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Habitat-selection hypothesis

Habitat selection hypothesis is one of several hypotheses that attempt to explain the mechanisms of brood parasite host selection in cuckoos. Cuckoos are not the only brood parasites, however the behavior is more rare in other groups of birds, including ducks and cowbirds. Brood parasites and their favored host species are known to coevolve, which means both are to possess specific adaptations and counteradaptations. An example of such an evolutionary arms race between a brood parasite and its host, is the phenomenon of egg rejection and egg mimicry, its counteradaptation. Cuckoo eggs have been found in the nests of over 100 different species, of which 11 have been identified as primary host species and a similar number as secondary. Egg patterns and coloring differs between these host species, the cuckoo eggs vary accordingly, thus it is important for a female cuckoo to deposit her eggs in a nest corresponding to the same species as her foster parents, because if she were to select a different host species, that would entail a higher risk of egg rejection.

According to the habitat selection hypothesis, host selection occurs through the means of habitat imprinting in early post-natal development. A female cuckoo retains recognition of certain stimuli, like vegetation, from experience with her natal habitat. Habitats might be defined as dry or wet, shrubby or forested, etc; this process has been termed natal habitat preference induction and has been found in many species across different taxa, such as insects, amphibians and birds of course. This imprinting of the habitat type in which the female cuckoo was reared may cause her to subsequently return to this habitat type in order to lay eggs and therefore increases the likelihood of encountering the suitable host species, as most host species are known to be habitat specific. Thus, habitat selection is thought to allow for specific host selection by the female cuckoo. In some cases an individual may choose a different habitat from their original imprint based on the reproductive success of conspecific individuals in the vicinity.

There are 5 hypotheses for host selection in cuckoos: Inherited preference, host imprinting, natal philopatry, nest site choice, the hypothesis described above, habitat selection. Although the preponderance of evidence seems to be in favor of the habitat selection hypothesis, some evidence for natal philopatry has been observed in cuckoos and the majority of cuckoo eggs are found in nests and among eggs matching their foster species, which supports the nest site choice hypothesis, but does not invalidate any of the other hypotheses, it could be the case that there is more than one mechanism of host selection at play here. In their 1997 study, Teuschl et al. suggest the possibility of a hierarchal decision process consisting of 3 steps: 1) upon returning from their spring migration the female cuckoos go back to the approximate location of their birthplace, which should increase the likelihood of them finding a familiar habitat, 2) choosing a suitable habitat based on habitat imprinting, 3) choosing a suitable nest within that habitat

Law Chun Ting

Law Chung Ting is a Hong Kong professional footballer who plays for Hong Kong Premier League club Yuen Long. In 2011, Law won a scholarship to study at BSix Sixth Form College, following in the footsteps of Tan Chun Lok and Leung Nok Hang. In October 2015, Law returned to Hong Kong to sign his first professional contract with Hong Kong Premier League club Yuen Long. On 15 July 2016, Law was named to the Hong Kong U-21 preliminary squad for a tournament in Singapore. In July 2017, he was selected for the Hong Kong U-23 for the 2018 AFC U-23 Championship qualification tournament in North Korea, he made his debut for the Hong Kong B squad in October 2017 for the Interport Cup against Macau, earning praise from his future Yuen Long manager Kowk Kar Lok. In October 2018, Law was called up to the senior Hong Kong squad by Gary White for a friendly against Indonesia but was an unused substitute. Yuen LongHong Kong Senior Shield: 2017–18 Law Chun Ting at HKFA Law Chun Ting at Soccerway


Alphaherpesvirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the family Herpesviridae distinguished by reproducing more than other subfamilies in the Herpesviridae. In animal virology the most important herpesviruses belong to the Alphaherpesvirinae. Pseudorabies virus is the causative agent of Aujeszky's disease in pigs and Bovine herpesvirus 1 is the causative agent of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis and pustular vulvovaginitis. Mammals serve as natural hosts. There are 37 species in this subfamily, divided among 5 genera. Diseases associated with this subfamily include: HHV-1 and HHV-2: skin vesicles or mucosal ulcers encephalitis and meningitis, HHV-3: chickenpox and shingles, GaHV-2: Marek's disease. Alphaherpesvirinae consists of the following five genera: Iltovirus Mardivirus Scutavirus Simplexvirus Varicellovirus Viruses in Alphaherpesvirinae are enveloped, with icosahedral, spherical to pleomorphic, round geometries, T=16 symmetry; the diameter is around 150-200 nm. Genomes are non-segmented, around 120-180kb in length.

