Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera. Bats are more manoeuvrable than birds, flying with their long spread-out digits covered with a thin membrane or patagium; the smallest bat, arguably the smallest extant mammal, is Kitti's hog-nosed bat, 29–34 mm in length, 15 cm across the wings and 2–2.6 g in mass. The largest bats are the flying foxes and the giant golden-crowned flying fox, Acerodon jubatus, which can weigh 1.6 kg and have a wingspan of 1.7 m. The second largest order of mammals, bats comprise about 20% of all classified mammal species worldwide, with over 1,200 species; these were traditionally divided into two suborders: the fruit-eating megabats, the echolocating microbats. But more recent evidence has supported dividing the order into Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, with megabats as members of the former along with several species of microbats. Many bats are insectivores, most of the rest are frugivores. A few species feed on animals other than insects. Most bats are nocturnal, many roost in caves or other refuges.
Bats are present throughout the world, with the exception of cold regions. They are important in their ecosystems for dispersing seeds. Bats provide humans at the cost of some threats. Bat dung has been used as fertiliser. Bats consume insect pests, they are sometimes numerous enough to serve as tourist attractions, are used as food across Asia and the Pacific Rim. They are natural reservoirs such as rabies. In many cultures, bats are popularly associated with darkness, witchcraft and death. An older English name for bats is flittermouse, which matches their name in other Germanic languages, related to the fluttering of wings. Middle English had bakke, most cognate with Old Swedish natbakka, which may have undergone a shift from -k- to -t- influenced by Latin blatta, "moth, nocturnal insect"; the word "bat" was first used in the early 1570s. The name "Chiroptera" derives from Ancient Greek: χείρ – cheir, "hand" and πτερόν – pteron, "wing"; the delicate skeletons of bats do not fossilise well, it is estimated that only 12% of bat genera that lived have been found in the fossil record.
Most of the oldest known bat fossils were very similar to modern microbats, such as Archaeopteropus. The extinct bats Palaeochiropteryx tupaiodon and Hassianycteris kumari are the first fossil mammals whose colouration has been discovered: both were reddish-brown. Bats were grouped in the superorder Archonta, along with the treeshrews and primates. Modern genetic evidence now places bats in the superorder Laurasiatheria, with its sister taxon as Fereuungulata, which includes carnivorans, odd-toed ungulates, even-toed ungulates, cetaceans. One study places Chiroptera as a sister taxon to odd-toed ungulates; the phylogenetic relationships of the different groups of bats have been the subject of much debate. The traditional subdivision into Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera reflected the view that these groups of bats had evolved independently of each other for a long time, from a common ancestor capable of flight; this hypothesis recognised differences between microbats and megabats and acknowledged that flight has only evolved once in mammals.
Most molecular biological evidence supports the view that bats form a monophyletic group. Genetic evidence indicates that megabats originated during the early Eocene, belong within the four major lines of microbats. Two new suborders have been proposed. Yangochiroptera includes the other families of a conclusion supported by a 2005 DNA study. A 2013 phylogenomic study supported the two new proposed suborders. In the 1980s, a hypothesis based on morphological evidence stated the Megachiroptera evolved flight separately from the Microchiroptera; the flying primate hypothesis proposed that, when adaptations to flight are removed, the Megachiroptera are allied to primates by anatomical features not shared with Microchiroptera. For example, the brains of megabats have advanced characteristics. Although recent genetic studies support the monophyly of bats, debate continues about the meaning of the genetic and morphological evidence; the 2003 discovery of an early fossil bat from the 52 million year old Green River Formation, Onychonycteris finneyi, indicates that flight evolved before echolocative abilities.
