Western Sydney University
Western Sydney University the University of Western Sydney, is an Australian multi-campus university in the Greater Western region of Sydney. It is a provider of undergraduate and higher research degrees with campuses in Bankstown, Campbelltown, Hawkesbury and Penrith, it is ranked in the top 400 in the world in the 2019 THE World University Rankings and 19th in Australia in 2019. The university in its current form was founded in 1989 under the terms of the University of Western Sydney Act, 1988, which created a federated network university with an amalgamation between the Nepean College of Advanced Education and the Hawkesbury Agricultural College; the Macarthur Institute of Higher Education was incorporated in the university in 1989, in 2001 the University of Western Sydney was restructured as a single multi-campus university rather than as a federation. In 2015, the university underwent a rebranding which resulted in a change in name from the University of Western Sydney to Western Sydney University.
The University consists of an amalgamation of campuses, each with their own unique and individual history. In 1891, the Hawkesbury campus was established as an agricultural college by the NSW Agricultural Society. At Parramatta, Western Sydney University owns and has renovated the Female Orphan School building, the foundation stone of, laid by Governor Lachlan Macquarie in 1813. In 1987 the New South Wales Labor government planned to name the university Chifley University, after the former Labor Prime Minister, Ben Chifley. However, in 1989, a new Liberal government reversed this decision and controversially named it the University of Western Sydney. In 1989, teachers' colleges and Colleges of Advanced Education in Sydney's western suburbs were given university status under the University of Western Sydney Act of 1988; the 1990s saw the federation of three education providers: UWS Nepean, UWS Hawkesbury and UWS Macarthur. 1989 was the year the Hawke federal labour government introduced HECS, the Higher Education Contribution Scheme.
The University has a legislative basis in NSW state legislation with the passing of the University of Western Sydney Act 1997, which empowers the university to make by-laws affecting the operation of the university. In 2000, in order to reduce administrative expenses and duplication of courses offered by the inner Sydney universities and to eliminate competition between Western Sydney University member institutions, Western Sydney University became one multi-campus university. Federal Government funding of Australia's universities as a percentage of Australia's GDP was in decline during the years of the Howard government. Federal funding policy was influential at UWS. In 2000, after internal restructuring and cost-cutting, UWS Hawkesbury, UWS Macarthur and UWS Nepean ceased to exist as autonomous components of the now defunct University of Western Sydney federation and became the new multi-campus University of Western Sydney. In the 2000s, UWS consolidated its schools of fine art, social science and psychology.
In this decade the university introduced its first nanotechnology and biotechnology undergraduate degrees. In 2002 UWS designed and installed standardised IT infrastructure across its campuses. In 2003, UWS sponsored a Samuel Beckett symposium as part of the Sydney Festival. In 2003 there was a publicised squabble over UWS between the New South Wales state government and the Australian federal government. In 2004, Michael Le Grand won the inaugural UWS Sculpture Award. In 2004, UWS joined with Metro Screen and SLICE TV to bid for Sydney's first permanent Community Television licence. Television Sydney, broadcasting as TVS, launched in February 2006 from a broadcast operations centre located on the Werrington South Campus. In 2006 the UWS news site reported: "Demand to study at the University of Western Sydney is on the rise, with UWS receiving the third-biggest jump in first preferences among NSW and ACT universities for 2007". In 2007, UWS had its first intake for the Bachelor of Medicine / Bachelor of Surgery.
In the same year UWS was part of a consortium with Griffith University and the University of Melbourne to win funding for a National Centre of Excellence for Islamic Studies. In 2008, UWS announced its current water and energy saving strategies, its Indigenous Advisory Board and endorsed Prime Minister Kevin Rudd's apology to the Stolen Generations. In 2011 and 2012, Professor Roy Tasker and James Arvanitakis were announced as the Prime Minister’s Australian University Teacher of the Year On 30 August 2015, the University of Western Sydney underwent a rebranding which resulted in a change in name to Western Sydney University. Many students criticized the re-branding, calling it a waste of money that stripped the university community of its established identity. Early in 2016 some controversy surrounding the University's full support of complementary medicine and the university's alleged spying on employees who lodge complaints in good faith emerged in the press. An employee, as well as eminent scientists, criticised the support of the University for complementary medicines such as homeopathy, acupuncture, TCM, energy healing etc.
