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Austronesian peoples

The Austronesian peoples, or more Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan, Island Southeast Asia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia and Madagascar, that speak the Austronesian languages. The nations and territories predominantly populated by Austronesian-speaking peoples are sometimes known collectively as Austronesia. Based on the current scientific consensus, they originate from a prehistoric seaborne migration from Taiwan, at around 3000 to 1500 BCE, known as the Austronesian expansion. Austronesians were the first people to invent maritime sailing technology which enabled their rapid dispersal into the islands of the Indo-Pacific, they assimilated the earlier Paleolithic Australo-Melanesian Negrito, Orang Asli, Papuan populations in the islands at varying levels of admixture. They reached as far as Rapa Nui and New Zealand at their furthest extent also reaching the Americas, they were the most widespread group of peoples with shared linguistic ancestry prior to the colonial era.

Aside from language, Austronesian peoples share—to a varying degree—common cultural characteristics including widespread traditions and technologies like tattooing, stilt houses, jade carving, wetland agriculture, various rock art motifs. They share a common set of domesticated plants and animals that were carried along with the migrations, including rice, coconuts, Dioscorea yams, paper mulberry, chickens and dogs; the linguistic connections between Madagascar and Southeast Asia were recognized early in the colonial era by European authors the remarkable similarities between Malagasy and Polynesian numerals. The first formal publications on these relationships was in 1708 by the Dutch Orientalist Adriaan Reland, who recognized a "common language" from Madagascar to western Polynesia; the Spanish philologist Lorenzo Hervás y Panduro devoted a large part of his Idea dell' Universo to the establishment of a language family linking the Malaysian Peninsula, the Maldives, the Sunda Islands, the Philippines, the Pacific Islands eastward to Easter Island.

Multiple other authors corroborated this classification, the language family came to be known as "Malayo-Polynesian," first coined by the German linguist Franz Bopp in 1841. The term "Malayo-Polynesian" was first used in English by the British ethnologist James Cowles Prichard in 1842 to refer to a historical racial category equivalent to the Austronesian peoples today, not to the language family. However, the Malayo-Polynesian language family excluded Melanesia and Micronesia, due to what they perceived were marked physical differences between the inhabitants of these regions from the Malayo-Polynesian speakers. However, there was growing evidence of their linguistic relationship to Malayo-Polynesian languages, notably from studies on the Melanesian languages by Georg von der Gabelentz, Robert Henry Codrington and Sidney Herbert Ray. Codrington coined and used the term "Ocean" language family rather than "Malayo-Polynesian" in 1891, in opposition to the exclusion of Melanesian and Micronesian languages.

This was adopted by Ray who defined the "Oceanic" language family as encompassing the languages of Southeast Asia and Madagascar, Micronesia and Polynesia. In 1899, the Austrian linguist and ethnologist Wilhelm Schmidt coined the term "Austronesian" to refer to the language family. Schmidt had the same motivations as Codrington, he proposed the term as a replacement to "Malayo-Polynesian", because he opposed the implied exclusion of the languages of Melanesia and Micronesia in the latter name. It became the accepted name for the language family, with Oceanic and Malayo-Polynesian languages being retained as names for subgroups; the term "Austronesian", or more "Austronesian-speaking peoples", came to refer the people who speak the languages of the Austronesian language family. Some authors, object to the use of the term to refer to people, as they question whether there is any biological or cultural shared ancestry between all Austronesian-speaking groups; this is true for authors who reject the prevailing "Out of Taiwan" hypothesis and instead offer scenarios where the Austronesian languages spread among preexisting static populations through borrowing or convergence, with little or no population movements.

Despite these objections, the general consensus is that the archeological, cultural and linguistic evidence all separately indicate varying degrees of shared ancestry among Austronesian-speaking peoples that justifies their treatment as a "phylogenetic unit." This has led to the use of the term "Austronesian" in academic literature to refer not only to the Austronesian languages, but the Austronesian-speaking peoples, their societies, the geographic area of Austronesia. Serious research into the Austronesian languages and its speakers has been ongoing since the 19th century. Modern scholarship on Austronesian dispersion models is credited to two influential papers in the late 20th century: The Colonisation of the Pacific: A Genetic Trail, The Austrone

Pinguicula filifolia

Pinguicula filifolia, is a carnivorous species of plant found predominantly in western Cuba and some of the neighboring regions. It was discovered by Charles Wright in 1866, it is a tropical plant that uses sticky secretions on its leaves to catch small insects and other plant debris to help supplement its own nutrition. It thrives in swamp like white sand savannahs with high temperatures and humidity. Pinguicula filifolia covers a more broad ecological area than all other Pinguicula in the Archipelago, they range from the Pinar del Rio province in the island of Cuba to the island of Isla de la Juventud. These two areas are separated by the sea. P. filifolia appears only at low altitudes in part due to its affinity to coastal areas, but unlike some of the other Pinguicula species in the immediate area it does not appear in the higher elevations. Pinguicula filifolia grows in full sun to light shade in a mild soil alkalinity ranging between 7.6 and 7.8. Filifolia thrives in wet soil and flourishes in white sand savannahs and warm temperatures around 30 degrees celsius.