Onychonycteris had claws on all five of its fingers, whereas modern bats have at most two claws on two digits of each hand. It had longer hind legs and shorter forearms, similar to climbing mammals that hang under branches, such as sloths and gibbons; this palm-sized bat had short, broad wings, suggesting that it could not fly as fast or as far as bat species. Instead of flapping its wings continuously while flying, Onychonycteris alternated between flaps and
Religion in Austria
Christianity is the predominant religion in Austria. At the 2001 census, 73.6% of the country's population was Catholic. As of 2018, the number of Catholics has dropped to 56.9% of the population, according to data provided by the Austrian Catholic Church itself. There is a much smaller group of Evangelicals, totalling about 4.7% of the population in 2001, shrunk to 3.3% in 2018. Since 2001, these two dominant religious groups in Austria recorded losses in the number of adherents; the Catholic Church reported an absolute drop of 15.7%, the Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed churches of 1.3%. In relative numbers the losses of the smaller Evangelical churches account for 33.7%, compared to Catholic losses which account for 21.9%, since their maximum in 1971. In contrast, due to immigration, the number of Muslims in Austria has increased in recent years, with 4.2% of the population calling themselves Muslim in 2001, up to around 5% to 6.2% in 2010, to 7.9% in 2016 - represented by immigrants from Turkey and the Balkans.
Eastern Orthodox churches have grown in recent years due to immigration of Serbs from the former Yugoslavia and Romanians. There are minor communities of Hindus, Sikhs and Jews, other religions in Austria; the Protestant Reformation spread from northern Germany to Austria. By the Council of Trent in 1545 half of the Austrian population had converted to Lutheranism, while a minority endorsed Calvinism. Eastern Austria was more affected by this phenomenon than western Austria. After 1545, Austria was recatholicized in the Counter Reformation; the Habsburgs imposed a strict regime to restore the influence of the Catholic Church among Austrians and their campaign proved successful. The Habsburgs for a long time viewed themselves as the vanguard of Catholicism, while all the other Christian confessions and religions were repressed. In 1775, Maria Theresa gave official permission to the Mechitarist Congregation of the Armenian Catholic Church to settle in the Habsburg Empire. In 1781, in the era of Austrian enlightenment, Emperor Joseph II issued a Patent of Tolerance for Austria that allowed other confessions a limited freedom of worship.
Religious freedom was declared a constitutional right in Cisleithania after the Austro-Hungarian Ausgleich in 1867 thus paying tribute to the fact that the monarchy was home of numerous religions beside Catholicism such as Greek, Romanian and Bulgarian Orthodox Christians, both Calvinist and Lutheran Protestants, Jews. In 1912, after the annexation of Bosnia Hercegovina in 1908, Islam was recognised in Austria; the Austrian Jewish community of 1938—Vienna alone counted more than 200,000—was reduced to around 4,500 during the Second World War, with about 65,000 Jewish Austrians killed in the Holocaust and 130,000 emigrating. The large majority of the current Jewish population are post-war immigrants from eastern Europe and central Asia. Buddhism was recognised as a religion in Austria in 1983. Austria was affected by the Protestant Reformation, to a point where a significant part of the population became Protestant. Lutheranism was the most successful Protestant confession. Calvinism did not receive that much support.
The prominent position of the Habsburgs in the Counter-Reformation, saw Protestantism all but wiped out beginning in 1545, restoring Catholicism as the dominant religion once more. The significant Jewish population residing in Vienna, was reduced to just a couple of thousand through mass emigration in 1938, the following Holocaust during the Nazi period. Immigration in more recent years from Turkey and the former Yugoslavia, has led to an increased number of Muslims and Serbian Orthodox Christians; as in other European countries, there has been a growth of Pagan movements in Austria in recent years. Catholicism is the largest religion in Austria, representing 57.9% of the total population in 2017. The Catholic Church's governing body in Austria is the Austrian Conference of Catholic Bishops, made up of the hierarchy of the two archbishops, the bishops and the abbot of territorial abbey of Wettingen-Mehrerau; each bishop is independent in his own diocese, answerable only to the Pope. The current president of the Conference of Catholic Bishops is Cardinal Christoph Schönborn.
