Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park
The Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park is a protected national park that is located in New South Wales, Australia. The 14, 977-hectare national park is situated 25 kilometres north of Sydney located largely within the Ku-ring-gai, Warringah, the villages of Cottage Point, Appletree Bay, and Bobbin Head are located within park boundaries. An isolated portion of the park, Barrenjoey Headland, is located to the north of Palm Beach east of the primary park body and is home to Barrenjoey Lighthouse, Ku-ring-gai Chase is officially classed as a suburb by the Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Picnic and fishing facilities can be throughout the park. There are many walking tracks in Ku-ring-gai, especially through the Duffys Forest. Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park was added to the Australian National Heritage List in December 2006, the first inhabitants of the area were the indigenous Garigal people. The rugged landscape provided abundant food and adequate shelter for the aboriginals, more than 800 Aboriginal sites have been found in the park.
These include rock engravings, cave drawings and stencils, axe grinding grooves, the park was first declared in 1894. The television series, Skippy the Bush Kangaroo was shot in northern Sydney at Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, bushfires ravaged the park in January 1994. Many of the attractions are accessible only by walking track. Many kilometres of park front the southern shoreline of Broken Bay making it a place to explore by boat. Rail access is provided at Mount Colah, Mount Kuring-gai, all roads in the area are sealed and all have collection gates where a daily fee is payable. The area contains many trails and a walk through mangroves. Aboriginal engravings can be seen in the area and this is the only place in the entire national park where camping is allowed. Access is either by West Head Road via The Basin Track or on a ferry from Palm Beach Wharf, West Head is a headland at the north eastern tip of the National Park. A lookout, with views of Barrenjoey, Palm Beach and Broken Bay, has built on West Head.
The Flint & Steel Guesthouse was one of the first buildings on West Head, Barrenjoey is a locality of Palm Beach. It is a headland and unusual amongst the National Parks features as it is not joined to the rest of the Park by land but separated by 1 kilometer of water, the Pittwater
A constellation is formally defined as a region of the celestial sphere, with boundaries laid down by the International Astronomical Union. The constellation areas mostly had their origins in Western-traditional patterns of stars from which the constellations take their names, in 1922, the International Astronomical Union officially recognized the 88 modern constellations, which cover the entire sky. They began as the 48 classical Greek constellations laid down by Ptolemy in the Almagest, Constellations in the far southern sky are late 16th- and mid 18th-century constructions. 12 of the 88 constellations compose the zodiac signs, though the positions of the constellations only loosely match the dates assigned to them in astrology. The term constellation can refer to the stars within the boundaries of that constellation. Notable groupings of stars that do not form a constellation are called asterisms, when astronomers say something is “in” a given constellation they mean it is within those official boundaries.
Any given point in a coordinate system can unambiguously be assigned to a single constellation. Many astronomical naming systems give the constellation in which an object is found along with a designation in order to convey a rough idea in which part of the sky it is located. For example, the Flamsteed designation for bright stars consists of a number, the word constellation seems to come from the Late Latin term cōnstellātiō, which can be translated as set of stars, and came into use in English during the 14th century. It denotes 88 named groups of stars in the shape of stellar-patterns, the Ancient Greek word for constellation was ἄστρον. Colloquial usage does not draw a distinction between constellation in the sense of an asterism and constellation in the sense of an area surrounding an asterism. The modern system of constellations used in astronomy employs the latter concept, the term circumpolar constellation is used for any constellation that, from a particular latitude on Earth, never sets below the horizon.
From the North Pole or South Pole, all constellations south or north of the equator are circumpolar constellations. In the equatorial or temperate latitudes, the term equatorial constellation has sometimes been used for constellations that lie to the opposite the circumpolar constellations. They generally include all constellations that intersect the celestial equator or part of the zodiac, usually the only thing the stars in a constellation have in common is that they appear near each other in the sky when viewed from the Earth. In galactic space, the stars of a constellation usually lie at a variety of distances, since stars travel on their own orbits through the Milky Way, the star patterns of the constellations change slowly over time. After tens to hundreds of thousands of years, their familiar outlines will become unrecognisable, the terms chosen for the constellation themselves, together with the appearance of a constellation, may reveal where and when its constellation makers lived.