Viral replication is nuclear, is lysogenic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral gB, gC, gD and gH proteins to host receptors, which mediates endocytosis. Replication follows the dsDNA bidirectional replication model. DNA-templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by leaky scanning; the virus exits the host cell by nuclear egress and microtubular outwards viral transport. Mammals serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are sexual, body fluids and respiratory. Alphaherpesvirinae at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings Viralzone: Alphaherpesvirinae ICTV Animal Viruses

Dave Hood

Dave Hood is an American actor, voice actor, director, writer, television personality, former radio personality, best known for his award winning entertaining and educational children's productions. He has been host of many travel oriented programs including PM Magazine and Tourific Destinations on the Discovery Channel. Hood is most recognized as the co-creator and star of Warner Bros.' - Real Wheels video series, a set of 23 children's videos which aimed to be both informative and entertaining. The series won a number of awards including the Parents' Choice Award. Hood started his career as a radio personality at the age of 18 in the small town of Yakima, Washington, he worked his way to becoming the number one afternoon drive personality at KGW in Portland Oregon to the big time at KRTH in Los Angeles. He moved into television at the age of 30, starring on the syndicated show PM Magazine during the 1980s before traveling the world for Tourific Destinations on the Discovery Channel in the early 1990s.

In 1993, he was best known for starting the live action children's video series Real Wheels called There Goes a... with co-creator Ken Urman of Power to Create, featuring the There Goes a... theme. In every video, he was the producer, actor, director, in some of the videos, he's accompanied by his sidekick, Becky; the series had sales near 8 million and won many coveted awards including the Dove Foundation Award, The National Parenting Association Award, the Parents' Choice Award, Kid's First Endorsement Award. The series was syndicated for television under the name Dream Big on more than 100 stations nationally in the late 1990s. In 1996, he started the live action children's video series, The Adventures of Dave and Becky, where he and Becky go on adventures around the world. During the early 2000s, the show was aired on PBS nationwide. Due to the high popularity of the Real Wheels franchise, it had a live tour that starred Dave; the show consisted of magic tricks and audience participation stunts.

Prior to the show, there were real life vehicles that the audience would look at. The tour was produced by Dave Hood Entertainment. Hood continues to produce other family entertainment, his latest productions include: Crazy Adventures with Harry and Susy - Spanish is FUN! with Susy Dorn for 2-8 year olds and The Family Ghost Hunters. Hood is most notable for his creation of Real Wheels; the Real Wheels series is a collection of children's videos. Three episodes, There Goes a Garbage Truck, There Goes the Mail and There Goes a Rescue Vehicle, were released as a part of the short-lived Dream Big series; each episode focuses on different transportation vehicles. Each is live-action, starring Hood, is sometimes accompanied by a sidekick, Becky Borg, he is absent from There Goes a Tractor, Farm Truck, Dump Truck and is replaced by David Sidoni, but comes back in 3 more episodes which are on Tanks, Rescue Heroes, Buses. Video of Dave Hood in "There Goes A Train" on YouTube Some of the 25 videos produced by Dave Hood The Real Wheels Website


Padrenda is a municipality in Ourense in the Galicia region of north-west Spain. As of 2016, the municipality has a population of 1,893; the territory is a rugged relief, descending the altitude from the South to the North. In the border with Portugal, the mount of Pena Rubia reaches 1227 metres, from there to the river Miño, following the dales of its tributary rivers Deva and Gorgua, the lands descend to the 100 metres of altitude; the mountainous territory include the southern and eastern areas of the municipality, with altitudes of 1227 metres, as in Pena Rubia, that has a smooth topography affected by erosion. The flattening territory, in the center and east, is a parallel step next to the previous one. Here is where several streams meet and create the origin of two rivers and Gorgua, which form valleys under the limit of 600 metres, which belong to the lower flattening territory, together with the area of valleys, descends to the 200m. in Pontebarxas. The landscape is, in short, mountainous to the South, riverside-like to the North, due to the majestic flowing of the river Miño, which constitutes the main river.

Official webpage of the Municipality Terras de Celanova Non official forum of the Municipality of Padrenda