Schönborn belongs to the Central European noble family of Schönborn. Although Austria has no primate, the archbishop of Salzburg is titled Primus Germaniae; the organization Call to Disobedience is an Austrian movement composed of dissident Catholic priests which started in 2006. The movement claims the support of the majority of Austrian Catholic priests and favors ordination of women and non-celibate priesthood, allowing Holy Communion to remarried divorcees and non-Catholics in contrast to teachings of the Catholic Magisterium. Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches grew over the last decades due to the coming of South Slavic immigrants from the Balkans to Austria; the largest group of Eastern Orthodox in Austria are Serbs. The Vienna Institute of Demography of the Austrian Academy of Sciences estimated in that there were 397,219 Eastern Orthodox Christians in Austria in 2016, representing the 4.6% of the total population. The Protestant Reformation spread from northern Germany to Austria.
By the Council of Trent in 1545 half of the A
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe. It is said to occupy continuous territory that are otherwise conventionally Western Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe; the concept of Central Europe is based on a common historical and cultural identity. Central Europe is going through a phase of "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the CEI, Centrope and the Visegrád Four. While the region's economy shows high disparities with regard to income, all Central European countries are listed by the Human Development Index as highly developed. Elements of unity for Western and Central Europe were Latin; however Eastern Europe, which remained Eastern Orthodox, was the area of Graeco-Byzantine cultural influence. According to Hungarian historian Jenő Szűcs, foundations of Central European history at the first millennium were in close connection with Western European development, he explained that between the 11th and 15th centuries not only Christianization and its cultural consequences were implemented, but well-defined social features emerged in Central Europe based on Western characteristics.
The keyword of Western social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe. These phenomena appeared in the middle of the 13th century in Central European countries. There were self-governments of towns and parliaments. In 1335, under the rule of the King Charles I of Hungary, the castle of Visegrád, the seat of the Hungarian monarchs was the scene of the royal summit of the Kings of Poland and Hungary, they agreed to cooperate in the field of politics and commerce, inspiring their post-Cold War successors to launch a successful Central European initiative. In the Middle Ages, countries in Central Europe adopted Magdeburg rights. Before 1870, the industrialization that had developed in Western and Central Europe and the United States did not extend in any significant way to the rest of the world. In Eastern Europe, industrialization lagged far behind. Russia, for example, remained rural and agricultural, its autocratic rulers kept the peasants in serfdom.
The concept of Central Europe was known at the beginning of the 19th century, but its real life began in the 20th century and became an object of intensive interest. However, the first concept mixed science and economy – it was connected with intensively growing German economy and its aspirations to dominate a part of European continent called Mitteleuropa; the German term denoting Central Europe was so fashionable that other languages started referring to it when indicating territories from Rhine to Vistula, or Dnieper, from the Baltic Sea to the Balkans. An example of that-time vision of Central Europe may be seen in J. Partsch's book of 1903. On 21 January 1904, Mitteleuropäischer Wirtschaftsverein was established in Berlin with economic integration of Germany and Austria–Hungary as its main aim. Another time, the term Central Europe became connected to the German plans of political and cultural domination; the "bible" of the concept was Friedrich Naumann's book Mitteleuropa in which he called for an economic federation to be established after the war.
Naumann's idea was that the federation would have at its centre Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire but would include all European nations outside the Anglo-French alliance, on one side, Russia, on the other. The concept failed after the German defeat in the dissolution of Austria -- Hungary; the revival of the idea may be observed during the Hitler era. According to Emmanuel de Martonne, in 1927 the Central European countries included: Austria, Germany, Poland and Switzerland; the author use both Human and Physical Geographical features to define Central Europe, but he doesn't care about the legal development, the social, economic, infrastructural developments in these countries. The interwar period brought new geopolitical system and economic and political problems, the concept of Central Europe took a different character; the centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have appeared on the map of Europe: Czechoslovakia and Poland. Central Europe ceased to be the area of German aspiration to lead or dominate and became a territory of various integration movements aiming at resolving political and national problems of "new" states, being a way to face German and Soviet pressures.