The earliest direct evidence for the constellations comes from inscribed stones and it seems that the bulk of the Mesopotamian constellations were created within a relatively short interval from around 1300 to 1000 BC
The Orion Nebula is a diffuse nebula situated in the Milky Way, being south of Orions Belt in the constellation of Orion. It is one of the brightest nebulae, and is visible to the eye in the night sky. M42 is located at a distance of 1,344 ±20 light years and is the closest region of star formation to Earth. The M42 nebula is estimated to be 24 light years across and it has a mass of about 2000 times the mass of the Sun. Older texts frequently refer to the Orion Nebula as the Great Nebula in Orion or the Great Orion Nebula, the Orion Nebula is one of the most scrutinized and photographed objects in the night sky, and is among the most intensely studied celestial features. The nebula has revealed much about the process of how stars and planetary systems are formed from collapsing clouds of gas, astronomers have directly observed protoplanetary disks, brown dwarfs and turbulent motions of the gas, and the photo-ionizing effects of massive nearby stars in the nebula. The nebula is visible with the eye even from areas affected by some light pollution.
It is seen as the star in the sword of Orion. The star appears fuzzy to sharp-eyed observers, and the nebulosity is obvious through binoculars or a small telescope, the peak surface brightness of the central region is about 17 Mag/arcsec2 and the outer bluish glow has a peak surface brightness of 21.3 Mag/arcsec2. The Orion Nebula contains a young open cluster, known as the Trapezium due to the asterism of its primary four stars. Two of these can be resolved into their component binary systems on nights with good seeing, giving a total of six stars, the stars of the Trapezium, along with many other stars, are still in their early years. The Trapezium is a component of the much larger Orion Nebula Cluster, observers have long noted a distinctive greenish tint to the nebula, in addition to regions of red and of blue-violet. The red hue is a result of the Hα recombination line radiation at a wavelength of 656.3 nm, the blue-violet coloration is the reflected radiation from the massive O-class stars at the core of the nebula.
The green hue was a puzzle for astronomers in the part of the 20th century because none of the known spectral lines at that time could explain it. There was some speculation that the lines were caused by a new element, and this radiation was all but impossible to reproduce in the laboratory at the time, because it depended on the quiescent and nearly collision-free environment found in the high vacuum of deep space. This has led to speculation that a flare-up of the illuminating stars may have increased the brightness of the nebula. The first published observation of the nebula was by the Jesuit mathematician, charles Messier first noted the nebula on March 4,1769, and he noted three of the stars in Trapezium. Messier published the first edition of his catalog of deep sky objects in 1774, as the Orion Nebula was the 42nd object in his list, it became identified as M42
The Coalsack Dark Nebula is the most prominent dark nebula in the skies, easily visible to the naked eye as a dark patch silhouetted against the southern Milky Way. It is located at a distance of approximately 600 light years away from Earth, the Coalsack Dark Nebula covers nearly 7° by 5° and overlaps somewhat into the neighbor constellations Centaurus and Musca. The first observation was reported by Vicente Yáñez Pinzón in 1499 and it was named “il Canopo fosco” by Amerigo Vespucci and was called “Macula Magellani” or “Black Magellanic Cloud” in opposition to the Magellanic Clouds. In 1970, Kalevi Mattila proved the Coalsack is not totally black and it has a very dim glow, which comes from the reflection of the stars it obscures. The Coalsack is not present in the New General Catalogue and in fact does not have an identification number, the Coalsack is important in Australian Aboriginal astronomy, and forms the head of the Emu in the sky in several Aboriginal cultures. Amongst the Wardaman people, it is said to be the head, according to a legend reported by W. E.
