Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh, better known as Ulugh Beg, was a Timurid Sultan as well as an astronomer and mathematician. Ulugh Beg was notable for his work in astronomy-related mathematics, such as trigonometry and spherical geometry, as well as his general interests in the arts and intellectual activities, it is thought that he spoke five languages: Arabic, Turkic, a small amount of Chinese. During his rule the Timurid Empire achieved its cultural peak through Ulugh Beg's attention and patronage. Samarkand, captured and given to Ulugh Beg by his father Shah Rukh, became the headquarters of Muslim culture, he built the great Ulugh Beg Observatory in Samarkand between 1424 and 1429. It was considered by scholars to have been one of the finest observatories in the Islamic world at the time and the largest in Central Asia. Ulugh Beg was subsequently recognized as the most important observational astronomer from the 15th century by many scholars, he built the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand and Bukhara, transforming the cities into cultural centers of learning in Central Asia.
However, Ulugh Beg's scientific expertise was not matched by his skills in governance. During his short reign, he failed to establish his authority; as a result, other rulers, including his family, took advantage of his lack of control and he was subsequently overthrown and assassinated. He was a grandson of the great conqueror and the oldest son of Shah Rukh, both of whom came from the Turkicized Barlas tribe of Transoxiana, his mother was a noblewoman named Goharshad, daughter of a member of the representative Turkic tribal aristocracy, Ghiyasuddin Tarkhan. Ulugh Beg was born in Sultaniyeh in Persia during Timur's invasion, his was given the name Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay. Ulugh Beg, the name he most known by, was not a personal name, but rather a moniker, which can be loosely translated as "Great Ruler" and is the Turkic equivalent of Timur's Perso-Arabic title Amīr-e Kabīr; as a child he wandered through a substantial part of the Middle East and India as his grandfather expanded his conquests in those areas.
After Timur's death, Shah Rukh moved the empire's capital to Herat. Sixteen-year-old Ulugh Beg subsequently became the governor of the former capital of Samarkand in 1409. In 1411, he was named the sovereign ruler of the whole of Mavarannahr; the teenaged ruler set out to turn the city into an intellectual center for the empire. Between 1417 and 1420, he built a madrasa on Registan Square in Samarkand, he invited numerous Islamic astronomers and mathematicians to study there; the madrasa building still survives. Ulugh Beg's most famous pupil in astronomy was Ali Qushchi. Qadi Zada al-Rumi was the most notable teacher at Ulugh Beg's madrasa and Jamshid al-Kashi, an astronomer came to join the staff, he was famous in the fields of medicine and poetry. He used to debate with other poets about contemporary social issues, he liked to debate in a poetic style, called "Bahribayt" among local poets. According to the Russian medical book "Mashkovskiy", Ulugh Beg discovered a mixture of alcohol with garlic preserving it to help treat conditions like diarrhea, stomach ache and intestine illnesses.
He offered advice for newly married couples, which indicate recipes containing nuts, dried apricot, dried grape etc. He claimed these to be useful to increase men's virility; this recipe has been given in Ibn Sina's books also. From an early age, astronomy piqued his interest after he paid a visit to what was still present of the Maragheh Observatory located in Maragheh, Iran; this is the observatory. In 1428, Ulugh Beg built an enormous observatory, called the Gurkhani Zij, similar to Tycho Brahe's Uraniborg as well as Taqi al-Din's observatory in Constantinople. Lacking telescopes to work with, he increased his accuracy by increasing the length of his sextant; the Fakhri sextant was the largest instrument at the observatory in Samarkand. There were many other astronomical instruments located at the observatory, but the Fakhri sextant is the most well-known instrument there; the purpose of the Fakhri sextant was to measure the transit altitudes of the stars. This was a measurement of the maximum altitude above the horizon of the stars.