The main controversial aspect was the continued support of these pseudo-scientific fields in exchange for continued funding from the naturopathic Jacka Foundation of Natural Therapies. The controversy surrounding the university’s support of pseudo-scientific integrative and complementary medicine continued in early 2017, with the university unsuccessfully attempting to block their "Bent Spoon" nomination for “the perpetrator of the most preposterous piece of paranormal or pseudo-scientific piffle”; this led to a number of articles appearing in the media taking an in-depth look at the National
Australian Defence Force Academy
The Australian Defence Force Academy is a tri-service military Academy that provides military and tertiary academic education for junior officers of the Australian Defence Force in the Royal Australian Navy, Australian Army and Royal Australian Air Force. In 2016 the Academy began accepting civilian students in its undergraduate courses. Tertiary education is provided by the University of New South Wales Canberra campus, the awarding body for ADFA qualifications. Apart from educating future leaders of the Australian Defence Force, UNSW campus provides postgraduate programs and short courses both to Department of Defence personnel and the general public; the stated purpose of ADFA is "to serve Australia by providing the Australian Defence Force with tertiary graduates who have the attributes and skills required of an officer." ADFA is located in the suburb of Campbell, Australian Capital Territory, near the Australian Government district of Russell. It is situated next to Mount Pleasant, which gives some parts of ADFA a view over the rest of Canberra.
The ADFA is adjacent to the Australian Army military academy, the Royal Military College, Duntroon. Junior officers who attend the Australian Defence Force Academy hold the rank of Midshipman in the Royal Australian Navy, Officer Cadet in the Australian Army or Officer Cadet in the Royal Australian Air Force. After World War II, each of the three Armed Services adopted, as policy, that the educational standards should be raised for officers in training. In 1967 an agreement was reached between the Department of Defence and the University of New South Wales, under which they would co-operate to develop the Royal Military College into a degree-level institution. To that end, the University established the Faculty of Military Studies at RMC to conduct courses leading to the award of the University's degrees in arts and engineering. In 1967, the University of New South Wales entered into an association with the RAN College enabling it to present approved courses. Subsequently, first year courses for certain University programs in arts and engineering were introduced.
Successful cadets were sponsored by the Navy to complete bachelor's degrees on the University's campus. Concurrent with the developments at the RAN College and RMC, from 1967 to 1970, Sir Leslie H. Martin chaired the Commonwealth Government's Tertiary Education Committee into the feasibility of setting up a college for the joint education of officer cadets of the three Armed Services. Investigations on a wider scale followed with the result that in 1974 the Commonwealth Government announced its intention of establishing a single tertiary institution for the Defence Force. In 1977 the government formally established the Australian Defence Force Academy as a Joint Service Unit under Section 32c of the Defence Act 1903; the Chief of the Defence Force, Air Chief Marshal Sir Neville McNamara announced the appointment of Rear Admiral Peter Sinclair, Royal Australian Navy as the Commandant. Construction began on the site in 1981. In February 1984 the University of New South Wales announced the appointment of Professor G.
V. H. Wilson as Rector of the University College. In September 1985 the Interim Academy Council ceased its functions and the Australian Defence Force Academy Council held its inaugural meeting under the Chairmanship of Sir Edward Woodward. In 1986 ADFA opened and began providing military and tertiary academic education for Midshipmen and Officer Cadets. In late 2003 the Australian Department of Defence entered into another agreement with the University of New South Wales for the operation of University College at ADFA. In 2015 a $98 million redevelopment was completed. Over its history ADFA has been criticised for its cost of operation and for instances of cadet misbehaviour – bastardisation. In 1998, the Director of the Defence Equity Organisation, Bronwen Grey, led a review into the policies and practices to deal with sexual harassment and sexual offences at ADFA; this review – referred to as the Grey Review – led to fundamental structural and cultural changes at ADFA. These included the abolition of a cadet rank hierarchy and the introduction of improved training in equity and diversity for cadets and staff.
