The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, in addition to several national academies and institutes. Founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. A postgraduate research university, ANU commenced undergraduate teaching in 1960 when it integrated the Canberra University College, established in 1929 as a campus of the University of Melbourne. ANU employs 3,753 staff; the university's endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is regarded as one of the world's leading research universities, it is ranked 1st in Australia and the whole of Oceania, 24th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 49th in the world by the 2019 Times Higher Education. ANU was named the world's 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2017 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates' employability, ANU was ranked 21st in the world.
The university is well known for its programmes in the arts and social sciences, ranks among the best in the world for a number of disciplines including linguistics and international relations, social policy, geography. ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni; the university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU's scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online. Calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900. After the location of the nation's capital, was determined in 1908, land was set aside for the university at the foot of Black Mountain in the city designs by Walter Burley Griffin. Planning for the university was disrupted by World War II but resumed with the creation of the Department of Post-War Reconstruction in 1942 leading to the passage of the Australian National University Act 1946 by the Chifley Government on 1 August 1946.
A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock and Sir Raymond Firth. Economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANU's first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies and the John Curtin School of Medical Research; the first residents' hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the federal government in 1924, became part of ANU in 1957; the first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, opened in 1963. The Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of higher education in the national capital, having been established in 1929 and enrolling its first undergraduate pupils in 1930.
Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution and the first Solicitor-General of Australia. CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university. Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, poet A. D. Hope and economist Heinz Arndt. In 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later. Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961; the Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art combined in 1988 to form the Canberra Institute of the Arts, amalgamated with the university as the ANU Institute of the Arts in 1992. ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory.
ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope. In February 2013, financial entrepreneur and ANU graduate Graham Tuckwell made the largest university donation in Australian history by giving $50 million to fund an undergraduate scholarship program at ANU. ANU is well known for its history of student activism and, in recent years, its fossil fuel divestment campaign, one of the longest-running and most successful in the country; the decision of the ANU Council to divest from two fossil fuel companies in 2014 was criticised by ministers in the Abbott government, but defended by Vice Chancellor Ian Young, who noted:On divestment, it is clear we were in the right and played a national and international leadership role. E seem to have played a major role in a movement; as of 2014 ANU still had investments in major fossil fuel companies. A survey conducted by the Australian Human Rights Commission in 2017 found that the ANU had the second highest incidence of sexual assault and sexual harassment.
3.5 per cent of respondents from the ANU reported being sexually assaulted in 2016. Vice Chancellor
Tobacco smoking is popular and, at least for men, culturally acceptable in North Korea. As of 2014, some 45% of men are reported to smoke daily, whilst in contrast only 2.5% of women smoke daily, with most of these being older women from rural areas. Smoking is a leading cause of death in North Korea, as of 2010 mortality figures indicate that 34% of men and 22% of women die due to smoking-related causes, the highest mortality figures in the world. There are tobacco control programs in North Korea, although smoking is not prohibited in all public spaces, the smoking rates have declined since their peak in the 2000s. All three leaders of North Korea — Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il, Kim Jong-un — have been smokers and the country has struggled to balance their public image with its anti-smoking efforts. In general, North Koreans tend to prefer strong tobacco and different classes of quality range from homegrown to sought-after foreign brands that are considered status symbols; as a percentage of the available arable land compared to consumption, the tobacco crop is over-represented in North Korean agriculture.
Over 4,569,000 adults and 167,000 children in North Korea are believed to consume tobacco daily. It is estimated by the World Lung Foundation and American Cancer Society's The Tobacco Atlas that 45% of men, 2.5% of women, nearly 16% of boys and <1% of girls are daily smokers, with the average smoker smoking an average of 609 cigarettes per person per year. World Health Organization data is comparable, with 44% of men classified as smokers, whilst North Korean anti-smoking authorities put the figure higher, saying that some 54% of men are smokers. Overall, the average smoker consumes 12.4 cigarettes per day, with this figure rising to 15 per day when just male smokers are considered. The average smoker starts smoking at the age of 23 and the percentage of the population that smokes increases with age until the 55–64 age group, after which it declines. On average, people who live in urban areas tend to smoke more cigarettes per day than rural farmers. Data indicate that the prevalence of smoking in North Korea is on par with South Korea, although South Korean men pick up the habit earlier and smoke more cigarettes per day.
The high rate of smoking in South Korea is due to it being a capitalist society, where marketing is prevalent and consumption is uncontrolled. However, much of the current information regarding the smoking habits of North Koreans is obtained by studying North Korean defectors who now live in South Korea and may not be representative of the true picture. One study of defectors found that smoking is more common than anticipated, but nicotine dependence was not as severe as predicted. Defectors are reported as being interested in quitting smoking. Tobacco first arrived in Korea in the early-1600s from Japan and until around 1880, both men and women smoked. Today, North Koreans consider smoking to be a normal activity for men, but female smoking has become a social taboo. All of North Korea's three leaders—Kim Jong-un, his father Kim Jong-il and grandfather Kim Il-sung. Kim Jong-il has called smokers one of the "three main fools of the 21st century", along with people who do not understand music or computers.
The current leader Kim Jong-un is seen smoking in public, including in university classrooms, subway carriages, in the presence of his pregnant wife Ri Sol-ju, facts that "might make the life of the North Korean health educators more complicated." While discussing any negative aspects of the leaders has been rare, some North Koreans have raised the issue of the apparent contradiction between anti-smoking measures and Kim's public image with foreigners. Female smoking is a taboo in North Korea and is considered more disgraceful than heavy drinking. Women are said to "react with shock if you joke that maybe they secretly smoke in bathrooms". Smoking by older women, above the age of 45 to 50 is more tolerated in rural areas. In comparison, for men smoking is considered such an important social activity that men who do not smoke can become isolated at workplaces. Though most consumer items are in short supply in North Korea, there is a considerable variety of cigarettes available. In general, strong tobacco is preferred, filters are rare.
Western brands American, but Chinese and Japanese are popular with the elite and preferred over domestic cigarettes. Foreign cigarettes and the domestic 727 brand, whose name stands for 27 July, the date of the Korean Armistice Agreement. Menthol cigarettes are non-existent, but there is competition among tobacco companies to introduce other attractive products, such as fruit-flavored balls inside the filter to give the cigarette a more distinct flavour; those who have hard currency can buy imported cigarettes from hard currency shops, although these will stock the best domestic brands to convince tourists of the quality of North Korean tobacco. Cigarettes are popular gifts, tourists are recommended to give Western brands of cigarettes to tour guides. Within the country, cigarettes are used as form of currency in bribery; those who roll their own tobacco prefer to use sheets of Rodong Sinmun—the organ of the Central Committee of the ruling Workers' Party of Korea—as rolling paper. One piece of the paper can be used to roll some 40–50 cigarettes.
Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn was a Swedish physicist. Siegbahn was born in Lund, son of Manne Siegbahn the 1924 physics Nobel Prize winner. Siegbahn earned his doctorate at the University of Stockholm in 1944, he was professor at the Royal Institute of Technology 1951–1954, professor of experimental physics at Uppsala University 1954–1984, the same chair his father had held. He shared the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics with Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur Schawlow for their work in laser spectroscopy. Siegbahn obtained the Nobel Prize for developing the method of Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, now described as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At the time of his death he was still active as a scientist at the Ångström Laboratory at Uppsala University. Kai Siegbahn was one of the original editors of the Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry Kai M. Siegbahn – Curriculum Vitae at nobelprize.org Nobel Lecture, December 8, 1981