ABC Television is a service of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation launched in 1956. As a public service broadcaster, the ABC provides four non-commercial channels within Australia, a advertising-funded satellite channel overseas. ABC is one of five main free-to-air networks in Australia; the history of the ABC's television operations can be traced back to 1953, when the federal Television Act was passed, providing the initial regulatory framework for both the ABC and commercial television networks. Over the next three years, planning for the introduction of a national television service was put in place, land for studios and transmitters in Sydney and Melbourne was acquired, overseas tutors were brought to Australia to assist with training. Commercial station TCN-9 Sydney was the first to broadcast in Australia, soon followed by the ABC's own ABN-2 Sydney and ABV-2 in Melbourne. Six stations, three in Melbourne and three in Sydney, were in operation in time to cover the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne.
The ABC's first television broadcast was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November, at the Gore Hill studios in Sydney, followed two weeks by transmission in Melbourne. Outside broadcasting was initiated on 5 November, from the ABC's first outside broadcast van; the van, now in the collection of the National Museum of Australia, was instrumental in the production of thousands of outside broadcasts. It was restored in time to be displayed at the Sydney Olympic Games and was used to film the visit of Queen Elizabeth II to the site of the National Museum in 2000. Although radio programs could be broadcast nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not put in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. A purpose-built television studio was built in Sydney, opened on 29 January 1958, replacing temporary sound studios used since the ABC's television services launched in 1956.
In the same year, technical equipment was moved to permanent locations, while main transmitters were introduced to Melbourne and Sydney in 1957 and 1958, respectively. Direct relays between Sydney and Melbourne, as well as Canberra, were established in 1961, replacing temporary microwave relays as a means of airing programs across multiple stations. Videotape equipment, allowing the sharing of footage with much greater ease and speed, was installed in each state capital by 1962. ABQ-2 Brisbane was the third ABC TV station to launch. ABC-3 Canberra opened a year with ABD-6 Darwin completing the ABC's coverage of every state in 1971. Teletext services were introduced to ABC in 1983 to allow hearing-impaired viewers access to closed captions. International television service Australia Television International was established in 1993. Australia Television was sold to the Seven Network in 1998; the ABC's television operations joined its radio and online divisions at the Corporation's Ultimo headquarters in 2000.
In 2002, the ABC launched ABC Asia Pacific, the replacement for the defunct Australia Television channel operated by the Seven Network. Much like its predecessor, companion radio network Radio Australia, the service provided a mix of programming targeted at audiences throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Funding cuts in 2003, led to the closure of Fly and the ABC Kid's Channel. ABC2, now ABC Comedy, a second attempt at a digital-only television channel, was launched on 7 March 2005, running on a budget of $3 million per year. Minister for Communications Helen Coonan inaugurated the channel at Parliament House three days later. Genre restrictions limiting the types of programming the channel could carry were lifted in October 2006. In the lead-up to the 2007 federal election, the Australian Government endorsed a proposal submitted to the Australian Communications and Media Authority by the ABC to launch a second digital channel targeted at children; the new channel, titled ABC3, was to aim to provide at least 50% Australian-made content.
At midday on 8 February 2008, ABC Television was rebranded as ABC1, complementing the existing ABC2 digital-only channel launched on 7 March 2005. ABC has four digital services; as of 2009, ABC announced an Australia-wide upgrade to its Digital service, that it would provide a seven-day Electronic Program Guide and give new logical channel numbers for all of ABC’s television services. The new ABC logical channel numbers are below; these services are available nationally through digital terrestrial television, all the digital TV services are available through the VAST free-to-air satellite service. Only the primary ABC channel is available on the Optus Aurora satellite platform. In June 2010, playout was moved to a new facility shared with WIN Television at Ingleburn. On 6 December 2016, ABC upgraded its HD format from 720p to 1080i. Within Australia, the ABC operates four television channels, all of them non-commercial. ABC, the Corporation's original television service, receives the bulk of funding for television and shows first-run comedy, drama and news and current affairs.