Notwithstanding these improvements, the national publicity associated with the review caused considerable damage to the Academy's reputation. In July 2006, LCDR Robyn Fahy – the first woman to graduate from ADFA and the dux of her year – was awarded an undisclosed amount in compensation for abuses suffered during her service in the ADF, including instances of physical and verbal abuse suffered at ADFA. ADFA attracted further criticism from the Canberra gay and lesbian community after its commandant issued an order preventing Academy personnel from frequenting the Cube nightclub – a gay and lesbian venue; the order was in response to recent violence at the club, in which a patron was stabbed. The ban has since been lifted. In April 2011, it was alleged a male cadet used Skype to stream video of consensual sex with a female cadet to several other cadets at ADFA; the allegation achieved national media attention, is the subject of current civil charges in the ACT courts. Aside from this court action, the incident triggered several other inquiries and reviews into ADFA.
These included an inquiry led by Mr Andrew Kirkham QC into ADFA's management of the incident, a review led by Elizabeth Broderick Sex Discrimination Commissioner, into the treatment of women at ADFA. The Broderick Review found that ADFA was a improved institution since the 1990s, that the extreme cultural concerns identified by Bronwen Grey in 1998 were no longer apparent. Notwithstanding, the Br
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964, is the country's most circulated nationally distributed newspaper, available in each state and territory. It rivals with other nationally distributed newspapers like the business-focused Australian Financial Review and The Saturday Paper; the Australian is owned by News Corp Australia. The Australian is published by News Corp Australia, an asset of News Corp, which owns the sole daily newspapers in Brisbane, Adelaide and Darwin, the most circulated metropolitan daily newspapers in Sydney and Melbourne. News Corp's Chairman and Founder is Rupert Murdoch; the Australian integrates content from overseas newspapers owned by News Corp Australia's international parent News Corp, including The Wall Street Journal and The Times of London. The first edition of The Australian was published by Rupert Murdoch on 15 July 1964, becoming the third national newspaper in Australia following shipping newspaper Daily Commercial News and Australian Financial Review.
Unlike other original Murdoch newspapers, it is not a tabloid publication. At the time, a national paper was considered commercially unfeasible, as newspapers relied on local advertising for their revenue; the Australian was printed in Canberra plates flown to other cities for copying. From its inception the paper struggled for financial viability and ran at a loss for several decades; the Australian's first editor was Maxwell Newton, before leaving the newspaper within a year, was succeeded by Walter Kommer, by Adrian Deamer. Under his editorship The Australian encouraged female journalists, was the first mainstream daily newspaper to hire an Aboriginal reporter, John Newfong. During the 1975 election, campaigning against the Whitlam government by its owner led to the newspaper's journalists striking over editorial direction. Editor-in-chief Chris Mitchell was appointed in 2002 and retired on 11 December 2015. In May 2010, the newspaper launched. In October 2011 The Australian announced that it was planning to become the first general newspaper in Australia to introduce a paywall, with the introduction of a $2.95 per week charge for readers to view premium content on its website, mobile phone and tablet applications.
The paywall was launched on 24 October, with a free 3 month trial. In September 2017 The Australian launched their Chinese website. In October 2018 it was announced that Chris Dore, former editor of The Daily Telegraph, would be taking over as editor-in-chief. Daily sections include National News followed by Worldwide News and Business News. Contained within each issue is a prominent op/ed section, including regular columnists and non-regular contributors. Other regular sections include Technology, Features, Legal Affairs, Defence, Horse-Racing, The Arts, Health and Higher Education. A Travel & Indulgence section is included on Saturdays, along with The Inquirer, an in-depth analysis of major stories of the week, alongside much political commentary. Saturday lift-outs include Review, focusing on books, arts and television, The Weekend Australian Magazine, the only national weekly glossy insert magazine. A glossy magazine, Wish, is published on the first Friday of the month. "The Australian has long maintained a focus on issues relating to Aboriginal disadvantage."
