1992 Summer Olympics
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event played in Barcelona, Spain in 1992. The games were the first to be unaffected by boycotts since 1972, Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain, and the birthplace of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch. The city was a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup, on October 17,1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Games over Amsterdam, Birmingham and Paris, during the 91st IOC Session in Lausanne, Switzerland. Barcelona had previously bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, but they ultimately lost to Berlin, at the Opening Ceremony Greek mezzo-soprano Agnes Baltsa sang Romiossini as the Olympic flag was paraded around the stadium. Alfredo Kraus sang the Olympic Hymn in both Catalan and Spanish as the flag was hoisted, the Olympic flame cauldron was lit by a flaming arrow, shot by Paralympic archer Antonio Rebollo. The arrow had been lit by the flame of the Olympic Torch, Rebollo overshot the cauldron as this was the original design of the lighting scheme.
South Africa was allowed to compete in the Olympic Games for the first time since the 1960 Summer Olympics, after a long suspension for its apartheid policy. After a close race in the Womens 10,000 metres event, white South African runner Elana Meyer and black Ethiopian runner Derartu Tulu ran a victory lap together, hand-in-hand. Following its reunification in 1990, Germany sent a single, unified Olympic team for the first time since the 1964 Summer Olympics. As the Soviet Union had been dissolved in 1991, the Baltic nations of Estonia and Lithuania sent their own teams for the first time since 1936, the other Soviet republics competed under the name Unified Team. These nations consisted of present-day Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Ukraine, the separation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia led to the Olympic debuts of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Due to United Nations sanctions, athletes from Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were not allowed to participate with their own team, some individual athletes competed under the Olympic flag as Independent Olympic Participants.
Fermín Cacho won the 1,500 metres in his home country, chinese diver Fu Mingxia, age 13, became the youngest Olympic gold medalist of all time. In mens artistic gymnastics, Vitaly Scherbo from Belarus, won six gold medals, Scherbo tied Eric Heidens record for individual gold medals at a single Olympics, winning five medals in an individual event. In womens artistic gymnastics, Tatiana Gutsu took gold in the All-Around competition edging the United States Shannon Miller, russian swimmers dominated the freestyle events, with Alexander Popov and Yevgeny Sadovyi each winning two events. Sadovyi won in the relays, evelyn Ashford won her fourth Olympic gold medal in the 4×100-metre relay, making her one of only four female athletes to have achieved this in history. The young Krisztina Egerszegi of Hungary won three individual swimming gold medals, in womens 200 metre breaststroke, Kyoko Iwasaki of Japan won a gold medal at age of 14 years and six days, making her the youngest-ever gold medalist in swimming competitions at the Olympics.
After demonstrated in six previous Summer Olympic Games, baseball became an Olympic sport
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
Philip Sutton Cox AO is an Australian architect. Cox is the partner of COX Architects, one of the largest architectural practices in Australia. He commenced his first practice with Ian McKay in 1963, then, in 1967 he founded his own practice, Philip Cox, the firm has grown to become COX Architects, which has 400 staff. He has been described as “epitomising the Sydney School of Architecture” in earlier projects and his work has won him multiple awards, the first being in 1963, one year after graduating from the University of Sydney. His most recent award was in 1989, Philip Sutton Cox was born on 1 October 1939 to Ron and May Cox. He has one sister, Judith. His childhood was comfortable, growing up in Killara on the North Shore in Sydney but he was born just one month after the start of the Second World War, Cox attended Gordon Public School and the Sydney Church of England Grammar School in North Sydney. Cox decided at quite an early age that he wanted to be an architect and he won a Commonwealth scholarship which was to pay his fees.