However, the conflict of interests was too big and neither Little Entente nor Intermarium ideas succeeded. The interwar period brought new elements to the concept of Central Europe. Before World War I, it embraced German states, non-German territories being an area of intended German penetration and domination – German leadership position was to be the natural result of economic dominance. After the war, the Eastern part of Central Europe was placed at the centre of the concept. At that time the scientists took an interest in the idea: the International Historical Congress in Brussels in 1923 was committed to Central Europe, the 1933 Congress continued the discussions. Hungarian scholar Magda Adam wrote in her study Versailles System and Central Europe: "Today we know that the bane of Central Europe was the Little Entente, military alliance of Czechoslovakia and Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes (later Yu
Chicken as food
Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world. Owing to the relative ease and low cost of raising them in comparison to animals such as cattle or hogs, chickens have become prevalent throughout the cuisine of cultures around the world, their meat has been variously adapted to regional tastes. Chicken can be prepared in a vast range of ways, including baking, barbecuing and boiling, among many others, depending on its purpose. Since the latter half of the 20th century, prepared chicken has become a staple of fast food. Chicken is sometimes cited as being more healthful than red meat, with lower concentrations of cholesterol and saturated fat; the poultry farming industry that accounts for chicken production takes on a range of forms across different parts of the world. In developed countries, chickens are subject to intensive farming methods, while less-developed areas raise chickens using more traditional farming techniques; the United Nations estimates there to be 19 billion chickens on Earth today, making them outnumber humans more than two to one.
The modern chicken is a descendant of red junglefowl hybrids along with the grey junglefowl first raised thousands of years ago in the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Chicken as a meat has been depicted in Babylonian carvings from around 600 BC. Chicken was one of the most common meats available in the Middle Ages. For thousands of years, a number of different kinds of chicken have been eaten across most of the Eastern hemisphere, including capons and hens, it was one of the basic ingredients in blancmange, a stew consisting of chicken and fried onions cooked in milk and seasoned with spices and sugar. In the United States in the 1800s, chicken was more expensive than other meats and it was "sought by the rich because so costly as to be an uncommon dish." Chicken consumption in the U. S. increased during World War II due to a shortage of pork. In Europe, consumption of chicken overtook that of beef and veal in 1996, linked to consumer awareness of Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Modern varieties of chicken such as the Cornish Cross, are bred for meat production, with an emphasis placed on the ratio of feed to meat produced by the animal.
The most common breeds of chicken consumed in the U. S. are White Rock. Chickens raised for food are called broilers. In the U. S. broilers are butchered at a young age. Modern Cornish Cross hybrids, for example, are butchered as early as 8 weeks for fryers and 12 weeks for roasting birds. Capons produce fattier meat. For this reason, they are considered a delicacy and were popular in the Middle Ages. Main Breast: These are white meat and are dry. Leg: Comprises two segments: The "drumstick". Wing: Often served as a light meal or bar food. Buffalo wings are a typical example. Comprises three segments: the "drumette", shaped like a small drumstick, this is white meat, the middle "flat" segment, containing two bones, the tip discarded. Other Chicken feet: These contain little meat, are eaten for the skin and cartilage. Although considered exotic in Western cuisine, the feet are common fare in other cuisines in the Caribbean and China. Giblets: organs such as the heart and liver may be included inside a butchered chicken or sold separately.
Head: Considered a delicacy in China, the head is split down the middle, the brains and other tissue is eaten. Kidneys: Normally left in when a broiler carcass is processed, they are found in deep pockets on each side of the vertebral column. Neck: This is served in various Asian dishes, it is stuffed to make helzel among Ashkenazi Jews. Oysters: Located on the back, near the thigh, these small, round pieces of dark meat are considered to be a delicacy. Pygostyle and testicles: These are eaten in East Asia and some parts of South East Asia. By-products Blood: Immediately after slaughter, blood may be drained into a receptacle, used in various products. In many Asian countries, the blood is poured into low, cylindrical forms, left to congeal into disc-like cakes for sale; these are cut into cubes, used in soup dishes. Carcass: After the removal of the flesh, this is used for soup stock. Chicken eggs: The most well-known and well-consumed byproduct. Heart and gizzard: in Brazilian churrascos, chicken hearts are an seen delicacy.