It devotes attention to the information technology and mining industries, as well as the science and politics of climate change. It has published numerous "special reports" into Australian energy policy; the Australian Literary Review was a monthly supplement from September 2006 to October 2011. Former editor Paul Kelly stated in 1991 that "The Australian has established itself in the marketplace as a newspaper that supports economic libertarianism". Laurie Clancy asserted in 2004 that the newspaper "is conservative in tone and oriented toward business. Former editor-in-chief Chris Mitchell has said that the editorial and op-ed pages of the newspaper are centre-right. In 2007 Crikey described the newspaper as in support of the Liberal Party and the then-Coalition government, but has pragmatically supported Labor governments in the past as well. In 2007 The Australian announced their support for the Rudd Australian Labor Party in the Federal election; the Australian presents varying views on climate change, publishing articles by those who disagree with the scientific consensus such as Ian Plimer, authors who agree with the scientific consensus such as Tim Flannery and Bjørn Lomborg.
A 2011 study of the previous seven years of articles claimed that four out of every five articles were opposed to taking action on climate change. In 2010 the ABC's Media Watch presenter Paul Barry accused The Australian of waging a campaign against the Australian Greens, the Greens' federal leader Bob Brown wrote that The Australian has "stepped out of the fourth estate by seeing itself as a determinant of democracy in Australia." In response, The Australian opined that "Greens leader Bob Brown has accused The Australian of trying to wreck the alliance between the Greens and Labor. We wear Senator Brown's criticism with pride. We believe he and his Green colleagues are hypocrites.
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
University of Newcastle (Australia)
The University of Newcastle, informally known as Newcastle University, is an Australian public university established in 1965. It has a primary campus in a suburb of Newcastle, New South Wales; the university operates campuses in Ourimbah, Port Macquarie, Newcastle CBD and Sydney CBD. The University of Newcastle Medical School has implemented the problem-based learning system for its undergraduate Bachelor of Medicine program – a system mandated for use by the Australian Medical Council throughout Australia, it pioneered use of the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test in the early 1990s. UMAT has since been accepted by different medical schools across Australia as an additional selection criteria; the University of Newcastle is a member of Universities Australia and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. The earliest origins of the present-day University of Newcastle can be traced to the Newcastle Teachers College and Newcastle University College. NUC was created as an offshoot of the New South Wales University of Technology and was co-located with the Newcastle Technical College at Tighes Hill.
At the time of its establishment, NUC had just five full-time students and study was restricted to engineering and science. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Newcastle residents campaigned for NUC to be re-constituted as a university in its own right; the campaign was successful, with the University of Newcastle being established as an autonomous institution on 1 January 1965 by gubernatorial proclamation under the University of Newcastle Act 1964. The new university was granted a heraldic coat of arms by the College of Arms in London, an event seen by many in the community as signifying the new institution's independence. In 1966, the University relocated from Tighes Hill to a undeveloped bushland site in Shortland; as enrolments grew, the University embarked on a major building program and redeveloped the Shortland site into the Callaghan campus, named for Sir Bede Callaghan, foundation member of the University council and chancellor from 1977 to 1988. Students at the university celebrate Autonomy Day on 1 July of each year.
According to unverified sources, official autonomy was marked on 1 January 1965 with a "symbolic ceremonial bonfire held at the site of the Great Hall". This celebration is said to have been officiated by Professor Godfrey Tanner, said to have poured wine libations onto the ground as to "sanctify the land upon which the University rests". Since the university technically became autonomous on 1 January 1965 autonomy day should be held on 1 January. 1 July coincided with the New South Wales University of Technology’s autonomy from the Public Service Board’s authority on 1 July 1954. According to Don Wright, students interpreted Autonomy Day as celebrating the autonomy of the University of Newcastle from the University of New South Wales; the students were entitled to give the celebration. The fact that they called it ‘autonomy day’ heightened the students’ sense of the importance of autonomy and their need to defend it against outside interference. In 1989, the Dawkins reforms amalgamated the Hunter Institute of Higher Education with the University of Newcastle.