Cox was the responsible for initially implementing the American Radburn design for public housing in New South Wales. Cox and his firm have designed many public buildings in Australia. In 1988 he was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia in recognition of service to architecture, in 1993 he received the inaugural award for Sport and Architecture from the International Olympic Committee, and is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities. Cox married Louise, an architect, in Sydney in April 1972. They have two daughters and Sophie, Cox Architects and current works. Cox, Philip Sutton, Stuart, Kaji-OGrady, Johnson, a decade in review, Philip Cox. Canberra, Royal Australian Institute of Architects, Australian Architects, Philip Cox, Richardson & Taylor. Canberra, Royal Australian Institute of Architects, museum of Applied Arts & Sciences. Profile, Philip Cox AO. Cox Architects, phillip Cox and The Spirit of Place. Australian Broadcasting Corporation – via Radio National, museum of Applied Arts & Sciences
National Museum of Australia
The National Museum of Australia preserves and interprets Australias social history, exploring the key issues and events that have shaped the nation. It was formally established by the National Museum of Australia Act 1980, the Museum did not have a permanent home until 11 March 2001, when a purpose-built museum building was officially opened in the national capital Canberra. The Museum profiles 50,000 years of Indigenous heritage, settlement since 1788 and key events including Federation, the Museum holds the worlds largest collection of Aboriginal bark paintings and stone tools, the heart of champion racehorse Phar Lap and the Holden prototype No.1 car. The Museum develops and travels exhibitions on subjects ranging from bushrangers to surf lifesaving, the National Museum of Australia Press publishes a wide range of books and journals. The Museums Research Centre takes an approach to history, ensuring the museum is a lively forum for ideas and debate about Australias past, present. The Museums innovative use of new technologies has been central to its international reputation in outreach programming.
From 2003 to 2008, the Museum hosted Talkback Classroom, a student political forum, the Museum is located on Acton Peninsula in the suburb of Acton, next to the Australian National University. The peninsula on Lake Burley Griffin was previously the home of the Royal Canberra Hospital, as designed by architect Howard Raggatt, the museum building is based on a theme of knotted ropes, symbolically bringing together the stories of Australians. The architects stated, We liked to think that the story of Australia was not one, not an authorized version but a puzzling confluence, not merely the resolution of difference but its wholehearted embrace. The building is meant to be the centre of a knot, the entirely non-symmetrical complex is designed to not look like a museum, with startling colours and angles, unusual spaces and unpredictable projections and textures. Though hard to categorise, the building can be seen as an example of Charles Jencks new paradigm. Some characteristics of Deconstructivism can be identified, the buildings architecture is thus meant to imply that the story of Australia is not one story, but many stories tangled together.
The Bulletin magazine first publicly raised allegations of plagiarism in June 2000, libeskind was reported to be angry with the copying. Raggatts defence against plagiarism was that the design was a rather than a copy. The director of the museum, Dawn Casey, claimed in the press that she, the exterior of the building is covered in anodised aluminium panels. Many of the panels include words written in braille and other decorative devices, among the messages are mate and shell be right. Also included were such controversial words and phrases as sorry and forgive us our genocide and these more controversial messages have been obscured with silver discs being attached to the surface making the braille illegible. Among the phrases in braille are the words Resurrection city, the phrase may refer to the clearing of the former Canberra Hospital to make way for the museum or it could be a reference to reconciliation between Indigenous Australians and European settlers
Government of Australia
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901 as a result of an agreement among six self-governing British colonies, the terms of this contract are embodied in the Australian Constitution, which was drawn up at a Constitutional Convention and ratified by the people of the colonies at referendums. Separation of powers is implied by the structure of the Constitution, the Australian system of government combines elements of the Westminster and Washington systems with unique Australian characteristics, and has been characterised as a Washminster mutation. Section 51 of the Constitution provides for the Commonwealth Governments legislative powers and allocates certain powers, all remaining responsibilities are retained by the six States. Further, each State has its own constitution, so that Australia has seven sovereign Parliaments, the High Court of Australia arbitrates on any disputes which arise between the Commonwealth and the States, or among the States, concerning their respective functions.
The Commonwealth Parliament can propose changes to the Constitution, the Commonwealth Constitution provides that the States can agree to refer any of their powers to the Commonwealth. This may be achieved by way of an amendment to the Constitution via referendum, more commonly powers may be transferred by passing other acts of legislation which authorise the transfer and such acts require the legislative agreement of all the state governments involved. This transfer legislation may have a clause, a legislative provision that nullifies the transfer of power after a specified period. In addition, Australia has several territories, two of which are self-governing, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, Australian citizens in these territories are represented by members of both houses of the Commonwealth Parliament. The territory of Norfolk Island was self-governing from 1979 until 2016, the other territories that are regularly inhabited—Jervis Bay, Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands—have never been self-governing.