In each state and territory a local news bulletin is shown at 7 pm nightly. ABC Comedy, launched in 2005, shows comedic content in addition to some repeats from ABC TV of which the amount has decreased since ABC Comedy's inception, it is not a 24-hour channel, but is
ABC Radio Perth
ABC Radio Perth is a radio station located in Perth, Western Australia, operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, broadcasting at 720 kHz AM. It is the flagship ABC Local Radio station in Western Australia. 6WF transmitted its first broadcast on Wednesday 4 June 1924. It was owned by Westralian Farmers Co-operative, operated from a studio in the Westralian Farmers building in Perth; the Premier of Western Australia, Philip Collier made a speech on-air to mark the opening of the station. The station was equipped with a transmitter, the most powerful allowed under Commonwealth regulations, it was intended as a source of "information and entertainment to rural areas". The station's original broadcast footprint covered most of the state of Western Australia. In 1929 the radio station was sold to the Australian Broadcasting Company; as a result, the radio station moved from the Westralian Farmers buildings to the ESA Bank building on the corner of Hay and Milligan Streets in Perth. When the Australian Broadcasting Commission was founded in 1932, 6WF became part of the national network.
The station moved again in 1937 to the Stirling Institute building located in the Supreme Court Gardens, St Georges Terrace. Despite the fact the building had been built 21 years earlier as a temporary structure it became the home of 6WF for the next 23 years. In 1960 a specially built 23 studio building complex was completed at 191 Adelaide Terrace and the station moved there during that year; this building was to provide the home for the Western Australian Symphony Orchestra for a number of years, running alongside three separate radio stations. These buildings lasted 45 years. A site was commissioned and the radio station moved to its new offices and studios in East Perth in March 2005; the Adelaide Terrace site was sold to property developers in 2008 who have proposed demolishing the structure and erecting residential buildings. The transmission tower was demolished in January 2011. ABC Radio Perth produces news bulletins unique to Western Australia, which are broadcast between 5:00am and 10:00pm on weekdays, between 6:00am and 1:00pm on weekends.
National bulletins are broadcast outside these times. The station broadcasts national news magazine programs - AM, The World Today and PM. Throughout the day and evening, ABC Radio Perth broadcasts a variety of talk shows. Breakfast on weekdays, presented by Eoin Cameron from 2002 until March 2016, has been the highest rating breakfast program on Perth radio. ABC Radio Perth broadcasts a range of sports coverage syndicated through the network under the name ABC Radio Grandstand, including Australian rules football and cricket; the station is one of two. The station broadcasts West Australian Football League matches. ABC Radio Perth and ABC Local Radio stations in Western Australia produce less content than their counterparts in the rest of Australia; this is because Western Australia's time zone is two hours behind Australian Eastern Standard Time, or three hours behind Australian Eastern Daylight Time, most national programs are broadcast live across Australia, at a time earlier in Australian Western Standard Time.
Unlike all other state capital ABC Local Radio stations, 720 ABC Perth does not produce a weekday evening program, or any weekend programs except for Saturday Breakfast. A weekday early morning program was produced, but terminated as a result of funding cuts in November 2013 and replaced with a program compiling content produced during the day. ABW – ABC television station located in the same building "The 6WF Story – Part 1 of 3". WA TV History. 2012-08-20. Retrieved 2012-10-06. "The 6WF Story – Part 2 of 3". WA TV History. 2012-08-20. Retrieved 2012-10-06. "The 6WF Story – Part 3 of 3". WA TV History. 2012-08-20. Retrieved 2012-10-06. ABC Radio Perth
ABC Local Radio
ABC Local Radio is a network of publicly owned radio stations in Australia, operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. ABC Local Radio stations broadcast across the continent using terrestrial transmitters and satellites, its programming consists of news, current affairs, entertainment, sport and local affairs. They are reckoned as the flagship ABC radio stations in their areas. Depending on the time of day and the day of the week, programming can either be purely local, broadcast from the state or territory capital city ABC station, or simulcast across all ABC Local Radio services across the country. Local Radio was known internally as ABC Radio 1 in metropolitan regions and ABC Radio 3 in regional areas. Radio 1 was a local format while Radio 3 was more networked and included content from the national programme, Radio 2. In the 1980s, Radio National emerged from Radio 2 and Radio 3 dropped its Radio 2 content with Radio 1 becoming ABC Metro Radio and Radio 3 becoming ABC Regional Radio.