Newcastle Teachers College had been established in 1949 and was renamed the Newcastle College of Advanced Education and the Hunter Institute of Higher Education as it had expanded its educational offerings beyond teacher education to nursing, other allied health professions and fine arts. The Hunter Institute was located in a series of buildings on land adjacent to the University at Callaghan and amalgamation expanded the campus to some 140 hectares. Under the reforms, the University gained the Newcastle branch of the NSW Conservatorium of Music located in the city's central business district. In 1998, the university established a partnership with the Institut Wira, a Malaysian private business school. In 2002, Ian Firms, a lecturer, failed a large number of student papers from Wira for academic dishonesty, but his actions were reversed by the Newcastle administration and he was discharged, he appealed to the New South Wales Independent Commission Against Corruption, which made a finding of corruption against Dr. Paul Ryder, a failure by Vice Chancellor Roger Holmes in the execution of his duty and recommended disciplining the Deputy Vice Chancellor, Professor Brian English.
In 2003, the University of Newcastle, together with five other Australian universities established Innovative Research Universities Australia. Forty years after obtaining autonomy, the University of Newcastle has developed a reputable position in national and international university standings; the university unveiled a new logo on 31 March 2007 as part of a brand refresh to align the university's image more with its new strategic direction. On 11 May 2007, the university launched a campus at the PSB Academy's two main campuses in Singapore. On 30 July 2015, Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete was the first head of state to be awarded an honorary degree by the university; the university offers online, face-to-face, or a mix of the two, with campuses at Callaghan, Port Macquarie and Sydney CBD. The university has three premises within the Newcastle city centre; the Callaghan campus is the university's largest campus. It is located in the Newcastle s
University of New South Wales
The University of New South Wales is an Australian public research university located in the Sydney suburb of Kensington. Established in 1949, it is ranked 4th in Australia, 45th in the world, 2nd in New South Wales according to the 2018 QS World University Rankings; the university comprises nine faculties, through which it offers bachelor and doctoral degrees. The main campus is located on a 38-hectare site in the Sydney suburb of Kensington, 7 km from the Sydney central business district; the creative arts faculty, UNSW Art & Design, is located in Paddington, UNSW Canberra is located at the Australian Defence Force Academy in Canberra and sub-campuses are located in the Sydney CBD, the suburbs of Randwick and Coogee. Research stations are located throughout the state of New South Wales. UNSW is one of the founding members of the Group of Eight, a coalition of Australian research-intensive universities, of Universitas 21, a global network of research universities, it has international research partnerships with over 200 universities around the world.
The origins of the university can be traced to the Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts established in 1833 and the Sydney Technical College established in 1878. These institutions were established to meet the growing demand for capabilities in new technologies as the New South Wales economy shifted from its pastoral base to industries fueled by the industrial age; the idea of founding the university originated from the crisis demands of World War II, during which the nation's attention was drawn to the critical role that science and technology played in transforming an agricultural society into a modern and industrial one. The post-war Labor government of New South Wales recognised the increasing need to have a university specialised in training high-quality engineers and technology-related professionals in numbers beyond that of the capacity and characteristics of the existing University of Sydney; this led to the proposal to establish the Institute of Technology, submitted by the New South Wales Minister for Education Bob Heffron, accepted on 9 July 1946.
The university named the "New South Wales University of Technology", gained its statutory status through the enactment of the New South Wales University of Technology Act 1949 by the Parliament of New South Wales in Sydney in 1949. In March 1948, classes commenced with a first intake of 46 students pursuing programs including civil engineering, mechanical engineering, mining engineering and electrical engineering. At that time the thesis programs were innovative; each course embodied a specified and substantial period of practical training in the relevant industry. It was unprecedented for tertiary institutions at that time to include compulsory instruction in humanities; the university operated from the inner Sydney Technical College city campus in Ultimo as a separate institution from the College. However, in 1951, the Parliament of New South Wales passed the New South Wales University of Technology Act 1951 to provide funding and allow buildings to be erected at the Kensington site where the university is now located.
