Austrian Crown Jewels

The Austrian Crown Jewels is the regalia and vestments worn by the Holy Roman Emperor, by the Emperor of Austria, during the coronation ceremony and other state functions. The term refers to the following objects: the crowns, orbs, rings, holy relics, the royal robes, as well as several other objects connected with the ceremony; the collection dates from the 10th to the 19th centuries and reflects more than a thousand years of European history. It is kept at the Imperial Treasury in the Hofburg Palace in Austria; the most outstanding objects are the insignia of the hereditary Empire of Austria. They consist of the Imperial Crown, the Imperial Orb and Sceptre, the mantle of the Austrian Empire, the Coronation Robes of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia; the Imperial Crown, Orb and Holy Lance of the Holy Roman Empire are highlights. The first five parts are called the Weltliche Schatzkammer and the ecclesiastical part the Geistliche Schatzkammer; the Schatzkammer is under the administration of the Kunsthistorisches Museum.

Austria began as a small march and was elevated to a duchy archduchy. The house of Babenberg and the Habsburg dynasty were the margraves and archdukes of this fiefdom. After the death of the last Babenberg duke, Frederick II in 1246, King Ottokar II of Bohemia took over for a while, he was, defeated by the King of the Romans Rudolf of Habsburg in 1278, with the help of his sons Albert and Rudolf. Rudolf installed his son Albert as Duke of Austria; the enthronement ceremony of the new Archduke of Austria was not an actual coronation, but more a ceremony of homage by the estates. In the German language, this ceremony is called the Erbhuldigung; the estates in parliament swore obedience to their new ruler, he in turn guaranteed their rights and upheld their privileges. However, in this ceremony sovereign insignia were used; the Insignia consist of the Austrian archducal hat or archducal coronet, made for Joseph II's entry into Frankfurt for his coronation as King of the Romans in 1764. The orb and the sceptre were in use as the royal insignia of the Kingdom of Bohemia until the early 17th century.

The archducal hat is kept today at the Klosterneuburg Monastery in Lower Austria. Please see archducal hat for further information; the ducal hat of Styria is kept at the Landesmuseum Joanneum in Styria. Among the most important regalia of the Austrian Empire are the following: The Crown of Rudolf II Crown of the Austrian Empire, it is made of pure gold enamelled and studded with diamonds, spinel rubies, sapphires and cushioned with velvet. The crown and the insignia of the Holy Roman Empire were kept at Nürnberg and were used only for coronation ceremonies. For all other occasions the emperors had to commission personal crowns, which have survived only in illustrations; this crown was the personal crown of emperor Rudolf II. It is one of the most important works of the European goldsmith's art. Luckily this personal crown was spared the fate of many other crowns and not broken up after the death of the emperor in 1612; the Rudolphian crown has three distinct, principal elements, which symbolise the right to rule: the circlet with its fleur-de-lis mounts in the shape of a royal crown, the high arch descending from the imperial crown, the golden mitre symbolising the divine right of the emperor to rule.

The pearls run in rows like lights. The crown is topped by a bluish-green emerald. In the four spherical triangles of the golden mitre, Rudolf is depicted in his four principal offices and titles: as victor over the Turks, his coronation as Holy Roman emperor in Regensburg, his ride up the coronation hill after his coronation as king of Hungary in Pozsony, his procession at his coronation as king of Bohemia in Prague; the inscription inside the arch reads: RVDOLPHVS II ROM IMP AVGVSTUS HVNG ET BOH REX CONSTRVXIT MDCII. The choice and number of the stones used have mystical significance. Eight diamonds decorate the crown: eight is a holy number referring to the octagonal body of the imperial crown. Under threat from Napoleon, emperor Francis II dissolved the thousand-year old Holy Roman Empire and proclaimed the Austrian Empire on August 11, 1804, he did not use the crown of the Holy Roman Empire but the old crown of Rudolf II as the crown of the new empire. For more detailed information, see Imperial Crown of Austria.

The Imperial Orb and Sceptre were commissioned by emperor Matthias, the successor to Rudolf II. Both insignia were made out of the same material as the crown, followed the same concept, they are partially enameled, studded with rubies and pearls. The Mantle of the Austrian Empire was commissioned by emperor Francis I for the coronation of his son, Ferdinand, as younger King of Hungary; the mantle is made out of red velvet and white silk, pranked with a gold-embroidered scatter pattern formed of double eagles with the Austrian arms. The border is decorated with laurel leaves; the Coronation Robes of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (also designed by Philipp von Stubenrauch and executed by J

Hof, Innlandet

Hof is a parish located in the municipality of Åsnes municipality, Innlandet County, Norway. The parish of Hof consisted of the three existing sub-parishes: Hof church, Hof Finnskog church and Arneberg church, it had included the parishes Åsnes and Våler until 1848, when these parishes were separated out to form Åsnes clerical district. The parish was established as a municipality January 1, 1838. Åsnes og Våler was separated from Hof to constitute a separate municipality in 1849. The split left Hof with a population of 2,913. On 1 January 1963 Hof was incorporated into the municipality of Åsnes. Prior to the merger Hof had a population of 3,222. On 1 January 1969 the district Rotberget, a part of Hof until 1963, was moved to Grue municipality. Hof is located in the traditional district of Solør. Hof is bordered by Grue in the south, Asnes in the north, Våler, Nord-Odal and Stange in the west and Sweden in the east; the municipality was named after the old farm Hof. The name is identical with the word hof, "temple".

Dag Jukvam / Statistics Norway. "Historisk oversikt over endringer i kommune- og fylkesinndelingen"

Tecticornia arbuscula

Tecticornia arbuscula, the shrubby glasswort or scrubby samphire, is a species of plant in the family Amaranthaceae, native to Australia. It is a shrub that grows with a spreading habit, it has succulent swollen branchlets with small leaf lobes. The species occurs on shorelines in coastal or estuarine areas or in salt marshes marshes subject to occasional inundation by the ocean, it has a patchy distribution across south coastal Australia, occurring in southern Western Australia, South Australia, New South Wales and Tasmania. Seeds of the species are enclosed in a hard, vaguely pyramid-shaped pericarp which reveal 1.5 mm long, narrow seeds. These seeds appear as golden brown and unornamented. Published by Robert Brown under the name Salicornia arbuscula, it was transferred into Sclerostegia by Paul G. Wilson in 1980, before being merged into Tecticornia in 2007