Harney, this being is called Utdjungon and only adherence to the law by surviving tribe members could prevent him from destroying the world with a fiery star. There is a reference by Gaiarbau regarding the coalsacks replicating bora rings on earth and these astronomical sites allowed the spirits to continue ceremony similar to their human counterparts on earth. As bora grounds are located on the compass points north/south. In Inca astronomy this nebula was called Yutu meaning a partridge-like southern bird or Tinamou, the Coalsack is mentioned in the Star Trek, The Original Series episodes The Immunity Syndrome and Let That Be Your Last Battlefield, as well as 2001, A Space Odyssey by Arthur C. In the Solar Queen series by Andre Norton, several characters swear. by the Coalsacks Ripcord, the Coalsack figures prominently in the Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelles science fiction novel The Mote in Gods Eye and its sequels, The Gripping Hand and Outies. So sharply defined is it, so suggestive of a void and bottomless cavern, to the naked eye it is as black and dismal as death, but the smallest telescope reveals it beautiful and populous with stars.
Lestrange’s eyes travelled from this mystery to the cross, and … The Coalsack is mentioned in the Futurama episode Hell Is Other Robots. In the film Night on the Galactic Railroad, the character Campanella ends going to the Coalsack, in the film, The Chronicles of Riddick, the character Imam convinces Riddick to help his people against the Necromongers, and says, The Coalsack planets are gone. In Brian J. Clarkes novella the Expediter, a world of mysterious towers -, Starry Night Photography, Coalsack Dark Nebula Starry Night Photography, The Emu SIMBAD, Coal Sack Nebula
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earths only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, following Jupiters satellite Io, the Moon is second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The average distance of the Moon from the Earth is 384,400 km, the Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth. It is the second-brightest regularly visible celestial object in Earths sky, after the Sun and its surface is actually dark, although compared to the night sky it appears very bright, with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt. Its prominence in the sky and its cycle of phases have made the Moon an important cultural influence since ancient times on language, art. The Moons gravitational influence produces the ocean tides, body tides, and this matching of apparent visual size will not continue in the far future. The Moons linear distance from Earth is currently increasing at a rate of 3.82 ±0.07 centimetres per year, since the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited only by uncrewed spacecraft.
The usual English proper name for Earths natural satellite is the Moon, the noun moon is derived from moone, which developed from mone, which is derived from Old English mōna, which ultimately stems from Proto-Germanic *mǣnōn, like all Germanic language cognates. Occasionally, the name Luna is used, in literature, especially science fiction, Luna is used to distinguish it from other moons, while in poetry, the name has been used to denote personification of our moon. The principal modern English adjective pertaining to the Moon is lunar, a less common adjective is selenic, derived from the Ancient Greek Selene, from which is derived the prefix seleno-. Both the Greek Selene and the Roman goddess Diana were alternatively called Cynthia, the names Luna and Selene are reflected in terminology for lunar orbits in words such as apolune and selenocentric. The name Diana is connected to dies meaning day, several mechanisms have been proposed for the Moons formation 4.51 billion years ago, and some 60 million years after the origin of the Solar System.
These hypotheses cannot account for the angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system. This hypothesis, although not perfect, perhaps best explains the evidence, eighteen months prior to an October 1984 conference on lunar origins, Bill Hartmann, Roger Phillips, and Jeff Taylor challenged fellow lunar scientists, You have eighteen months. Go back to your Apollo data, go back to computer, do whatever you have to. Dont come to our conference unless you have something to say about the Moons birth, at the 1984 conference at Kona, the giant impact hypothesis emerged as the most popular. Afterward there were only two groups, the giant impact camp and the agnostics. Giant impacts are thought to have been common in the early Solar System, computer simulations of a giant impact have produced results that are consistent with the mass of the lunar core and the present angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system
A full moon is the lunar phase that occurs when the Moon is completely illuminated as seen from Earth. This occurs when Earth is located directly between the Sun and the Moon and this means that the hemisphere of the Moon that is facing Earth is almost fully illuminated by the Sun and appears round. On some occasions at the time of full moon there is a lunar eclipse so the face appears reddish due to the rayleigh scattering of blue light in Earths atmosphere. Lunar eclipses can occur only at full moon, where the Moons orbit allows it to pass through Earths shadow, Lunar eclipses do not occur every month because the Moon usually passes above or below Earths shadow. Lunar eclipses can only when the full moon occurs near the two nodes of the orbit, either the ascending or descending node. This causes eclipses to occur about every 6 months. The time interval between similar lunar phases—the synodic month—averages about 29.53 days, therefore, in those lunar calendars in which each month begins on the new moon, the full moon falls on either the 14th or 15th of the lunar month.
