only city to serve as a venue for the 2009 FIFA Club World Cup; the Adidas Jabulani, the official match ball of the 2010 FIFA World Cup, served as the match ball of the 2009 FIFA Club World Cup.
The official draw was held in Abu Dhabi on 12 November 2009 to decide the opposition to be faced by the three teams that begin the tournament at the quarter-final stage. All times are UAE Time 4 goals Denilson 2 goals Leandro Benítez Jason Hayne Lionel Messi Pedro 1 goal Daniel Arreola Mbenza Bedi Christian Bermúdez Mauro Boselli Chad Coombes Adam Dickinson Ngandu Kasongo Kilitcho Kasusula Rafael Márquez Lugo Guillermo Rojas Sergio Busquets Lucas Silva Riki van Steeden Winners: $5 million Runners-up: $4 million Third place: $2.5 million Fourth place: $2 million Fifth place: $1.5 million Sixth place: $1 million Seventh place: $0.5 million Total: $16.5 million FIFA Club World Cup UAE 2009, FIFA.com 2009 FIFA Club World Cup Official Site FIFA Technical Report
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an