Liver: This is the largest organ of the chicken, is used in such dishes as Pâté and chopped liver. Schmaltz: This is produced by rendering the fat, is used in various dishes. Chicken meat contains about two to three times as much polyunsaturated fat as most types of red meat when measured as weight percentage. Chicken includes low fat in the meat itself; the fat is concentrated on the skin. A 100g serving of baked chicken breast contains 4 grams of fat and 31 grams of protein, compared to 10 grams of fat and 27 grams of protein for the same portion of broiled, lean skirt steak. In factory farming, chickens are administered with the feed additive Roxarsone, an organoarsenic compound which decomposes into inorganic arsenic compounded in the flesh of chickens, in their feces, which are used as a fertilizer; the compound is used to promote growth. In a 2013 sample conducted by the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health of chicken meat from poultry producers that did not prohibit roxarsone, 70% of the samples in the US had levels which exceeded the safety limits as set by the FDA.
The FDA has since revi
Pre-Christian Alpine traditions
The central and eastern Alps of Europe are rich in folklore traditions dating back to pre-Christian times, with surviving elements originating from Germanic, Gaulish and Raetian culture. Ancient customs survived in the rural parts of Austria, Bavaria, Slovenia and northern Croatia and north eastern Italy in the form of dance, processions and games; the high regional diversity results from the mutual isolation of Alpine communities. In the Alps, the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and paganism has been an ambivalent one. While some customs survived only in the remote valleys inaccessible to the church's influence, other customs were assimilated over the centuries. In light of the dwindling rural population of the Alps, many customs have evolved into more modern interpretations. Around September 8, the feast of the Nativity of Mary, it is customary to bring the cattle down from the upland pastures for the winter. In Bavaria, women weave fir wreaths decorated with paper roses and small mirrors to ward off demons during the downhill journey.
It has been suggested that this derives from end-of-summer festivals in honor of the Germanic goddess Iðunn. The word Krampus originates from the Old High German word for claw. In the Alpine regions, the Krampus is a mythical horned figure represented as accompanying Saint Nicholas. Krampus acts as an anti–Saint Nicholas, instead of giving gifts to good children, gives warnings and punishments to the bad children. Traditionally, young men dress up as the Krampus in the first two weeks of December in the evening of December 5, roam the streets frightening children and women with rusty chains and bells; this figure is believed to originate from stories of house spirits such as elves. The word Perchten referred to the female masks representing the entourage of an ancient goddess, Frau Perchta, or Pehta Baba as it is known in Slovenia; some claim a connection to the Nordic goddess Freyja. Traditionally, the masks were displayed in processions during the last week of December and first week of January, on January 6.
The costume consists of white sheep's skin. In recent times Krampus and Perchten have been displayed in a single event, leading to a loss of distinction of the two. Perchten are associated with the embodiment of fate and the souls of the dead; the name originates from the Old High German word peraht. Sometimes, der Teufel is viewed to be the most schiach Percht and Frau Perchta to be the most schön Perchtin. Chalandamarz is an ancient festival celebrated by the Romansh speaking part of the Swiss Canton Graubünden, it marks the end of winter and the arrival of spring. Its object is to scare away the evil spirits of wake up the good spirits of spring; the Badalisc is a "good" mythological animal who lives in the woods of Andrista, in Val Camonica, Italy. During an annual town festival someone dresses up as the creature and is "captured" and brought to the town; the animal is made to tell the people of the town gossip. At the end of the festival the creature is released until the next year's ceremony.
