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The Pleiades known as the Seven Sisters and Messier 45, are an open star cluster containing middle-aged, hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus. It is among the star clusters nearest Earth and is the cluster most obvious to the naked eye in the night sky; the cluster is dominated by hot blue and luminous stars that have formed within the last 100 million years. Reflection nebulae around the brightest stars were once thought to be left over material from the formation of the cluster, but are now considered to be an unrelated dust cloud in the interstellar medium through which the stars are passing. Computer simulations have shown that the Pleiades were formed from a compact configuration that resembled the Orion Nebula. Astronomers estimate that the cluster will survive for about another 250 million years, after which it will disperse due to gravitational interactions with its galactic neighborhood; the name of the Pleiades comes from Ancient Greek. It derives from plein because of the cluster's importance in delimiting the sailing season in the Mediterranean Sea: "the season of navigation began with their heliacal rising".

However, in mythology the name was used for the Pleiades, seven divine sisters, the name deriving from that of their mother Pleione and meaning "daughters of Pleione". In reality, the name of the star cluster certainly came first, Pleione was invented to explain it; the Pleiades are a prominent sight in winter in the Northern Hemisphere, are visible out to mid-Southern latitudes. They have been known since antiquity to cultures all around the world, including the Celts, Hawaiians, Māori, Aboriginal Australians, the Persians, the Arabs, the Chinese, the Quechua, the Japanese, the Maya, the Aztec, the Sioux, the Kiowa, the Cherokee. In Hinduism, the Pleiades are associated with the war-god Kartikeya, they are mentioned three times in the Bible. The earliest-known depiction of the Pleiades is a Northern German bronze age artifact known as the Nebra sky disk, dated to 1600 BC; the Babylonian star catalogues name the Pleiades MULMUL, meaning "stars", they head the list of stars along the ecliptic, reflecting the fact that they were close to the point of vernal equinox around the 23rd century BC.

The Ancient Egyptians may have used the names "Followers" and "Ennead" in the prognosis texts of the Calendar of Lucky and Unlucky Days of papyrus Cairo 86637. Some Greek astronomers considered them to be a distinct constellation, they are mentioned by Hesiod's Works and Days, Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, the Geoponica; some scholars of Islam suggested that the Pleiades are the "star" mentioned in Sura An-Najm of the Quran. In Japan, the constellation is mentioned under the name Mutsuraboshi in the 8th-century Kojiki; the constellation is now known in Japan as Subaru. It was chosen as the brand name of Subaru automobiles to reflect the origins of the firm as the joining of five companies, is depicted in the firm's six-star logo. Galileo Galilei was the first astronomer to view the Pleiades through a telescope, he thereby discovered. He published his observations, including a sketch of the Pleiades showing 36 stars, in his treatise Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610; the Pleiades have long been known to be a physically related group of stars rather than any chance alignment.

John Michell calculated in 1767 that the probability of a chance alignment of so many bright stars was only 1 in 500,000, so surmised that the Pleiades and many other clusters of stars must be physically related. When studies were first made of the stars' proper motions, it was found that they are all moving in the same direction across the sky, at the same rate, further demonstrating that they were related. Charles Messier measured the position of the cluster and included it as M45 in his catalogue of comet-like objects, published in 1771. Along with the Orion Nebula and the Praesepe cluster, Messier's inclusion of the Pleiades has been noted as curious, as most of Messier's objects were much fainter and more confused with comets—something that seems scarcely possible for the Pleiades. One possibility is that Messier wanted to have a larger catalogue than his scientific rival Lacaille, whose 1755 catalogue contained 42 objects, so he added some bright, well-known objects to boost his list.