The Regional Radio stations provided local programming in breakfast and drive but networked common content for most of their broadcasting hours. Some different, local market formats emerged, including the Darwin Metro 8DDD, FM105.7 and Gold Coast Regional, ABC Coast FM, 91.7. Up until the mid-1990s, the majority of the local radio stations identified on-air as. In the 1990s, a different convention was used as ABC Radio or FM. In 2000, these two identical networks merged as ABC Local Radio. From this point all ABC Local Radio stations ceased to identify themselves according to their callsigns or other existing names, instead use the format ABC, or ABC where there are multiple frequencies broadcasting the same service. However, as the callsigns were used continuously for up to seventy years and are much shorter than the new names, many long-term listeners still use these callsigns to refer to ABC Local Radio stations. In January 2017, ABC Local Radio rebranded with a new logo; the new round logo reflects the dropping of the call numbers of each local radio station as part of the network's multiplatform philosophy.
All stations now use the format ABC Radio with the region. There are sixty ABC Local Radio stations, including 51 regional stations and 9 metropolitan stations; the metropolitan stations are: ABC Radio Sydney ABC Radio Melbourne ABC Radio Brisbane ABC Radio Adelaide ABC Radio Perth ABC Radio Hobart ABC Radio Canberra ABC Radio Darwin The regional stations are: 999 ABC Broken Hill 92.5 ABC Central Coast ABC Central West ABC Coffs Coast 97.3 ABC Illawarra ABC Mid North Coast ABC New England North West 1233 ABC Newcastle ABC North Coast ABC Riverina ABC South East NSW ABC Upper Hunter ABC Western Plains 107.9 ABC Ballarat ABC Central Victoria ABC Gippsland ABC Goulburn Murray ABC Mildura Swan Hill 97.7 ABC Shepparton ABC South West Victoria ABC Western Victoria ABC Northern Tasmania ABC Capricornia 91.7 ABC Gold Coast ABC Far North ABC North Queensland ABC North West Queensland ABC Southern Queensland 90.3 ABC Sunshine Coast ABC Tropical North ABC Western Queensland ABC Wide Bay ABC North and West SA ABC Riverland ABC South East SA ABC West Coast SA ABC Goldfields-Esperance ABC Great Southern ABC Kimberley ABC Midwest & Wheatbelt ABC North West WA ABC South Coast ABC South West WA 783 ABC Alice Springs 106.1 ABC Katherine The metropolitan and regional stations originate most of their own programming.
Until 2015, the regional stations simulcast one of the metropolitan stations when they weren't airing local programming. They simulcast their state's capital city station. In 2015, the ABC formed a Regional Division to again split its regional stations from the metropolitan counterparts. 1233 ABC Newcastle was transferred from the metropolitan network to the new regional division and 14 of the regional network's member stations began streaming. It was announced from 2016 that the regional Local Radio stations would broadcast live each weekday and Saturday morning in a restructure of services, as well as a local Country Hour program at midday and afternoon drive time. During the mid-afternoon and evening, the regional stations will act as satellites of the nearest metropolitan station the capital city station. Despite the loss of 100 websites from the ABC, the Regional network introduced local news websites for its 48 stations containing a mix of news and lifestyle content for regional audiences.