It was only possible to use this device to measure the decline of natural objects in space. The image, which can be found in this article, shows the remaining portion of the instrument, which consists of the underground, lower portion of the instrument, not destroyed; the observatory built by Ulugh Beg was the most pervasive and well-known observatory throughout the Islamic world. With the instruments located in the observatory in Samarkand, Ulugh Beg composed a star catalogue consisting of 1018 stars, eleven less stars than are present in the star catalogue of Ptolemy. Ulugh Beg utilized dimensions from al-Sufi and based his star catalogue on a new analysis, autonomous from the data used by Ptolemy. Throughout his life as an astronomer, Ulugh Beg came to realize that there were multiple mistakes in the work and subsequent data of Ptolemy, in use for many years. Using it, he compiled the 1437
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Bahadur Shah Zafar
Mirza Abu Zafar Siraj-ud-din Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last Mughal emperor. He was the second son of and became the successor to his father, Akbar II, upon his death on 28 September 1837, he was a nominal Emperor, as the Mughal Empire existed in name only and his authority was limited only to the walled city of Old Delhi. Following his involvement in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British exiled him to Rangoon in British-controlled Burma, after convicting him on conspiracy charges. Zafar's father, Akbar II had been imprisoned by the British and he was not his father's preferred choice as his successor. One of Akbar Shah's queens, Mumtaz Begum, pressured him to declare her son, Mirza Jahangir, as his successor. However, The East India Company exiled Jahangir after he attacked their resident, in the Red Fort, paving the way for Zafar to assume the throne. Bahadur Shah Zafar presided over a Mughal Empire that only ruled the city Delhi and known as the king of Delhi to Palam; the Maratha Empire had brought an end to the Mughal Empire in the Deccan in the 18th century and the regions of India under Mughal rule had either been absorbed by the Marathas or declared independence and turned into smaller kingdoms.
The Marathas installed Shah Alam II in the throne in 1772, under the protection of the Maratha general Mahadaji Shinde and maintained suzerainty over Mughal affairs in Delhi. The East India Company became the dominant political and military power in mid-nineteenth-century India. Outside the region controlled by the Company, hundreds of kingdoms and principalities, fragmented their land; the emperor had given him a pension. The emperor permitted the Company to maintain a military force in it. Zafar never had any interest in statecraft or had any "imperial ambition". After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British exiled him from Delhi. Bahadur Shah Zafar was a noted Urdu poet. While some part of his opus was lost or destroyed during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, a large collection did survive, was compiled into the Kulliyyat-i-Zafar; the court that he maintained was home to several prolific Urdu writers, including Mirza Ghalib, Dagh and Zauq. After his defeat, he said: غازیوں میں بو رھےگی جب تک ایمان کی تخت لندن تک چلےگی تیغ ھندوستان کی Ghaziyoñ meñ bū rahegī jab tak imān kī Takht London tak chalegī tegh Hindostān kī.
As long as there remains the scent of faith in the hearts of our Ghazis, so long shall the Talwar of Hindustan flash before the throne of London. As the Indian rebellion of 1857 spread, Sepoy regiments reached the Mughal Court at Delhi; because of Zafar's neutral views on religions, many Indian kings and regiments accepted and declared him as the Emperor of India. On 12 May 1857, Zafar held his first formal audience in several years, it was attended by several sepoys who were described as treating him "familiarly or disrespectfully". When the sepoys first arrived at Bahadur Shah Zafar's court, he asked them why they had come to him, because he had no means of maintaining them. Bahadur Shah Zafar's conduct was indecisive. However, he yielded to the demands of the sepoys when he was told that they would not be able to win against the East India Company without him. On 16 May and palace servants killed fifty-two Europeans who were prisoners of the palace and who were discovered hiding in the city.