Edme-Sébastien Jeaurat drew in 1782 a map of 64 stars of the Pleiades from his observations in 1779, which he published in 1786. The distance to the Pleiades can be used as an important first step to calibrate the cosmic distance ladder; as the cluster is so close to the Earth, its distance is easy to measure and has been estimated by many methods. Accurate knowledge of the distance allows astronomers to plot a Hertzsprung–Russell diagram for the cluster, when compared to those plotted for clusters whose distance is not known, allows their distances to be estimated. Other methods can extend the distance scale from open clusters to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, a cosmic distance ladder can be constructed. Astronomers' understanding of the age and future evolution of the universe is influenced by their knowledge of the distance to the Pleiades, yet some authors argue that the controversy over the distance to the Pleiades discussed below is a red herring, since the cosmic distance ladder can rely on a suite of other nearby clusters where consensus exists regarding the distances as established by the Hip

Jerusalem 2111

Jerusalem 2111 is the name of an International science fiction contest and produced by Architect Daniel Wiernik from the Association for Urban Planning, held during 2010 and ending 31 December 2010, a day before the year 2011. The competition was open to amateur and professional computer graphics and classic animation artists, architects and artists from all over the world. Following the public on-line vote, an international jury chose the top video clip; the international Jury included among others: Jon Landau, Film Producer of Avatar, Titanic. Wim Wenders, Film director, author and producer. Paul and Gaëtan Brizzi, Film directors. Winner of the $10.000 first prize was Israel-U. S. Based cinema student David Gidali, whose 2- minute-long Secular Quarter #3, shows a Jewish couple and non-religious, coming face-to-face as UFOs remove the huge cages sealing off their neighborhoods. Jerusalem 2111

Samuel Osborne Habershon

Samuel Osborne Habershon was an English physician. Habershon was born at Rotherham in 1825, studied medicine at Guy's Hospital, London, he gained numerous scholarships at the university of London, where he graduated M. B. in 1848 and M. D. in 1851. After being appointed in succession demonstrator of anatomy and of morbid anatomy and lecturer in pathology, he became assistant physician in 1854, in 1866 full physician to Guy's, he lectured there on materia medica from 1856 to 1873, on medicine from 1873 to 1877. Having been a member of the Royal College of Physicians of London from 1851, fellow from 1856, he was successively examiner and censor, in 1876 Lumleian lecturer, in 1883 Harveian orator, in 1887 vice-president of the college, he was president of the Medical Society of London in 1873. In November 1880, being senior physician to Guy's, he resigned his post, together with John Cooper Forster, the senior surgeon. Habershon died on 22 August 1889 from gastric ulcer, leaving three daughters; as a physician Habershon had a high reputation in abdominal diseases, which he did much to elucidate.

He was the first in England to propose the operation of gastrostomy for stricture of the œsophagus, which Cooper Forster performed on a patient of Habershon's in 1858. He was one of the founders of the Christian Medical Association. Habershon wrote, besides twenty-eight papers in'Guy's Hospital Reports,' from 1855 to 1872, others in various medical transactions and journals:'Pathological and Practical Observations on Diseases of the Abdomen,' 1857. 1885. "Habershon, Samuel Osborne". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Samuel Osborne Habershon. Royal College of Physicians of London

Brendan Hannigan

Brendan Hannigan is a former head of International Business Machines Security Systems Division and helped develop the industry's first intelligent cloud computing security portfolio. He is an entrepreneur and an investor who focuses on security and software as a service startups. Hannigan was born in Ireland where he finished a BSc in Computer Science at the University College at Dublin in 1987. At school, he became interested with FORTRAN programming on a VAX computer architecture, he immigrated to the United States in the early 1990s. He first lived in Boston and secured employment at Motorola. Hannigan started working in Dublin, his job at the Irish company involved routing codes. When he relocated to the U. S. he joined Wellfleet Communications. He worked for Forrester Research from 1996 to 2000 as Director of network research and implemented successful practices in the areas of enterprise networks, security technology, product management. Hannigan was, known for founding the startup Q1 Labs, acquired by IBM in 2011.