The federal nature of the Commonwealth and the structure of the Parliament of Australia were the subject of protracted negotiations among the colonies during the drafting of the Constitution, the House of Representatives is elected on a basis that reflects the differing populations of the States. Thus New South Wales has 48 members while Tasmania has only five, but the Senate is elected on a basis of equality among the States, all States elect 12 Senators, regardless of population. This was intended to allow the Senators of the smaller States to form a majority, the ACT and the NT each elect two Senators. The third level of government after Commonwealth and State/Territory is Local government, in the form of shires, the Councils of these areas are composed of elected representatives, usually serving part-time. Their powers are devolved to them by the State or Territory in which they are located, with this act, Australian law was made unequivocally sovereign, and the High Court of Australia was confirmed as the highest court of appeal.
The theoretical possibility of the British Parliament enacting laws to override the Australian Constitution was removed, the Legislature makes the laws, and supervises the activities of the other two arms with a view to changing the laws when appropriate. The Australian Parliament is bicameral, consisting of the Queen of Australia, a 76-member Senate, twelve Senators from each state are elected for six-year terms, using proportional representation and the single transferable vote, with half elected every three years. In addition to the state Senators, two senators are elected by voters from the Northern Territory, while another two senators are elected by the voters of the Australian Capital Territory
HMAS Onslow was one of six Oberon-class submarines operated by the Royal Australian Navy. The submarine was named after the town of Onslow, Western Australia, ordered in 1963, Onslow was laid down at the end of 1967 by Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering Company in Scotland, launched almost a year later, and commissioned into the RAN at the end of 1968. Although never involved in war, three major incidents occurred during Onslows career, the first occurred in 1972, when a disgruntled sailor who disobeyed orders caused the submarine to dive to almost twice her safe operating depth. As a result, the RAN changed the Submarine Service from being able to conscript any sailor for submarine service to volunteer only, the second happened in 1981, when carbon monoxide fumes from one of the diesel generators filled the submarine, resulting in the death of one sailor. Although changes were made to operating procedures, the boats company was not provided with any psychological counselling. The third was a controversial line-crossing ceremony in 1995, which resulted in restrictions being placed on similar ceremonies aboard RAN vessels, Onslow was decommissioned in 1999, and was presented to the Australian National Maritime Museum, where she is preserved as a museum ship.
Onslow was one of four Oberon-class submarines ordered in 1963, the last of this group, Onslow was laid down by Scotts Shipbuilding & Engineering Co. in Greenock, Scotland on 4 December 1967. She was launched by Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy on 3 December 1968, the boat was named after the coastal town of Onslow, Western Australia, which was in turn named after Sir Alexander Onslow, the third Chief Justice of Western Australia. Onslows motto, Festina Lente, is shared with the Onslow family, although this was the only use of the name by the RAN, two surface ships of the Royal Navy have previously been named HMS Onslow. The submarine is 295.2 feet long, with a beam of 26.5 feet, at full load displacement, Onslow displaces 2,030 tons when surfaced, and 2,410 tons when submerged. These could propel the submarine at up to 12 knots on the surface, Onslow had a maximum range of 9,000 nautical miles at 12 knots, and a test depth of 200 metres below sea level. When launched, the boat had a company of 8 officers and 56 sailors, but by the time she decommissioned, in addition, up to 16 trainees could be carried.