In 1958, the university's name was changed to the "University of New South Wales" to reflect its transformation from a technology-based institution to a generalist university. In 1960, it established faculties of arts and medicine and shortly after decided to add the Faculty of Law, which came into being in 1971; the university's first director was Arthur Denning, who made important contributions to founding the university. In 1953, he was replaced by Philip Baxter, who continued as vice-chancellor when this position's title was changed in 1955. Baxter's dynamic, if authoritarian, management was central to the university's first 20 years, his visionary, but at times controversial, energies saw the university grow from a handful to 15,000 students by 1968. The new vice-chancellor, Rupert Myers, brought consolidation and an urbane management style to a period of expanding student numbers, demand for change in university style and challenges of student unrest; the stabilising techniques of the 1980s managed by the vice-chancellor, Michael Birt, provided a firm base for the energetic corporatism and campus enhancements pursued by the subsequent vice-chancellor, John Niland.
The 1990s saw the addition of fine arts to the university. The university established colleges in Newcastle and Wollongong, which became the University of Newcastle and the University of Wollongong in 1965 and 1975 respectively; the former St George Institute of Education amalgamated with the university from 1 January 1990, resulting in the formation of a School of Teacher Education at the former SGIE campus at Oatley. A School of Sports and Leisure Studies and a School of Arts and Music Education were subsequently based at St George; the campus was closed in 1999. In 2012 private sources contributed 45% of the University's annual funding; the university is home to the Lowy Cancer Research Centre, one of Australia's largest cancer research facilities. The centre, costing $127 million, is Australia's first facility to bring together researchers in childhood and adult cancer. In 2003, the university was invited by Singapore's Economic Development Board to consider opening a campus there. Following a 2004 decision to proceed, the first phase of a planned $200 m campus opened in 2007.
Students and staff were sent home and the campus closed after one semester following substantial financial losses. In 2019, the university moved to a trimester timetable as part of UNSW's 2025 Strategy; the Grant of Arms was made by the College of Arms on
Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, in addition to several national academies and institutes. Founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. A postgraduate research university, ANU commenced undergraduate teaching in 1960 when it integrated the Canberra University College, established in 1929 as a campus of the University of Melbourne. ANU employs 3,753 staff; the university's endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is regarded as one of the world's leading research universities, it is ranked 1st in Australia and the whole of Oceania, 24th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 49th in the world by the 2019 Times Higher Education. ANU was named the world's 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2017 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates' employability, ANU was ranked 21st in the world.
ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking. The university is well known for its programmes in the arts and social sciences, ranks among the best in the world for a number of disciplines including politics and international relations, social policy, geography. ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni; the university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU's scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online. Calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900. After the location of the nation's capital, was determined in 1908, land was set aside for the university at the foot of Black Mountain in the city designs by Walter Burley Griffin. Planning for the university was disrupted by World War II but resumed with the creation of the Department of Post-War Reconstruction in 1942 leading to the passage of the Australian National University Act 1946 by the Chifley Government on 1 August 1946.
A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock and Sir Raymond Firth. Economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANU's first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies and the John Curtin School of Medical Research; the first residents' hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the federal government in 1924, became part of ANU in 1957; the first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, opened in 1963. The Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of higher education in the national capital, having been established in 1929 and enrolling its first undergraduate pupils in 1930.
Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution and the first Solicitor-General of Australia. CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university. Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, poet A. D. Hope and economist Heinz Arndt. In 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later. Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961; the Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art combined in 1988 to form the Canberra Institute of the Arts, amalgamated with the university as the ANU Institute of the Arts in 1992. ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory.
ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope. In February 2013, financial entrepreneur and ANU graduate Graham Tuckwell made the largest university donation in Australian history by giving $50 million to fund an undergraduate scholarship program at ANU. ANU is well known for its history of student activism and, in recent years, its fossil fuel divestment campaign, one of the longest-running and most successful in the country; the decision of the ANU Council to divest from two fossil fuel companies in 2014 was criticised by ministers in the Abbott government, but defended by Vice Chancellor Ian Young, who noted:On divestment, it is clear we were in the right and played a national and international leadership role. E seem to have played a major role in a movement; as of 2014 ANU still had investments in major fossil fuel companies. A survey conducted by the Australian Human Rights Commission in 2017 found that the ANU had the second highest incidence of sexual assault and sexual harassment.
3.5 per cent of respondents from the ANU re