click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

August Kekulé

Friedrich August Kekulé Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz, was a German organic chemist. From the 1850s until his death, Kekulé was one of the most prominent chemists in Europe in theoretical chemistry, he was the principal founder of the theory of chemical structure and in particular the Kekulé structure of benzene. Kekulé never used his first given name. After he was ennobled by the Kaiser in 1895, he adopted the name August Kekule von Stradonitz, without the French acute accent over the second "e"; the French accent had been added to the name by Kekulé's father during the Napoleonic occupation of Hesse by France, to ensure that French-speaking people pronounced the third syllable. The son of a civil servant, Kekulé was born in the capital of the Grand Duchy of Hesse. After graduating from secondary school, in the fall of 1847 he entered the University of Giessen, with the intention of studying architecture. After hearing the lectures of Justus von Liebig in his first semester, he decided to study chemistry.

Following four years of study in Giessen and a brief compulsory military service, he took temporary assistantships in Paris, in Chur, in London, where he was decisively influenced by Alexander Williamson. His Giessen doctoral degree was awarded in the summer of 1852. In 1856 Kekulé became Privatdozent at the University of Heidelberg. In 1858 he was hired as full professor at the University of Ghent in 1867 he was called to Bonn, where he remained for the rest of his career. Basing his ideas on those of predecessors such as Williamson, Edward Frankland, William Odling, Auguste Laurent, Charles-Adolphe Wurtz and others, Kekulé was the principal formulator of the theory of chemical structure; this theory proceeds from the idea of atomic valence the tetravalence of carbon and the ability of carbon atoms to link to each other, to the determination of the bonding order of all of the atoms in a molecule. Archibald Scott Couper independently arrived at the idea of self-linking of carbon atoms, provided the first molecular formulas where lines symbolize bonds connecting the atoms.

For organic chemists, the theory of structure provided dramatic new clarity of understanding, a reliable guide to both analytic and synthetic work. As a consequence, the field of organic chemistry developed explosively from this point. Among those who were most active in pursuing early structural investigations were, in addition to Kekulé and Couper, Wurtz, Alexander Crum Brown, Emil Erlenmeyer, Alexander Butlerov. Kekulé's idea of assigning certain atoms to certain positions within the molecule, schematically connecting them using what he called their "Verwandtschaftseinheiten", was based on evidence from chemical reactions, rather than on instrumental methods that could peer directly into the molecule, such as X-ray crystallography; such physical methods of structural determination had not yet been developed, so chemists of Kekulé's day had to rely entirely on so-called "wet" chemistry. Some chemists, notably Hermann Kolbe criticized the use of structural formulas that were offered, as he thought, without proof.

However, most chemists followed Kekulé's lead in pursuing and developing what some have called "classical" structure theory, modified after the discovery of electrons and the development of quantum mechanics. The idea that the number of valences of a given element was invariant was a key component of Kekulé's version of structural chemistry; this generalization suffered from many exceptions, was subsequently replaced by the suggestion that valences were fixed at certain oxidation states. For example, periodic acid according to Kekuléan structure theory could be represented by the chain structure I-O-O-O-O-H. By contrast, the modern structure of periodic acid has all four oxygen atoms surrounding the iodine in a tetrahedral geometry. Kekulé's most famous work was on the structure of benzene. In 1865 Kekulé published a paper in French suggesting that the structure contained a six-membered ring of carbon atoms with alternating single and double bonds; the following year he published a much longer paper in German on the same subject.

The empirical formula for benzene had been long known, but its unsaturated structure was a challenge to determine. Archibald Scott Couper in 1858 and Joseph Loschmidt in 1861 suggested possible structures that contained multiple double bonds or multiple rings, but the study of aromatic compounds was in its earliest years, too little evidence was available to help chemists decide on any particular structure. More evidence was available by 1865 regarding the relationships of aromatic isomers. Kekulé argued for his proposed structure by considering the number of isomers observed for derivatives of benzene. For every monoderivative of benzene only one isomer was found, implying that all six carbons are equivalent, so that substitution on any carbon gives only a single possible product. For diderivatives such as the toluidines, C6H4, three isomers were observed, for which Kekulé proposed structures with the two substituted carbon atoms separated by one and three carbon-carbon bonds named ortho and para isomers respectively.