Unlike other submarines in her class, Onslow was fitted with a four-man diver access hatch, allowing for easier deployment, the main armament of Onslow was six 21-inch bow torpedo tubes, capable of firing torpedoes or releasing sea mines. The British Mark 8 torpedo was carried by the submarine. During a refit from 1982 to 1984, Oberon became the first conventionally powered submarine in the world to be fitted with anti-ship missiles, at the same time, the Mark 23 torpedoes were replaced by the United States Mark 48 wire-guided torpedo. As of 1996, the payload of Onslow was a mix of 20 Mark 48 Mod 4 torpedoes. Some or all of the payload could be replaced by Mark 5 Stonefish sea mines. The aft tubes fired Mark 20 anti-submarine torpedoes, Onslow arrived in Sydney at the conclusion of her delivery voyage to Australia on 4 July 1970
Dulwich Hill Line
The Dulwich Hill Line, is a light rail line in Sydney, New South Wales Australia running from Central railway station through the Inner West to Dulwich Hill. The 23-stop,12. 8-kilometre route is the only light rail line in Sydney. Most of the line is built on the path of the former Metropolitan Goods railway line and maintenance of the line is contracted to the ALTRAC Light Rail consortium by Transport for New South Wales, a statutory authority of the New South Wales Government. Services on the line are operated by Transdev Sydney as a member of ALTRAC Light Rail, most of the alignment of the Dulwich Hill Line had its origins as the Metropolitan Goods railway line. From the time when the Sydney Railway Company was formed in 1848, to this end, a railway line was constructed between the Sydney Railway Station and Darling Harbour, which opened on 26 September 1855. This line was extended to Dulwich Hill via Lilyfield in 1922, a short branch from Lilyfield to Rozelle served another freight terminal.
The port closed and the area was redeveloped in the 1980s, construction and conversion of the first section of line from Central station to Wentworth Park started on 25 January 1996 and took 16 months to complete. The original route opened for operation with a limited 09,00 to 17,00 service on 11 August 1997 with three weeks of testing. The official public opening was conducted by State Premier Bob Carr on 31 August 1997, buoyed by the success of the original line, a 3. 6-kilometre, four stop extension of the route opened on 13 August 2000. This saw the light rail reach Lilyfield, which was the limit of the section of the goods line. Work to upgrade the track and remove the overhead wiring began in August 2010, the project received planning approval in February 2011. The Greenway walking and cycling path which was to run much of the route was deferred. The new government blamed hasty planning by their predecessor for the delay and cost overruns, the extension opened on 27 March 2014. A further closure will be required to install a junction between the two lines, the connection will be used by trams of the CBD and South East line to access a maintenance facility at Lilyfield.
In March 1994 the Sydney Light Rail Company was formed, the service was originally operated by TNT Transit Systems. In August 1998 Sydney Light Rails investors formed a joint venture named CGEA Transport Sydney to purchase TNT Transit Systems, the shareholders in CGEA Transport Sydney were CGEA Transport, Australian Infrastructure Fund, Utility Trust of Australia and Legal & General. Following this purchase, operations of both the rail and the monorail became subsidiaries of Metro Transport Sydney, which contracted out the day-to-day operations to Transdev. In March 2012, Metro Transport Sydney was purchased by the Government of New South Wales, the line operated without serious incident until 7 October 2013, when two trams derailed within the space of 20 minutes
Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the colonial navies were integrated into a national force. Originally intended for defence, the navy was granted the title of Royal Australian Navy in 1911. Britains Royal Navy continued to support the RAN and provided additional blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the years of World War II. Then, rapid expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels. In the decade following the war, the RAN acquired a number of aircraft carriers. Today, the RAN consists of 47 commissioned vessels,3 non-commissioned vessels, the current Chief of Navy is Vice Admiral Tim Barrett. The Commonwealth Naval Forces were established on 1 March 1901, two months after the federation of Australia, when the forces of the separate Australian colonies were amalgamated. As a result, the force structure was set at one battlecruiser. On 10 July 1911, King George V granted the service the title of Royal Australian Navy.
The first of the RANs new vessels, the destroyer Yarra, was completed in September 1910, in this time the focus of Australias naval policy shifted from defence against invasion to trade protection, and several fleet units were sunk as targets or scrapped. By 1923, the size of the navy had fallen to eight vessels, following the outbreak of the Pacific War and the virtual destruction of British naval forces in south-east Asia, the RAN operated more independently, or as part of United States Navy formations. As the navy took on a greater role, it was expanded significantly and at its height the RAN was the fourth-largest navy in the world. A total of 34 vessels were lost during the war, including three cruisers and four destroyers, after the Second World War, the size of the RAN was again reduced, but it gained new capabilities with the acquisition of two aircraft carriers and Melbourne. The RAN saw action in many Cold War–era conflicts in the Asia-Pacific region and operated alongside the Royal Navy and United States Navy off Korea and Vietnam.