Radio National Radio Australia Timeline of Australian radio ABC Local Radio Australian Broadcasting Corporation
ABC Radio Darwin
ABC Radio Darwin is an ABC radio station, located in Darwin, Northern Territory. It is one of broadcasts on 105.7 MHz on the FM dial. It is an Australian Government sponsored station and is run through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. In 1947, the ABC took over an old Army station, 5DR, relaunched it as its first station in the Northern Territory. In the early days, its staffers lived in huts without air conditioning, most programming was flown up on discs. Since there was only one newspaper in the area, 5DR broadcast funeral arrangements because the Northern Territory's humid climate made it impossible to keep a body for any long period of time. In 1960 all Northern Territory radio stations moved from the 5 prefix shared with South Australia to the 8 prefix, the station becoming 8DR; the station came into its own in 1974. Dick Muddimer, one of the station's reporters, was able to get to the studios of local television station NTD-8 and send a message to the ABC studios in Mount Isa asking them to notify Sydney that Darwin had been struck by a cyclone.
Due to the great distance between Darwin and the rest of Australia and the fact the storm made landfall on Christmas Day, most of the rest of the nation didn't know about Tracy until mid-afternoon. It was the only station whose transmitter was not disabled by the storm, for the next two days was the only link between Darwin and the outside world. Over the next few weeks, it was on the air for all but 34 hours.8DDD ABC Darwin began broadcasting in 1989, replacing 8DR. It was ABC Radio's ninth metropolitan station and was set up and first managed by Phil Cullen, its broadcasting facilities are located in the Darwin City Centre. 8DDD is broadcast throughout the Darwin metropolitan areas and some rural country surrounding Darwin. The station brings Local and International news headlines throughout the hour, it presents Sport and Weather. The 8DDD 105.7 MHz transmitter is located in the Darwin suburb of Berrimah. List of radio stations in Australia ABC Radio Darwin Online DJ Schedule Phil Cullen Transmitters, frequency History
Double J (radio station)
Double J is an Australian digital radio station owned by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. It is positioned as a spin-off of the youth-oriented Triple J catered towards an older adult audience, emphasizing genres such as pop, blues, soul and world music, as well as archive content from Triple J's library, it is automated, but has a few regular live programs. It is available terrestrially via DAB +, as well as other digital television platforms. ABC Dig Music began in November 2002, it emerged from formats developed by Bill Gates and Phil Cullen at ABC Coast FM, which broadcast an Adult Alternative music format and was for many years ABC Radio's only continuous stream. It was part of a suite of three digital channels, alongside Dig Country; some ABC Local Radio, ABC Radio National and Triple J music programs, were broadcast on ABC Dig Music. In July 2009, Dig Radio, Dig Jazz and Dig Country was rebranded as the launch of digital radio stations ABC Dig Music, ABC Jazz and Country. On 24 October 2013, the station came under the management of Triple J.
On 28 April 2014, Dig Music signed off, began stunting with a loop of "Express Yourself" by N. W. A. as well as covers of the song by The Audreys. At Noon on 30 April 2014, Dig Music relaunched as Double J, with former Triple J announcer Myf Warhurst hosting "Lunch with Myf"; the launch was broadcast live on Triple J, replacing "Lunch with Lewi" for that day. On 19 January 2015, the station broadcast a special day of programming, Beat the Drum Again, to mark the 40th anniversary of the launch of "Double J" 2JJ, it included programs staffed by historic personalities such as Mikey Robins and Helen Razer, Angela Catterns, Chris & Craig, Roy & HG, rebroadcasts of the original station's first hour on the air, of Midnight Oil's 1985 "Oils on the Water" concert on Goat Island. ABC Country ABC Jazz Digital radio in Australia Triple J DoubleJ
Triple J is a government-funded, national Australian radio station intended to appeal to listeners of alternative music, which began broadcasting in January 1975. The station places a greater emphasis on broadcasting Australian content compared to commercial stations. Triple J is a division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2JJ commenced broadcasting at 11:00 am, Sunday 19 January 1975, at 1540 kHz on the AM band. The new Australian Broadcasting Corporation station was given the official call-sign 2JJ, but soon became known as Double J; the station was restricted to the greater Sydney region, its local reception was hampered by inadequate transmitter facilities. However, its frequency was a clear channel nationally, so it was heard at night throughout south-eastern Australia. After midnight the station would use ABC networks – during their off air time slot – to increase its broadcasting range, its first broadcast demonstrated a determination to distinguish itself from other Australian radio stations.