The counting of possible isomers for

New Carlisle, Indiana

New Carlisle is a suburban town in Olive Township, St. Joseph County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 1,861 at the 2010 Census, it is part of the South Bend -- IN-MI, Metropolitan Statistical Area. New Carlisle was known as Bourissa Hills; this was named after Lazarus Bourissa, a Potawatamie graduate of the Carey Mission, granted this section of land by the treaty that moved most of the Potawatamie to the west. It was platted under the name of New Carlisle, by Richard Risley Carlisle, who had come from Philadelphia, in 1835; the New Carlisle post office has been in operation since 1837. The New Carlisle Historic District and Jeremiah Service House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. New Carlisle is located at 41°42′15″N 86°30′17″W. According to the 2010 census, New Carlisle has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,861 people, 719 households, 520 families living in the town. The population density was 890.4 inhabitants per square mile.

There were 795 housing units at an average density of 380.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.0% White, 0.8% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 719 households of which 39.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 27.7% were non-families. 23.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the town was 36.1 years. 28.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 52.1 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,505 people, 608 households, 403 families living in the town; the population density was 820.3 people per square mile.

There were 633 housing units at an average density of 345.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.01% White, 0.47% African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.33% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.13% of the population. There were 609 households out of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.8% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.07. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.0% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $36,542, the median income for a family was $45,147. Males had a median income of $37,500 versus $22,250 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,597. About 4.1% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.0% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over. New Carlisle is home to three of five schools in the New Prairie United School Corporation. New Prairie High School has an enrollment of 875 students and is one of 27 high schools that received exemplary status according to the scores of the 2006 ISTEP tests, it is the only school in LaPorte and Marshall counties to receive this honor. The other schools in New Carlisle that are part of the NPUSC are New Prairie Middle School, Olive Township Elementary School; the town has the New Carlisle-Olive Township Public Library. The South Shore Line had a New Carlisle stop until 1994, when a number of stations with low ridership were eliminated from its schedule.

Today, the closest South Shore Line station is located in the nearby Hudson Lake, an unincorporated town in LaPorte County. The closest Amtrak station is located in Indiana. While the South Bend public transit system served the town in the past, this has not been the case in decades; the Monastery of the Nativity of the Mother of God is located just south of New Carlisle at 32787 Early Road. The monastery, in the care of Mother Macrina, is under the jurisdiction of the Serbian Orthodox Church in North and South America. Bill Doba: former head football coach at Washington State University Schuyler Colfax: was a Representative from Indiana and the 17th Vice President of the United States Dan Seemiller: 2000 and 2004 US Olympic men's table tennis coach, author of Winning Table Tennis: Skills and Strategies

Nissanka Latha Mandapaya

Nissanka Latha Mandapaya is a unique structure in the ancient city of Polonnaruwa in Sri Lanka. A màndapa is a pillared structure, open on all sides and protects the person inside from the sun with a roof. By definition, as of the 20th century, mándapas, as temporary structures, are built inside a house or a building and serve as recitation platform during remembrance ceremonies for the dead. Built by King Nissanka Malla and named after him, it is located near the western entrance of the Dalada Maluva, the area that contains the oldest and most sacred monuments in the city. A nearby stone inscription identifies this as the building used by Nissanka Malla to listen to pirith; the structure is an elevated stone platform with a number of stone columns and surrounded by a low stone wall. These stone columns are the unique feature about the Nissanka Latha Manadapaya, since they are carved in a manner, found nowhere else in the country; the eight granite columns are arranged with four in each row. Used to support a roof, each of them is 8 feet 4 inches in height.

In each of these columns, the crown is carved in the shape of a blossoming lotus bud. The rest of the column is elaborately carved to resemble the stem of the flower. Unlike stone columns seen in the architecture of this period, these are not straight, but are curved in three places. According to archaeologist Senarath Paranavithana, the stone columns at the Nissanka Latha Mandapaya are the best examples of this feature of ancient Sri Lankan architecture. At the center of the platform, flanked by the stone columns, appears a small stupa; this is made from stone, but the top part of it has been destroyed. Its base is decorated with a carved design; the platform is surrounded by a stone railing. The structure is entered through a single stone doorway. In contrast to the elaborately carved stone pillars, these have an non-decorated and plain finish