Since the end of the Cold War, the RAN has been part of Coalition forces in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, operating in support of Operation Slipper and it was deployed in support of Australian peacekeeping operations in East Timor and the Solomon Islands. The strategic command structure of the RAN was overhauled during the New Generation Navy changes, the RAN is commanded through Naval Headquarters in Canberra. The professional head is the Chief of Navy, who holds the rank of Vice Admiral, NHQ is responsible for implementing policy decisions handed down from the Department of Defence and for overseeing tactical and operational issues that are the purview of the subordinate commands
Buses in Sydney
Buses account for close to six per cent of trips each day in the Australian city of Sydney, New South Wales, forming a key part of the citys public transport system. The networks are part of Transport for NSWs Opal ticketing system, each route within these six networks is assigned to one of 14 contract regions. Each of these regions is assigned to either the Government-owned bus operator, at present, State Transit holds four regions, while nine private operators hold the other 10. In 2014-15,232 million passenger journeys were made on Sydneys bus networks, at the beginning of the 20th century, Sydneys public transport network was composed of a suburban railway and inner-city trams, both operated by the New South Wales Government Railways. These were complemented by various privately operated services on Sydney Harbour and the Parramatta River. The Railways experimented with a bus service from Potts Point to Darlinghurst in 1905, but the vehicles quickly proved unsatisfactory. The citys second bus route ran from Newport, in the north of the Northern Beaches district, to Manly and this was operated by the privately owned Manly-Pittwater Motor Omnibus Company.
The company did not prosper and the business was wound up in 1908, the return of servicemen from the Great War in the late 1910s provided fresh impetus to the motor omnibus industry. Here, were thousands of men with experience working with heavy vehicles – all looking for work, in 1915, only 15 motorised buses were known to operate in Sydney. By 1929, the bus fleet numbered more than 600. A private bus industry, dominated by owner-operators and small businesses, was taking shape. The Railways were restructured, with the tram system hived off into a new Department of Road Transport & Tramways in 1932, the Department introduced its first bus service, the 144 from St Leonards to Manly, on Christmas Day of that year. Langs reforms established a structure for the bus network that was to endure for close to a century. On the one hand, the Department – forerunner to todays State Transit Authority – began to shut down its trams and build a bus network serving the inner suburbs. On the other, the heavily regulated private operators remained small-scale, but Langs draconian Transport Act held at least one benefit for the bus companies, just as the trams were protected from them, so too were they protected from new entrants to the industry.
The 144 was a service, connecting trains, trams. But the Departments focus began to shift inexorably towards building its bus network, two years later, tram services from Manly were replaced with buses. In 1948, a recommendation was handed to the Department that the network be replaced with buses
The First Fleet is the name given to the 11 ships that left England on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia. The First Fleet was commanded by Commodore Arthur Phillip, who was given instructions authorising him to make regulations, the cost to Britain of outfitting and despatching the Fleet was £84,000. Ropes, agricultural equipment and a miscellany of other stores were needed, the party had to rely on its own provisions to survive until it could make use of local materials, assuming suitable supplies existed, and grow its own food and raise livestock. Scale models of all the ships are on display at the Museum of Sydney, the models were built by ship makers Lynne and Laurie Hadley, after researching the original plans and British archives. The replicas of the Supply, Scarborough, Prince of Wales, Lady Penrhyn, Alexander, Fishburn, nine Sydney harbour ferries built in the mid-1980s are named after First Fleet vessels. The unused names are Lady Penrhyn and Prince of Wales, the people of the fleet included seamen and their families, government officials, and a large number of convicts, including women and children.
The majority were British, but there were African, the six convict transports each had a detachment of marines on board. Most of the families of the marines travelled aboard the Prince of Wales, a number of people on the First Fleet kept diaries and journals of their experiences, including the surgeons. There are twelve known journals in existence as well as some letters, the exact number of people directly associated with the First Fleet will likely never be established, as all accounts of the event vary slightly. A total of 1,420 people have identified as embarking on the First Fleet in 1787. The total number of persons embarking on the First Fleet would, therefore, be approximately 1,530 with about 1,483 reaching Sydney Cove. The Scarborough, of 418 tons, had on board 205 male convicts,1 captain,2 lieutenants,2 sergeants,2 corporals,1 drummer, and 26 privates, with 1 assistant surgeon to the colony. The Charlotte, of 346 tons, had on board 89 male and 20 female convicts,1 captain,2 lieutenants,2 sergeants,3 corporals,1 drummer, and 35 privates, with the principal surgeon of the colony.