Because calendar months have a number of days, lunar months may be either 29 or 30 days long. A full moon is thought of as an event of a full nights duration. This is somewhat misleading because the Moon seen from Earth is continuously becoming larger and/or smaller and its absolute maximum size occurs at the moment expansion has stopped. For any given location, about half of these absolute maximum full moons will be visible, as the other half occur during the day. Many almanacs list full moons not just by date, but by their time as well. Typical monthly calendars that include phases of the Moon may be offset by one day if intended for use in a different time zone, Full moons are generally a poor time to conduct astronomical observations, because the bright reflected sunlight from the Moon overwhelms the dimmer light from stars. On 12 December 2008, the moon occurred closer to the Earth than it had been at any time for the previous 15 years. On 19 March 2011, another full moon occurred, closer to the Earth than at any time for the previous ~18 years.
On 14 November 2016, a full moon occurred closer to the Earth than at any time for the previous 68 years. The true time of a full moon may differ from this approximation by up to about 14.5 hours as a result of the non-circularity of the moons orbit, see New moon for an explanation of the formula and its parameters. The age and apparent size of the full moon vary in a cycle of just under 14 synodic months, Full moons are traditionally associated with temporal insomnia and various magical phenomena such as lycanthropy
The bow /ˈbaʊ/ is the forward part of the hull of a ship or boat, the point that is usually most forward when the vessel is underway. Both of the fore and forward mean towards the bow. The other end of the boat is the stern, from Middle Dutch boech or Old Norse bógr. The bow is designed to reduce the resistance of the cutting through water. On slower ships like tankers, a bow shape is used to maximise the volume of the ship for a given length. A wet bow results from seawater washing over the top of the hull, a raked stem can help to reduce the wetness of the bow. Aside from making the deck slippery, water can corrode the metal of the ship, if the temperature is low enough this water can freeze on the deck, rails and other exposed surfaces, increasing the topside weight. The bow may be reinforced to serve as an ice-breaker, one example being the bow of container-ship Sea Witch whose reinforcement assisted its destruction of another ship in a 1973 collision, the forward part of the bow, usually on the ships centreline, is called the stem.
Traditionally, the stem was a timber or metal bar into which side planks or plates were joined. ISBN 0-7566-0944-5 Steward, Boatbuilding Manual, 3rd ed. International Marine Publishing Company
A boomerang is a tool, typically constructed as a flat air foil that, when thrown, is designed to spin about an axis perpendicular to the direction of its flight. A returning boomerang is designed to return to the thrower and it is well known as a weapon used by Indigenous Australians for hunting. Boomerangs have been used for hunting, as well as a sport. They are commonly thought of as an Australian icon, and come in shapes and sizes. A boomerang is traditionally a wooden device, although historically boomerang-like devices have been made from bones. Modern boomerangs used for sport are often made from thin aircraft plywood, plastics such as ABS, phenolic paper, Boomerangs come in many shapes and sizes depending on their geographic or tribal origins and intended function. An important distinction should be made between returning boomerangs and non-returning boomerangs, Returning boomerangs fly and are examples of the earliest heavier-than-air man-made flight. While a throwing stick can be shaped overall like a boomerang, it is designed to travel as straight as possible so that it can be aimed.
Its surfaces therefore are symmetrical and not uneven like the aerofoils which give the returning boomerang its characteristic curved flight, Returning boomerangs were used to decoy birds of prey, thrown above long grass to frighten game birds into flight and into waiting nets. Modern returning boomerangs can be of various shapes or sizes as can be seen in a photo in the Modern use section. Historical evidence points to the use of non-returning boomerangs by the Native Americans of California and Arizona, some boomerangs were not thrown at all, but were used in hand to hand combat by Indigenous Australians. Ancient Egyptian examples, have recovered and experiments have shown that they functioned as returning boomerangs. Boomerangs can be used as hunting weapons, percussive musical instruments, battle clubs, fire-starters, decoys for hunting waterfowl. The smallest boomerang may be less than 10 centimetres from tip to tip, tribal boomerangs may be inscribed and/or painted with designs meaningful to their makers.