The executions took place under a peepul tree despite Zafar's protests. The aim of the executioners who were not the supporters of Zafar was to implicate him in the killings. Once he had joined them, Bahadur Shah II took ownership for all the actions of the mutineers. Though dismayed by the looting and disorder, he gave his public support to the rebellion, it was believed that Bahadur Shah was not directly responsible for the massacre, but that he may have been able to prevent it, he was therefore considered a consenting party during his trial. The administration of the city and its new occupying army was described as "chaotic and troublesome", which functioned "haphazardly"; the Emperor nominated Mirza Mughal, as the commander in chief of his forces. However, Mirza Mughal was rejected by the sepoys; the sepoys did not have any commander since each regiment refused to accept orders from someone other than their own officers. Mirza Mughal's administration extended no further than the city. Outside Gujjar herders began levying their own tolls on traffic, it became difficult to feed the city.
When the victory of the British became certain, Zafar took refuge at Humayun's Tomb, in an area, at the outskirts of Delhi. Company forces led by Major William Hodson surrounded the tomb and Zafar was captured on 20 September 1857; the next day, Hodson shot his sons Mirza Mughal and Mirza Khizr Sultan, grandson Mirza Abu Bakht under his own authority at the Khooni Darwaza, near the Delhi Gate. Bahadur Shah himself was taken to his wife's Haveli, where he was treated disrepsctfully by his captors; when brought news of the executions of his sons and grandson, the former emperor was described as being so shocked and depressed that he was unable to react. The trial was a consequence of the Sepoy Mutiny and lasted for 41 days, had 19 hearings, 21 witnesses and over a hundred documents in Persian and Urdu, with their English translations, were produced in the court. At first the trial was suggested to be held at Calcutta, the place where Directors of East India company used to their sittings in connection with their commercial pursuits.
But instead, Red Fort in Delhi was selected for the trial. It was the first case to be tried at the Red Fort. Zafar was tried and charged on four counts
The Barlas were a Mongol and Turkicized nomadic confederation in Central Asia. According to the Secret History of the Mongols, written during the reign of Ögedei Khan, the Barlas shared ancestry with the Borjigin, the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors, other Mongol clans; the leading clan of the Barlas traced its origin to Qarachar Barlas, head of one of Chagatai's regiments. Qarachar Barlas was a descendant of the legendary Mongol warlord Bodonchir, considered a direct ancestor of Genghis Khan; the internal structure of the Barlas' leading clan consisted of five major lineages– tracing back to the sons of Qarachar– who were important in matters of inheritance but did not constitute separate political or territorial entities. The Barlas controlled the region of Kish and all of its lineages seem to have been associated with this region. In contrast to most neighboring tribes who remained nomadic, the Barlas were a sedentary tribe. Due to extensive contacts with the native population of Central Asia, the tribe had adopted the religion of Islam, the Chagatai language, a Turkic language of the Qarluq branch, influenced by Arabic and Persian.
Although the Barlas were not always exogamous, most marriages recorded. Its most famous representatives were the Timurids, a dynasty founded by the conqueror Timur in the 14th century, who ruled over modern-day Iran, Azerbaijan and the entire rest of the Caucasus, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary Pakistan, India and Anatolia. One of his descendants, Zahir ud-Din Babur founded the Mughal Empire of Central Asia and South Asia. Karachar Nevian Hajji Beg Turco-Mongol tradition Mongol Empire Timurid dynasty Mughal Empire
Emperor of India
Emperor/Empress of India, styled as the King-Emperor or Queen-Empress, was a title used by British monarchs from 1 May 1876 to 22 June 1948. The Emperor/Empress's image was used to signify British government authority — his/her profile, for instance, appearing on currency, in government buildings, railway stations, courts, on statues etc. "God Save the King" was the former national anthem of British India. Oaths of allegiance were made to the Emperor/Empress and his/her lawful successors by the princes, commissioners in India in events such as Imperial Durbars; the Emperor/Empress took little direct part in government. The decisions to exercise sovereign powers were delegated from the Emperor/Empress, either by statute or by convention, to the Viceroy and Governor-General of India who were appointed by the Emperor/Empress, to offices such as the Secretary of State for India, exclusive of him/her personally, thus the acts of state done in the name of the Crown, such as Crown Appointments if performed by them, such as the Imperial Durbars depended upon decisions made elsewhere, such as the India Office.