The first on-air presenter, DJ Holger Brockmann, notably used his own name. Owing to 2SM's restrictive policies at the time, whose real name was considered "too foreign-sounding", had been forced to work using the pseudonym "Bill Drake" in prior positions. After an introductory audio collage that featured sounds from the countdown and launch of Apollo 11, Brockmann launched the station's first-ever broadcast with the words, "Wow, we're away!", cued The Skyhooks' You Just Like Me'Cos I'm Good in Bed. The choice of a Skyhooks song to introduce the station was significant, as it represented several important features of the Double Jay brand at the time. Choosing an Australian band reflected Double J's commitment to Australian content at a time when American acts dominated commercial pop stations. Most notably, the song was one of several tracks from the Skyhooks' album, banned from airplay on commercial radio by the industry's peak body; because Double J was a government-funded station operating under the umbrella of the ABC, it was not bound by commercial-radio censorship codes, was not answerable to advertisers or the station owners.
In contrast, their Sydney rival, 2SM, was owned by a holding company controlled by the Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney, resulting in the ban or editing of numerous songs.2JJ was a product of the progressive media policies of the Whitlam Government of 1972–75, combined influences from several earlier ABC programs, such as "Room to Move", as well as the freewheeling programming policies of British pirate radio and BBC Radio 1, created to target the pirate radio audience. The inspiration gained from the UK led to Double J adopting the tradition of weekly, live-in-the-studio performances by pop and rock bands. Gough Whitlam was unable to fulfill his aspiration for the establishment of a "National Youth Radio Network", as he was controversially sacked.2JJ presenter, the first female DJ on Australian pop radio, Gayle Austin, completing a Master of Arts on Triple J's first 16 years in 2005, explained that 2JJ staff had heard of other motivations for the founding of the station: Word was the Whitlam government wanted to set the station up to woo young voters.
We heard that the ABC was worried about its audience dying off and wanted a station for young people who would grow up to be ABC listeners. Additionally, the station was one of a series of innovations that stemmed from the recommendations in the McLean Report of 1974; these included expanding radio broadcasting onto the FM band, issuing a new class of broadcasting license which permitted the establishment of community radio stations, the creation of two new stations for the ABC — 2JJ in Sydney and the short-lived 3ZZ in Melbourne. By the time 2JJ went to air, the Whitlam government was in its final months of office. Marius Webb, one of the station's co-ordinators recalls an ABC executive informing him: "You'll be on the air by January. Thank you much, I've got another meeting." On 11 November 1975, Whitlam's commission was revoked by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, sparking a double dissolution of parliament. In the subsequent 1975 federal election, Labor was defeated by the Liberal-National Party coalition, led by Malcolm Fraser.
During the more conservative media climate that emerged in the Fraser years, 2JJ staff were accused of left-wing bias. 2JJ was intended to be the first link in Whitlam's planned national youth network. It was a historic moment in Australian radio, when the station decided to hire a female disc jockey and, excluding the first experimental FM licences, was granted the first new radio licence issued in any Australian capital city since 1932. In its early years 2JJ's on-air staff were recruited from either commercial radio or other ABC stations. In another first, the roster featured presenters who did not come from a radio industry background, including singer-songwriters Bob Hudson and John J. Francis, actor Lex Marinos. Francis commenced broadcasting in the Saturday midnight-to-dawn shift in 1975, the program became so popular that it was expanded to include Friday and Sunday nights two years later; the foundation staff of January 1975 were: Webb and Ron Moss, Ros Cheney, David Ives, Sam Collins, Holger Brockman, Caroline Pringle, Bob Hudson, Mike Parker, Iven Walker, Arnold Frolows, Di Auburn, Margot Edwards, George "
ABC Radio National, known on-air as RN, is an Australia-wide Public Service Broadcasting radio network run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Radio National broadcasts national programming in subjects that include news and current affairs, the arts, social issues, science and comedy; some programs are relayed on Radio Australia, the ABC's international international broadcasting service, transmitted on shortwave until January 2017. Radio National has 327 transmitter sites and covers over 98% of the permanently inhabited areas of Australia. Remote areas are served by satellite service. All radio programs are available for live streaming over the Internet, most as audio-on-demand, or for download as MP3s for at least four weeks after broadcast; some programs are available as MP3s going back to 2005. From 1928, the National Broadcasting Service, as part of the federal Postmaster-General's Department took over responsibility for all the existing stations that were sponsored by public licence fees.