Most boomerangs seen today are of the tourist or competition sort, the origin of the term is mostly certain, but many researchers have different theories on how the word entered into the English vocabulary. The boomerang was first encountered by people at Farm Cove, Australia, in December 1804. David Collins listed Wo-mur-rāng as one of eight aboriginal Names of clubs in 1798, a 1790 anonymous manuscript on aboriginal language of New South Wales reported Boo-mer-rit as the Scimiter. In 1822 it was described in detail and recorded as a bou-mar-rang, the Turawal used other words for their hunting sticks but used boomerang to refer to a returning throw-stick
The emu is the second-largest living bird by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich. It is endemic to Australia where it is the largest native bird, the emus range covers most of mainland Australia, but the Tasmanian emu and King Island emu subspecies became extinct after the European settlement of Australia in 1788. The bird is common for it to be rated as a least-concern species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Emus are soft-feathered, flightless birds with long necks and legs, Emus can travel great distances, and when necessary can sprint at 50 km/h, they forage for a variety of plants and insects, but have been known to go for weeks without eating. They drink infrequently, but take in copious amounts of water when the opportunity arises, breeding takes place in May and June, and fighting among females for a mate is common. Females can mate several times and lay clutches of eggs in one season. The male does the incubation, during this process he hardly eats or drinks, the eggs hatch after around eight weeks, and the young are nurtured by their fathers.
They reach full size after around six months, but can remain as a unit until the next breeding season. The emu is an important cultural icon of Australia, appearing on the coat of arms, the bird features prominently in Indigenous Australian mythology. The birds were known on the eastern coast before 1788, when the first Europeans settled there, total length seven feet two inches. The long spines which are seen in the wings of the sort, are in this not observable. The legs are stout, formed much as in the Galeated Cassowary, the species was named by ornithologist John Latham in 1790 based on a specimen from the Sydney area of Australia, a country which was known as New Holland at the time. In his original 1816 description of the emu, the French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot used two names, first Dromiceius and Dromaius. Most modern publications, including those of the Australian government, use Dromaius, another theory is that it comes from the word ema, which is used in Portuguese to denote a large bird akin to an ostrich or crane.
In Victoria, some terms for the emu were Barrimal in the Dja Dja Wurrung language, myoure in Gunai, the birds were known as murawung or birabayin to the local Eora and Darug inhabitants of the Sydney basin. The emu was long classified, with its closest relatives the cassowaries, in the family Casuariidae, however, an alternate classification was proposed in 2014 by Mitchell et al. based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA. This splits off the Casuariidae into their own order, the Casuariformes, the cladogram shown below is from their study. Two different Dromaius species were present in Australia at the time of European settlement, the insular dwarf emus, D. baudinianus and D. n. minor, originally present on Kangaroo Island and King Island respectively, both became extinct shortly after the arrival of Europeans
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System. The descriptive milky is derived from the appearance from Earth of the galaxy – a band of light seen in the night sky formed from stars that cannot be distinguished by the naked eye. The term Milky Way is a translation of the Latin via lactea, from Earth, the Milky Way appears as a band because its disk-shaped structure is viewed from within. Galileo Galilei first resolved the band of light into individual stars with his telescope in 1610, until the early 1920s, most astronomers thought that the Milky Way contained all the stars in the Universe. Following the 1920 Great Debate between the astronomers Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, observations by Edwin Hubble showed that the Milky Way is just one of many galaxies, the Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy with a diameter between 100,000 light-years and 180,000 light-years. The Milky Way is estimated to contain 100–400 billion stars, there are probably at least 100 billion planets in the Milky Way.
