Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb or by his regnal title Alamgir, was the sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled over the entire Indian subcontinent for a period of 49 years. Considered to be the last effective ruler of the Mughal Empire, Aurangzeb compiled the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri, was among the few monarchs to have established Sharia law and Islamic economics throughout the Indian subcontinent, he was an accomplished military leader whose rule has been the subject of praise, though he has been described as the most controversial ruler in Indian history. He was a notable expansionist. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to 4 million square kilometres, he ruled over a population estimated to be over 158 million subjects, with an annual revenue of $450 million, or £38,624,680 in 1690. Under his reign, India surpassed Qing China to become the world's largest economy and biggest manufacturing power, worth nearly a quarter of global GDP and more than the entirety of Western Europe, its largest and wealthiest subdivision, the Bengal Subah, signaled the proto-industrialization.

Aurangzeb was noted for his religious piety. Unlike his predecessors, including his father Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb considered the royal treasury to be held in trust for the citizens of his empire, he did not enjoy a luxurious life and his personal expenses and constructions of small mosques were covered by his own earnings, which included the sewing of caps and trade of his written copies of the Quran. He patronized works of Islamic and Arabic calligraphy. Aurangzeb has been subject to criticism. Critics argue that his policies abandoned his predecessors' legacy of pluralism and religious tolerance, citing his introduction of the jizya tax and other policies based on Islamic ethics, demolition of Hindu temples, the executions of his elder brother Dara Shikoh, Maratha king Sambhaji and the ninth Sikh guru Tegh Bahadur, the prohibition and supervision of behaviour and activities that are forbidden in Islam such as music, gambling and consumption of alcohol and narcotic. Various historians question the historicity of the claims of his critics, arguing that his destruction of temples has been exaggerated, noting that he built temples, paid for their maintenance, employed more Hindus in his imperial bureaucracy than his predecessors did, opposed bigotry against Hindus and Shia Muslims.

Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Gujarat. He was the third son and sixth child of Mumtaz Mahal. In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father and his brother Dara Shukoh were kept as hostages under their grandparents' Lahore court. On 26 February 1628, Shah Jahan was declared the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb returned to live with his parents at Agra Fort, where Aurangzeb received his formal education in Arabic and Persian, his daily allowance was fixed at Rs. 500, which he spent on religious education and the study of history. On 28 May 1633, Aurangzeb escaped death when a powerful war elephant stampeded through the Mughal Imperial encampment, he rode against the elephant and struck its trunk with a lance, defended himself from being crushed. Aurangzeb's valour was appreciated by his father who conferred him the title of Bahadur and had him weighed in gold and presented gifts worth Rs. 200,000. This event was celebrated in Persian and Urdu verses, Aurangzeb said: If the fight had ended fatally for me, it would not have been a matter of shame.

Death drops the curtain on Emperors. The shame lay in what my brothers did! Aurangzeb was nominally in charge of the force sent to Bundelkhand with the intent of subduing the rebellious ruler of Orchha, Jhujhar Singh, who had attacked another territory in defiance of Shah Jahan's policy and was refusing to atone for his actions. By arrangement, Aurangzeb stayed in the rear, away from the fighting, took the advice of his generals as the Mughal Army gathered and commenced the Siege of Orchha in 1635; the campaign was successful and Singh was removed from power. Aurangzeb was appointed viceroy of the Deccan in 1636. After Shah Jahan's vassals had been devastated by the alarming expansion of Ahmednagar during the reign of the Nizam Shahi boy-prince Murtaza Shah III, the emperor dispatched Aurangzeb, who in 1636 brought the Nizam Shahi dynasty to an end. In 1637, Aurangzeb married the Safavid princess Dilras Banu Begum, posthumously known as Rabia-ud-Daurani, she was his first chief consort as well as his favourite.

He had an infatuation with a slave girl, Hira Bai, whose death at a young age affected him. In his old age, he was under the charms of Udaipuri Bai; the latter had been a companion to Dara Shukoh. In the same year, 1637, Aurangzeb was placed in charge of annexing the small Rajput kingdom of Baglana, which he did with ease. In 1644, Aurangzeb's sister, was burned when the chemicals in her perfume were ignited by a nearby lamp while in Agra; this event precipitated a family crisis with political consequences. Aurangzeb suffered his father's displeasure by not returning to Agra but rather three weeks later. Shah Jahan had been nursing Jahanara back to health in that time and thousands of vassals had arrived in Agra to pay their respects. Shah Jah