The outsourced Australian Broadcasting Company supplied programs from 1929. In 1932 a commission was established, merging the original ABC company and the National Broadcasting Service, it is from this time that Radio National dates as a distinct network within the ABC, in which a system of program relays was developed during the subsequent decades to link stations spread across the nation. Radio National's Sydney station 2FC first test broadcast on 5 December 1923 and went to air on 9 January 1924. 2FC stood for the original owner of the station before the ABC took it over. The origins of the other stations in the network were: 3AR Melbourne – 26 January 1924 "Associated Radio Company of Australia", organized by Esmond Laurence Kiernan and others. 5CL Adelaide – 20 November 1924 "Central Broadcasters Ltd" 7ZL Hobart – 17 December 1924 4QG Brisbane – 27 July 1925 "Queensland Government" 6WN Perth – 5 October 1938 "Wanneroo" 2CY Canberra – 23 December 1938 2NA Newcastle – 20 December 1943The first transmitters for 2FC, 5CL and 4QG were made by AWA with power of 5 kW.
They used a MT7A valve for a MT7B for the modulator. The power supply was 12,000 volts from three phase power rectified by MR7 valves. Note that 4QG commenced with a 500 Watt transmitter which continued for about 6 months until the 5 kW unit was commissioned; the radio transmitters for 3AR and 2FC were upgraded to 10 kW in a contract let in 1938 to STC. The transmitters were designed by Charles Strong in London, were notable in using negative feedback to ensure a high quality flat frequency response. From 1947 until the mid-1980s, "Radio 2" was broadcast to the major metropolitan centres, with a large broadcast footprint in adjacent areas due to the powerful AM transmitters in use, it contained most of the ABC's national programming. The power level of 2FC and 3AR was upgraded to 50 kW in the early 1950s; the transmitters for these were housed in the same building as the radio 1 network. They were manufactured by STC; the final stage contained three parallel 3J/261E air cooled triodes running in class C amplifier at 90% efficiency.
These were driven by a class B push-pull modulator with the same type of valves. That of 5CL had to wait until late 1961. In the 1970s, the network's program format began to take on a more serious tone, a style which continues to this day. Art critic Peter Timm remarked that the network is "virtually the only non-print media forum for art in this country."In the early 1980s the broadcast footprint was extended with the construction of the first of over 300 regional FM transmitters. In 1985, the ABC renamed "Radio 2" as "Radio National". Since 1990, all Radio National stations have had the same callsign format, Radio National preceded by the appropriate number for the state or territory, sometimes followed by the locality; as a result of cuts in the 1996–97 budget, Radio National was hit with a reduction of a million dollars in its funding, with a significant impact on programming. In January 2012 Radio National was rebranded as RN in recognition of the stations growing digital audience. RN has been used as shorthand for the station's name by many presenters going back several years.
The stations tagline, which has changed over the years, was changed to "Your World Unfolding" to mesh with the station's new logo and visual identity. In January 2017 the schedule has been reduced in scope due to loss of staff and programmes; the times shown relate to Radio National's schedules in the eastern states of Australia. Pre-recorded shows are broadcast on time delay in the west. Full program guides for all regions are published on the RN website. AM, The World Today, PM: in-depth news and analysis Correspondents Report: in-depth news and analysis Asia Pacific: current regional affairs in the Asia Pacific region, from ABC Radio Australia Breakfast: "comprehensive coverage and analysis of national and international events - serious, fun and diverse" hosted by Fran Kelly RN Drive: "With fresh p