The Solar System is located within the disk, about 26,000 light-years from the Galactic Center, on the edge of one of the spiral-shaped concentrations of gas. The stars in the inner ≈10,000 light-years form a bulge, the very center is marked by an intense radio source, named Sagittarius A*, which is likely to be a supermassive black hole. Stars and gases at a range of distances from the Galactic Center orbit at approximately 220 kilometers per second. The constant rotation speed contradicts the laws of Keplerian dynamics and suggests much of the mass of the Milky Way does not emit or absorb electromagnetic radiation. This mass has been termed dark matter, the rotational period is about 240 million years at the position of the Sun. The Milky Way as a whole is moving at a velocity of approximately 600 km per second with respect to frames of reference. The oldest stars in the Milky Way are nearly as old as the Universe itself, the Milky Way has several satellite galaxies and is part of the Local Group of galaxies, which is a component of the Virgo Supercluster, which is itself a component of the Laniakea Supercluster.
The Milky Way can be seen as a band of white light some 30 degrees wide arcing across the sky. Dark regions within the band, such as the Great Rift, the area of the sky obscured by the Milky Way is called the Zone of Avoidance. The Milky Way has a low surface brightness. Its visibility can be reduced by background light such as light pollution or stray light from the Moon. The sky needs to be darker than about 20.2 magnitude per square arcsecond in order for the Milky Way to be seen and it should be visible when the limiting magnitude is approximately +5.1 or better and shows a great deal of detail at +6.1
Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world. It is one of the most conspicuous and recognizable constellations in the night sky and it was named after Orion, a hunter in Greek mythology. Its brightest stars are Rigel and Betelgeuse, a blue-white and a red supergiant, the earliest depiction that has been linked to the constellation of Orion is a prehistoric mammoth ivory carving found in a cave in the Ach valley in West Germany in 1979. Archaeologists have estimated it to have been fashioned approximately 32,000 to 38,000 years ago, the distinctive pattern of Orion has been recognized in numerous cultures around the world, and many myths have been associated with it. It has used as a symbol in the modern world. The Babylonian star catalogues of the Late Bronze Age name Orion MULSIPA. ZI. AN. NA, the Babylonian constellation was sacred to Papshukal and Ninshubur, both minor gods fulfilling the role of messenger to the gods. In ancient Egypt, the stars of Orion were regarded as a god, because Orion rises before Sirius, the star whose heliacal rising was the basis for the Solar Egyptian calendar, Sah was closely linked with Sopdet, the goddess who personified Sirius.
The god Sopdu was said to be the son of Sah, Sah was syncretized with Osiris, while Sopdet was syncretized with Osiris mythological wife, Isis. In the Pyramid Texts, from the 24th and 23rd centuries BC, the Armenians identified their legendary patriarch and founder Hayk with Orion. Hayk is the name of the Orion constellation in the Armenian translation of the Bible, the Bible mentions Orion three times, naming it Kesil. e. Job 9,9, Job 38,31, and Amos 5,8, in ancient Aram, the constellation was known as Nephîlā′, the Nephilim may have been Orions descendants. One myth recounts Gaias rage at Orion, who dared to say that he would kill every animal on the planet, the angry goddess tried to dispatch Orion with a scorpion. This is given as the reason that the constellations of Scorpius, Ophiuchus, the Serpent Bearer, revived Orion with an antidote. This is said to be the reason that the constellation of Ophiuchus stands midway between the Scorpion and the Hunter in the sky. The constellation is mentioned in Horaces Odes, Homers Odyssey and Iliad, and Virgils Aeneid In medieval Muslim astronomy, Orion was known as al-jabbar, Orions sixth brightest star, Saiph, is named from the Arabic, saif al-jabbar, meaning sword of the giant.
In China, Orion was one of the 28 lunar mansions Sieu （宿） and it is known as Shen （參）, literally meaning three, for the stars of Orions Belt. The Rig Veda refers to the Orion Constellation as Mriga, the Mriga means Deer, locally known as Harnu in folk parlance. There are many folk songs narrating the Harnu, the Malay called Orion Belt Bintang Tiga Beradik