Legislatures such as the Central Legislative Assembly, Imperial Legislative Council and Council of State were presided by the Viceroy and Governor-General on behalf of the Emperor/Empress, Governors of provinces, by and with the advice and consent of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Government of India. Executive power was exercised by His/Her Imperial Majesty's Government in the presidencies and provinces, which comprised of ministers, the princely states, via suzerainty, they had the direction of the Armed Forces in India, such as the British Indian Army and Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service and other Crown Servants Secret Services. Judicial power was vested in the various Crown Courts in India, who by statute had judicial independence of the Government. Unlike the United Kingdom, the Church of England did not hold power in Indian matters as it would be deemed unacceptable to the religions of India. Powers independent of government were granted to other public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council, Royal Commission or otherwise.
After the nominal Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was deposed at the conclusion of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the government of the United Kingdom decided to transfer control of British India and its princely states from the mercantile East India Company to the Crown, thus marking the beginning of the British Raj. The EIC was dissolved on 1 June 1874, the British Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli, decided to offer Queen Victoria the title "Empress of India" shortly afterwards. Victoria accepted this style on 1 May 1876; the first Delhi Durbar was held in her honour eight months on 1 January 1877. The idea of having Victoria proclaimed Empress of India was not new, as Lord Ellenborough had suggested it in 1843 upon becoming the Governor-General of India. By 1874, Major-General Sir Henry Ponsonby, the Queen's Private Secretary, had ordered English charters to be scrutinised for imperial titles, with Edgar and Stephen mentioned as sound precedents; the Queen irritated by the sallies of the republicans, the tendency to democracy, the realisation that her influence was manifestly on the decline, was urging the move.
Another factor may have been that the Queen's first child, was married to Crown Prince Frederick, the heir to the German Empire. Upon becoming empress, the Princess Royal would outrank her mother. By January 1876, the Queen's insistence was so great that Benjamin Disraeli felt that he could procrastinate no longer. Victoria had considered the style "Empress of Great Britain and India", but Disraeli had persuaded the Queen to limit the title to India in order to avoid controversy. Many in the United Kingdom, regarded the assumption of the title as an obvious development from the 1858 Government of India Act, which resulted in the founding of the British Raj; the public were of the opinion that the title of "Queen" was no longer adequate for the ceremonial ruler of what was referred to informally as the Indian Empire. The new styling underlined the fact that the native states were no longer a mere agglomeration but a collective entity; when Edward VII ascended to the throne on 22 January 1901, he continued the imperial tradition laid down by his mother, Queen Victoria, by adopting the title "Emperor of India".
Three subsequent British monarchs followed in his footsteps, it continued to be used after India had become independent on 15 August 1947. It was not until 22 June 1948 that the style was abolished during the reign of George VI; when signing off Indian business, the reigning British king-emperors or queen-empresses used the initials R I or the abbreviation Ind. Imp. after their name. When a male monarch held the title, his wife used the style queen-empress, despite the fact that she was not a reigning monarch in her own right. British coins, as well as those of the Empire and the Commonwealth included the abbreviated title Ind. Imp.. Coins in India, on the other hand, were stamped with the word "Empress", "King-Emperor"; when India became independent in 1
Moghulistan called the Eastern Chagatai Khanate, was a Mongol breakaway khanate of the Chagatai Khanate and a historical geographic area north of the Tengri Tagh mountain range, on the border of Central Asia and East Asia. That area today includes parts of Kazakhstan and northwest Xinjiang, China. A khanate nominally ruled over the area from the mid-14th century until the late 17th century, although it is debatable whether it was a continuation of the Chagatai Khanate, an independent khanate, or a tributary state to Ming Dynasty China. Beginning in the mid-14th century a new khanate, in the form of a nomadic tribal confederacy headed by a member of the family of Chagatai, arose in the region of the Ili River, it is therefore considered to be a continuation of the Chagatai Khanate, but it is referred to as the Moghul Khanate, since its tribal inhabitants were considered to be pure "Moghuls", in contrast to the Turkic and Turkicised Mongols of the Western Chagatai Khanate. In actuality, local control rested with local Mongol Dughlats or Sufi Naqshbandi in their respective oases.