Wenn die Hexen umgehen, Claudia Lagler, 5 January 1999, Die Presse, Swiss neopagan site focussing on pre-Christian Alpine traditions Swiss legends and Austrian legends on Sagen.at
Sport in Austria
Sport is practiced in Austria both in professional and amateur competitions. The most popular sports are alpine skiing and ice hockey. Due to the mountainous terrain, alpine skiing is a prominent sport in Austria. Similar sports such as snowboarding and ski jumping are widely popular, Austrian athletes such as Annemarie Moser-Pröll, Hermann Maier, Toni Sailer and Marcel Hirscher are regarded as some of the greatest alpine skiers of all time. Austria has been the number one nation in alpine skiing and leading nation in ski jumping in the Winter Olympics, FIS Alpine World Ski Championships and FIS Ski Jumping World Cup. At the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2011, it took all five ski jumping gold medals; as of 2001, about a third of the 230 Olympic medals, won by Austrian sportspeople had been awarded in alpine skiing, another 30 percent had been won in other winter sports, whilst a quarter of all golds at the Alpine Skiing World Championships had been won by Austrians. The Winter Olympics were held in the town of Innsbruck in the years of 1964 and 1976.
Success at the elite level helps to promote ski tourism and related industries: ski tourism and equipment manufacturing account for five percent of the country's gross national product, with half of the world's alpine skis being made in Austria. Around 40 percent of the Austrian population takes part in alpine skiing. There are 12 professional ice hockey teams in the Austrian Hockey League, which features one team each team from the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia. A popular team sport in Austria is association football, governed by the Austrian Football Association. Austria was once among the most successful football playing nations on the European continent, placing fourth at the 1934 FIFA World Cup, third at the 1954 FIFA World Cup, seventh at the 1978 FIFA World Cup; however Austria has been much less internationally successful in this discipline. Austria co-hosted the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship with Switzerland; the country's prime basketball league is the Österreichische Basketball Bundesliga.
Several of its teams have participated in European competitions. Until the late 70s, Austria was one of Europe's main teams as it qualified for the EuroBasket six times. Since the team declined despite occasional strong showings at EuroBasket qualification games; the most prominent Austrian basketball player today is Jakob Pöltl, who became the country's first NBA player in the 2016–17 season after having been selected by the Toronto Raptors in the first round of the 2016 NBA draft. Bobsleigh and skeleton are popular events, with a permanent track located in Igls, which hosted bobsleigh and luge competitions for the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics held in Innsbruck; the first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012 were held in Innsbruck as well. Motorsport is the third most popular spectator sport in Austria, after football; the Austrian Grand Prix is a Formula One race held in 1963, 1964, from 1970 to 1987, from 1997 to 2003 and since 2014. Several Austrian drivers have competed in Formula One. Niki Lauda is a three-time champion and seventh winningest driver with 25.
Jochen Rindt was crowned 1970 champion, after being killed in practice for a race. Gerhard Berger ranked third in 1988 and 1994, has collected 10 wins and 48 podiums; the top two motorsport venues are Salzburgring. The former hosted the Austrian Grand Prix, the Austrian motorcycle Grand Prix, the 1000 km Zeltweg endurance sports car race; the latter has held the Austrian motorcycle Grand Prix, the Superbike World Championship, the European Formula Two Championship, top German series such as the Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft and the Super Tourenwagen Cup. Austria is an active member of the WDSF and hosts many annual competitions such as Austrian Open and world championships. Austrian dance athletes are noticeable in the world. Florian Gschaider and Manuela Stoeckl were amateur world ten-dance semifinalists in 2003 in Vancouver Vadim Garbuzov and Kathrin Menzinger are Austrian ballroom dancers and showmen. In 2015 they became world champions in Latin world show champions in Standard show. Popularizing DanceSport, Austrian television holds annual Dancing Stars show that enjoys its 9th season as of 2014.
The Austrian Football League is the top level of american football in Austria founded in 1984, being considered one of the better leagues in Europe Austria at the Olympics Media related to Sports in Austria at Wikimedia Commons