White band disease

White band disease is a coral disease that affects acroporid corals and is distinguishable by the white band of dead coral tissue that it forms. The disease destroys the coral tissue of Caribbean acroporid corals elkhorn coral and staghorn coral; the disease exhibits a pronounced division between the remaining coral tissue and the exposed coral skeleton. These symptoms are similar to white plague, except that white band disease is only found on acroporid corals, white plague has not been found on any acroporid corals, it is part of a class of similar disease known as "white syndromes", many of which may be linked to species of Vibrio bacteria. While the pathogen for this disease has not been identified, Vibrio carchariae may be one of its factors; the degradation of coral tissue begins at the base of the coral, working its way up to the branch tips, but it can begin in the middle of a branch. White band disease causes the affected coral tissue to spin off the skeleton in a white uniform band for which the disease was given its name.

The band, which can range from a few millimeters to 10 centimeters wide works its way from the base of the coral colony up to the coral branch tips. The band progresses up the coral branch at an approximate rate of 5 millimeters per day, causing tissue loss as it works its way to the branch tips. After the tissue is lost, the bare skeleton of the coral may by colonized by filamentous algae. There are two variants of white band disease, type I and type II. In Type I of white band disease, the tissue remaining on the coral branch shows no sign of coral bleaching, although the affected colony may appear lighter in color overall. However, a variant of white band disease, known as white band disease Type II, found on Staghorn colonies near the Bahamas, does produce a margin of bleached tissue before it is lost. Type II of white band disease can be mistaken for coral bleaching. By examining the remaining living coral tissue for bleaching, one can delineate which type of the disease affects a given coral.

No known pathogen has been isolated for white band disease, although there is a shift of bacterial composition in the surface layer where the band eats away as the coral tissue. The bacteria shifts from a dominant pseudomonad population to an dominant Vibrio carchariae population. Histopathological examinations of diseased tissue provide some insight into the specific pathogen or combination of pathogens that cause this disease. However, substantial samples of rickettsiales have been present in the surface layer, which causes scientists to suspect that this bacteria may be one of the factors of the disease; the disease, however begins from the base of the coral and works its way up the coral branches. As it progresses, the band leaves behind the white coral skeleton. Many of the details of how the breakdown of coral occurs due to the bacteria are unclear in part to the difficulty in isolating marine bacteria. Studies have caused by a pathogenic bacteria. Experiments have shown that Ampicillin may be able to treat white band disease type I.

Since white band disease was first reported in the 1970s, the disease has led to the devastation of 95% of the elkhorn and staghorn corals in the Caribbean region. This resulted in both affected species being listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act and as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List; the decline in these corals has a lasting effect on the environment. Coral reefs protect coastlines from ocean currents and storms, the death of these corals only increases the loss of coastlines in affected regions. Elkhorn and staghorn corals are two of the major reef-building corals, the foundation on which the rest of the coral reef is formed, its loss means the loss of a habitat for many coral reef dwelling species such as lobsters, parrot-fish, snapper shrimps, many other reef species, causing a sharp decline in the biodiversity of an affected region. Coral reefs are home to more than twenty-five percent of all marine fish species, making them biologically diverse; the loss of this coral would be damaging to people living on the coast in terms of the food supply, coastal protection, economic security and more.

Nearly 500 million people directly depend on coral reefs for income. Elkhorn coral absorbs much carbon dioxide from the ocean every year, preventing ocean acidification and ocean temperature increases. Upon decomposing, Elkhorn coral releases its sequestered carbon dioxide back into the ocean, heating it and contributing to acidification. White band disease threatens more than just the coral with its lethal touch. In recent decades, the coral cover in coral reefs has been declining, providing for a transitional increase in the fleshy macroalgae cover in the Caribbean region as more and more filamentous algae colonize inside of the coral skeletons; the death of elkhorn and staghorn corals substantially reduces coral cover and provides substratum space for further algal growth. Prospects are poor for the recovery of the elkhorn coral, given its asexual method of reproduction, which relies on coral fragments breaking off from the main body and growing in a new area. Staghorn coral relies on asexual fragmentation as its primary method of reproduction, staghorn coral possesses a higher rate of sexual recruitment than Elkhorn coral.