Although the rulers enjoyed great wealth from the China trade, it was beset by constant civil war and invasions by the Timurid Empire, which emerged from the western part of the erstwhile Chagatai Khanate. Independence-minded khans created their own domains in cities like Turfan, it was overcome by the Kyrgyz and Oirats. "Moghulistan" is a Persian name and means "Land of the Moghuls" or Mongols in reference to the eastern branch of the Mongolian Chagatai Khans who ruled it. The term "Moghulistan" occurs in Soviet historiography, while Chinese historiography uses the term "East Chagatai Khanate", which contrasts Moghulistan to the Timurid Empire; the Moghul Khans considered themselves heir to Mongol traditions and called themselves Mongghul Uls, from which the Persian term "Moghulistan" comes. Ming Dynasty Mandarins called the Moghuls "the Mongol tribes in Beshbalik"; the Timurid exonym for Moghulistan was Ulus-i Jatah. When the Mongols conquered most of Asia and Russia in the 13th century and constructed the Mongol Empire, they lived as minorities in many of the regions they had subdued, such as Iran and China.
As a result, the Mongols in these regions adopted the local culture. For example, in the Persian Ilkhanate the Mongol khans adopted Islam after less than half a century, while the khans of the Yuan Dynasty embraced Chinese court customs. In contrast, the Mongols and their subordinates who settled in what came to be known as Moghulistan were in origin steppe nomads from Mongolia; because of this, they were much more resistant to changing their way of life. During the 14th century the inhabitants of Moghulistan were known as "Mogul" and the area they occupied was called "Mirza/Baig"; this term is used by numerous people in South Asia - in Pakistan and in parts of Subcontinent spread all over world. It is claimed. Since the Moghuls were nomads of the steppe, the boundaries of their territories stayed the same for long. Still, Moghulistan in the strictest sense was centered in the Ili region, it was bounded on the west by the province of Shash and the Karatau Mountains, while the southern area of Lake Balkhash marked the northern limit of Moghul influence.
From there the border sloped in a southeastern direction until it reached the eastern portion of the Tian Shan Mountains. The Tian Shan served as the southern border of Moghulistan. Besides Moghulistan proper, the Moghuls nominally controlled modern-day Beijiang and Nanjiang. Besides Moghulistan and Beijiang, several other regions were temporarily subjected to Moghul rule at one time or another, such as Tashkent and parts of Badakhshan. Moghulistan proper was steppe country and was where the Moghuls resided; because of the Moghuls' nomadic nature, the towns of Moghulistan fell into decline during their rule, if they managed to remain occupied at all. Aside from the towns, which were at the foot of the mountains, nearly all of Nanjiang was desert; as a result, the Moghuls stayed out of the region and it was a poor source of manpower. The Dughlat amirs or leaders from the Naqshbandi Islamic order administered these towns in the name of the Moghul khans until 1514; the Moghuls more directly governed Nanjiang.
The capital city of Nanjiang was Yarkand or Kashgar. A contemporary Chinese term for part of the Nanjiang area was "Southern Tian Shan route", as opposed to the "Northern" route, i.e. Dzungaria. A Turki word "Altishahr", meaning "Six Cities", came into vogue during the rule of the 19th century Tajik warlord Yaqub Beg, an imprecise term for certain western Muslim oasis cities. Shoqan Walikhanov names them as Yarkand, Hotan, Uch-Tufpan, Yangi Hisar. During Yaqub's rule, Turfan substituted for Uch-Turfan, other informants identify seven, rather than six cities in "Alti-shahr"; the borders of Alti-Shahr were better defined th