The company, which he co-founded with Sandy Bird, provided security software that can analyze and monitor events. In an interview, he said, "Our ideas are based on the simple realization that the perimeter protection paradigm that companies have relied on doesn't work in a world where the bad actors are so sophisticated. Built upon a foundation of intelligence, we must bring security closer to the data and transaction.” Q1 Labs' security features were seen as compatible with IBM's analytic capability, hence the acquisition. When IBM acquired Q1 Labs, the company created a new division that focused on helping clients address security challenges. Q1 Labs formed the basis of this security division and Hannigan was tapped to lead it. According to Gartner, that division has established itself as the third largest security software company, IDC lists Hannigan’s group as a world leader in security services. IBM would acquire startups that reinforced the division's range of security services. Hannigan retired from IBM in 2016 after four years working for the company.

In November 2016, Hannigan joined Polaris Partners as a venture partner and was involved in identifying tech startups for funding and founding. As with his experience at IBM, he focuses on cloud infrastructure and cybersecurity. Hannigan maintains that the business world is shifting from the traditional data center towards multiple cloud services. In 2019, he co-founded Sonrai Security, a startup that offers organizations better data security across multicloud deployments through a software-as-a-service product offering. Aside from being an investor, he serves as the CEO of the startup, able to raise $18.5 million after going public


Celltech Group plc was a leading British-based biotechnology business based in Slough. It was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index; the Company was founded by Gerard Fairtlough in 1980 with finance from the National Enterprise Board. In 1999 the Company led consolidation in the UK biosciences market merging with Chiroscience plc, after which it was referred to as Celltech Chiroscience, buying Medeva plc. In 2000 it bought Cistron, a US biosciences business, it expanded into Germany in 2001 buying Thiemann, a German biosciences business, went on to buy Oxford Glycosciences in July 2003 for £102m. Celltech was acquired by UCB, a Belgian drugmaker, in 2004. Since it has been known as UCB Celltech; the Company was engaged in development of therapies for patients with serious diseases. Products included: Tussionex for coughs Zaroxolyn for resistant edema Methylphenidate for ADHD Amphetamine for ADHD and narcolepsy, as 5 mg Dexedrine tablets Semprex-D, an antihistamine and decongestant Inotuzumab ozogamicin and gemtuzumab ozogamicin, both through Celltech's collaboration with Wyeth.

Pharmaceutical industry in the United Kingdom

Margarita Geuer

Margarita Ivonne "Wonny" Geuer Draeger is a former Spanish basketball player, representing Spain from 1985 to 1993 and winning a gold medal at the 1993 European Championship. At club level, she won the 1993 4 Liga Femenina titles. Geuer started playing in Irlandesas de Bamí and Medicina Oximper in her hometown of Sevilla. At 17, she started her senior career at Real Canoe NC, where she won three consecutive Liga Femenina titles, from 1984 to 1986, she spent the next two years in Lugo at CD Xuncas, where she was runner-up in the 1987 league and in the 1987 and 1988 Copa de la Reina. She spent the next four years at the BEX Banco Exterior team, where the most talented Spanish players were recruited in order to compete in the 1992 Summer Olympics held in Barcelona. Geuer's last year as a professional was at Dorna Godella, where she won the FIBA Club World Cup in september 1992 in Brazil, the 1993 Liga Femenina and the FIBA European Champions Cup. Geuer made her debut with Spain women's national basketball team at the age of 19.

She played with the senior team for 8 years, from 1985 to 1993, with a total of 158 caps and 10.9 PPG. She participated in the 1992 Barcelona Olympics and in three European Championships: 10th 1985 Eurobasket 6th 1987 Eurobasket 5th 1992 Summer Olympics 1993 EurobasketGeuer retired from the national team and from professional basketball at the age of 27, with a gold medal in the 1993 European Championship final in Perugia. Born of German parents and married to former basketball player Guillermo Hernangómez Heredero, Geuer is the mother of NBA players Willy Hernangómez and Juancho Hernangómez