The Lady Penrhyn, of 338 tons, had on board 101 female convicts,1 captain,2 lieutenants, and 3 privates, with a person acting as a surgeons mate. The Prince of Wales, of 334 tons, had on board 2 male and 50 female convicts,2 lieutenants,3 sergeants,2 corporals,1 drummer, and 24 privates, with the surveyor-general of the colony. The Friendship, … of 228 tons, had on board 76 male and 21 female convicts,1 captain,2 lieutenants,2 sergeants,3 corporals,1 drummer, and 36 privates, with 1 assistant surgeon to the colony. There were on board, beside these,28 women,8 male and 6 female children, belonging to the soldiers of the detachment, the Fishburn store-ship was of 378 tons, the Borrowdale of 272 tons, and the Golden Grove of 331 tons. Golden Grove carried the chaplain for the colony, with his wife, not only these store-ships, but the men of war and transports were laden with provisions, implements of agriculture, camp equipage, clothing for the convicts, etc
A museum ship, called a memorial ship, is a ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public for educational or memorial purposes. Some are used for training and recruitment purposes, mostly for the number of museum ships that are still operational. Many, if not most, museum ships are associated with a maritime museum, only a few survive, sometimes because of historical significance, but more often due to luck and circumstance. The restoration and maintenance of museum ships presents problems for historians who are asked for advice, for instance, the rigging of sailing ships has almost never survived, and so the rigging plan must be reconstructed from various sources. Studying the ships allows historians to analyze how life on and operation of the ships took place, numerous scientific papers have been written on ship restoration and maintenance, and international conferences are held discussing the latest developments. Another consideration is the distinction between a museum ship, and a ship replica.
As repairs accumulate over time and less of the ship is of the materials. Visitors without historical background are often unable to distinguish between a historical museum ship and a ship replica, which may serve solely as a tourist attraction. Typically the visitor enters via gangplank, wanders around on the deck, goes below, usually using the original stairways, giving a sense of how the crew got around. The interior features restored but inactivated equipment, enhanced with mementos including old photographs, explanatory displays, pages from the logs, menus. Some add recorded sound effects, audio tours or video displays to enhance the experience, in some cases, the ships radio room has been brought back into use, with volunteers operating amateur radio equipment. Often, the callsign assigned is a variation on the identification of the ship. For example, the submarine USS Cobia, which had the call NBQV, is now on the air as NB9QV. The World War II submarine USS Pampanito, berthed at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park, had the wartime call NJVT and is now on the air as NJ6VT, in other cases, such as the USS Missouri, a distinctive call is used.
This radio work not only helps restore part of the vessel, a number of the larger museum ships have begun to offer hosting for weddings, other events, and sleepovers, and on a few ships still seaworthy, cruises. In the United States, this includes the USS Constitutions annual turnaround, a place on the deck is by invitation or lottery only, and highly prized. Many consider the appeal of an interesting old vessel on the city waterfront strong enough that any port city should showcase one or more museum ships. This may even include building a ship at great expense
Government of New South Wales
The Government of New South Wales, referred to as the New South Wales Government or NSW Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of New South Wales, in Australia. The Government of New South Wales, a constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1856 as prescribed in its Constitution. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, New South Wales has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, under the Australian Constitution, New South Wales ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Section 109 of the Australian Constitution provides that, where a State law is inconsistent with a federal law, initially the Australian states retained significant independence. Over time, that independence has been eroded by both the proliferation of Commonwealth Law, and the increasing financial domination of the Commonwealth. New South Wales is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers.
The Governor, as representative of the Crown, is the repository of power, which is exercised by him or her on the advice of the Premier of New South Wales. The Premier and Ministers are appointed by the Governor, and hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the Legislative Assembly. In 2006, the Sesquicentenary of Responsible Government in New South Wales, the Act was assented to by the Queen on 3 April 2006. The following individuals serve as government ministers, at the pleasure of the Queen, the government ministers are listed in order of seniority, while their opposition counterparts are listed to correspond with the government ministers. All Opposition counterparts are members of the Parliament of New South Wales