Automatic switched-transport network

ASTN allows traffic paths to be set up through a switched network automatically. The term ASTN replaces the term ASON and is used interchangeably with GMPLS; this is not correct as GMPLS is a family of protocols, but ASON/ASTN is an optical/transport network architecture. The requirements of the ASON/ASTN architecture can be satisfied using GMPLS protocols developed by the IETF or by GMPLS protocols that have been modified by the ITU. Furthermore, the GMPLS protocols are applicable to optical and non-optical networks, can be used in transport or client networks. Thus, GMPLS is a wider concept than ASTN. Traditionally, creating traffic paths through a series of Network Elements has involved configuration of individual cross-connects on each Network Element. ASTN allows the user to specify the start point, end point and bandwidth required, the ASTN agent on the Network Elements will allocate the path through the network, provisioning the traffic path, setting up cross-connects, allocating bandwidth from the paths for the user requested service.

The actual path that the traffic will take through the network is not specified by the user. Changes to the network will be taken into account by the ASTN agents in the network, but do not need to be considered by the user; this gives the user far more flexibility when allocating user bandwidth to provide services demanded by the customer. GMPLS consist of several protocols, including routing protocols, link management protocols, a reservation/label distribution protocol; the reservation/label distribution protocol CR-LDP has now been deprecated by the IETF in RFC 3468 and IETF GMPLS working group decided to focus purely on RSVP-TE. The GMPLS architecture is defined in RFC 3945. From MPLS to GMPLS GMPLS Unified Control Plane Evolution to All-optical Networking OTN - Standards on the ASTN/ASON Control Plane ITU-T Recommendations on ASTN/ASON Control Plane GMPLS: Architecture and Applications by Adrian Farrel and Igor Bryskin ISBN 0120884224—Provides a practical look at GMPLS protocols for signaling, routing and resource management, traffic engineering

Ray Richards

Raymond W. Richards was an American football player and coach on both the college and professional levels, including head coach for the Chicago Cardinals of the National Football League. Richards was an All-American lineman at the University of Nebraska from 1927 to 1929 joined the NFL's Frankford Yellow Jackets in 1930. During his playing days, he became known for a notorious move that has since been outlawed: the "lift", in which Richards used his elbow to hit the opposing center as he snapped the ball. Moves such as that helped him in his off-season pursuit of wrestling, an endeavor that saw him travel across the country competing in matches. Richards played two seasons with the Yellow Jackets until the team disbanded in 1931 he shifted to Chicago, where he played another two seasons with George Halas's Bears. In 1934, he moved on to play a season with the Detroit Lions, who had just moved from their previous home in Portsmouth, Ohio. After a final season with the Bears the next year, Richards headed west to serve as a player-coach for two seasons with the Los Angeles Bulldogs of the fledgling American Football League, helping the team finish undefeated during his second year.

On April 5, 1937, he was appointed line coach at UCLA, where he served under three different head coaches over the next decade. In an era marked by the looming specter of World War II, Richards was part of two Bruin squads that competed in the Rose Bowl, he resigned on December 11, 1947, took a similar position in 1948 at nearby Pepperdine University. One season working with the Waves' linemen led to Richards's promotion to head coach on April 26, 1949. After two seasons in that capacity, he was let go on January 19, 1951 due to budget cuts, but found work seven weeks as an assistant with the NFL's Los Angeles Rams. During his first year working under close friend Joe Stydahar, the team captured the NFL championship, but dropped a first-round playoff game in 1952 after Stydahar was fired early in the season. Richards was dismissed after the season, but was hired by the Baltimore Colts on January 12, 1953; when Stydahar was named head coach of the Chicago Cardinals just weeks he attempted to bring Richards along, but NFL commissioner Bert Bell stopped this effort, citing Richards's signed contract with the Colts.

After a disastrous campaign in which the Colts finished 3–9, Richards was among the coaches let go, allowing him to join the Cardinals' staff. The 1954 campaign proved to be worse as the team won just two of 12 games, giving them a 3–20–1 record under Stydahar's leadership; that lack of success resulted in a coaching change on June 2, 1955, when Stydahar was fired and Richards was elevated to head coach. Following a 4–7–1 season, the team appeared to be improving with a 7–5 mark in 1956. However, a 3–9 season the year after made another coaching change inevitable, Richards resigned on January 4, 1958. Among the reasons Richards was unable to fashion a winner was his insistence on playing quarterback Lamar McHan, whose lack of leadership skills were cited as the team's weak spot. Richards's last stop came one month when he was hired as defensive assistant under Ray McLean with the Green Bay Packers. However, a 1–10–1 finish in the 1958 season resulted in Richards announcing his retirement from coaching.

In his post-football career, Richards served as a vice president of Pemaco, Inc. a Los Angeles-based chemical company. He died of lung cancer in Brea, California at the age of 68