White band disease has been reported most notably in the Caribbean region. However, white band disease has been sighted in the Red Sea, the Indo-Pacific region, including the Philipp

Christ's Entry Into Brussels in 1889

Christ's Entry Into Brussels in 1889 is an 1888 painting by James Ensor and is considered his most famous work and was a precursor to Expressionism. The painting was rejected by Les XX, not exhibited until 1929, it was shown at his studio in his lifetime. It was exhibited at the Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp from 1947 to 1983, Kunsthaus Zürich from 1983 to 1987, it was shown at a retrospective in 1976 at the Art Institute of Chicago, Guggenheim Museum. The painting is on permanent exhibition at the Getty Center in Los Angeles; the painting is one of just three selected by Stefan Jonsson to explicate the history of democracy and socialism over a period of two centuries, how "the masses" are perceived. "James Ensor: Christ's Entry into Brussels in 1889". Getty Publications. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2012

Heroes World Distribution

Heroes World Distribution Co. named Superhero Enterprises, was an American comic book distributor. It was founded by Ivan Snyder, active from 1975 to 1997, during the growth and consolidation of the direct market. Heroes World was acquired by Marvel Comics in late 1994 to act as the publisher's sole distributor; this ill-fated move, combined with other marketplace factors of the time, resulted in the financial failure of many other comics distributors and retailers — and the near collapse of the entire North American comic book market. In the early 1970s, Ivan Snyder was head of licensing in Marvel Comics Group's merchandising department. In this role, he was in charge of selling various Marvel licensed products via mail order. After a change in management in the mid-1970s, Marvel discontinued the mail order service, Snyder purchased the business in 1975, renaming it Superhero Enterprises. Running the business out his basement, Snyder shortly thereafter moved into a storefront in Morristown, New Jersey, with a catalog showroom store format.

A second store was opened in a Livingston shopping mall, with DC Comics products added to their product mix. When the former Mego Corporation trademark "Superhero" was purchased by Marvel and DC, Superheroes Enterprise was forced to change its name to Heroes World. By 1982, Heroes World's retail chain had expanded to 12 locations, while it continued its mail order distribution business. By late 1994, Heroes World was North America's third largest comics distributor. On December 28, 1994, Heroes World was bought by Marvel Comics to act as the company's exclusive distributor, thus reducing other distributors' market share by more than a third; the change took effect with books shipped July 1995. As industry veteran Chuck Rozanski notes: Without Marvel comics to distribute, all of the surviving direct market comics distributors found their overall sales volume reduced by 35%-40%... while their operating costs remained constant. In a business where a single point of discount or volume could translate into huge differences in earnings, these massive losses in sales volume were not sustainable.

Steve Geppi, owner of Diamond Comic Distributors, responded to this threat to the survival of his business by entering into negotiations to become the exclusive distributor for all the other comics publishers.... While Steve was begging all the comics publishers to switch all of their distribution business over to his company, John Davis and Milton Griepp of Capital City were making the same pleas on the part of their organization; the ripple effect resulted in the survival of only one other major North American distributor, Diamond. Heroes World's new role as Marvel's exclusive distributor was a failure from the beginning. Lacking the infrastructure to handle Marvel's huge weekly orders resulted in extensive shipment and billing mistakes, errors which caused great consternation among the thousands of comics specialty shops affected. Writes Rozanski:... the Heroes World management team failed miserably in the PR war to win the hearts and minds of comics retailers. In fact, rather than win over any converts to Marvel, the hassle of having to place two new comics orders each month, plus paying freight costs on Heroes World shipments, pushed many comics retailers to the brink of closing their stores.

These factors, combined with the collapse of the comics speculation market, did indeed result in many comics stores closing their doors for good. Throughout 1995 and 1996, Heroes World continued facing lost business and lawsuits. In 1997 the company went out of business, Marvel returned to Diamond Distributors, which by that point was the only major distributor left standing. "Marvelutionary War Declared: Unprecedented Upheaval in Direct Market," The Comics Journal #175, pp. 9–10. "Marvel goes exclusive, Capital sues Marvel, Marvel settles with Capital, Marvel buys Skybox, DC/Diamond announcement expected," The Comics Journal #175, pp. 9–10. "Newswatch: Marvelutionary Changes," The Comics Journal #186, p. 23. List of book distributors Marvel