The plant prefers high levels of humidity, up to 70%, experiences much of its growth in the rainy seasons that last between May and November. In addition the plant must tolerate a dry season that lasts between April, they thrive near other endemic species due to the partial shade. Pinguicula filifolia faces few threats due to its location being so coastal. However, some believe that if the area were to be farmed more P. filifolia may face threats in the Pinar del Rio colonies. Pinguicula filifolia has leaves that are 4–6 mm long and 1-1.5 mm in width with flat or sub-erect leaves while seedlings. These blades arise from rosettes. A single rosette has 4-6 blades sprouting from it; as Pinguicula filifolia reaches a mature age leaf blades take an erect stance and are linear-filiform. This erect stance helps to avoid rot due to the swamp like nature of the white sand savannahs and ensures that the plant can stay above water if minor flooding occurs to maintain efficient access to sunlight. Over time, while approaching maturity, the blades narrow to 0.5–1 mm in width and grow to a length of 80–150 mm. their new morphology is cuneate at the base of the leaves and becomes acute approaching the apex.

Being a carnivorous plant, the leaves are coated with both stalked glands, which secrete a sweet mucilage to attract potential prey, sessile glands, which are both located on the adaxial surface. During the plants prefoliation phase, the leaves roll up in a circinate fashion, where the tip of the plant curls inward, believed by some to be used to ensure that its prey cannot escape once caught. Flowers of Pinguicula filifolia, come in a range of colors, they begin to appear in the summer between but can flower all year long. Each flower contains 5 petals

Phosphorous acid

Phosphorous acid, is the compound described by the formula H3PO3. This acid is diprotic, not triprotic. Phosphorous acid is an intermediate in the preparation of other phosphorus compounds. Organic derivatives of phosphorous acid, compounds with the formula RPO3H2, are called phosphonic acids. H3PO3 is more described with the structural formula HPO2. In the solid state, HP2 is tetrahedral with one shorter P=O bond of 148 pm and two longer P–O bonds of 154 pm; this species exists in equilibrium with an minor tautomer P3. IUPAC recommends that the latter be called phosphorous acid, whereas the dihydroxy form is called phosphonic acid. Only the reduced phosphorus compounds are spelled with an "ous" ending. Other important oxyacids of phosphorus are phosphoric acid and hypophosphorous acid; the reduced phosphorus acids are subject to similar tautomerism involving shifts of H between O and P. HPO2 is the product of the hydrolysis of its acid anhydride: P4O6 + 6 H2O → 4 HPO2. On an industrial scale, the acid is prepared by hydrolysis of phosphorus trichloride with water or steam: PCl3 + 3 H2O → HPO2 + 3 HClPotassium phosphite is a convenient precursor to phosphorous acid: K2HPO3 + 2 HCl → 2 KCl + H3PO3In practice aqueous potassium phosphite is treated with excess hydrochloric acid.

By concentrating the solution and precipitations with alcohols, the pure acid can be separated from the salt. Phosphorous acid is a strong acid with a pKa in the range 1.26–1.3. HP2 → HP2− + H+ pKa = 1.3It is a diprotic acid, the hydrogenphosphite ion, HP2− is a moderately strong acid: HP2− → HPO2−3 + H+ pKa = 6.7The conjugate base HP2− is called hydrogen phosphite, the second conjugate base, HPO2−3, is the phosphite ion.. The hydrogen atom bonded directly to the phosphorus atom is not ionizable. Chemistry examinations test students' appreciation of the fact that not all three hydrogen atoms are acidic under aqueous conditions, in contrast with H3PO4. On heating at 200 °C, phosphorous acid disproportionates to phosphoric acid and phosphine: 4 H3PO3 → 3 H3PO4 + PH3This reaction is used for laboratory-scale preparations of PH3. Both phosphorous acid and its deprotonated forms are good reducing agents, although not quick to react, they are oxidized to its salts. It reduces solutions of noble metal cations to the metals.

When phosphorous acid is treated with a cold solution of mercuric chloride, a white precipitate of mercurous chloride forms: H3PO3 + 2 HgCl2 + H2O → Hg2Cl2 + H3PO4 + 2 HClMercurous chloride is reduced further by phosphorous acid to mercury on heating or on standing: H3PO3 + Hg2Cl2 + H2O → 2 Hg + H3PO4 + 2 HCl Upon treatment with metals of d6 configuration, phosphorous acid is known to coordinate as the otherwise rare P3 tautomer. Examples include Mo5 and 2+; the most important use of phosphorous acid is the production of basic lead phosphite, a stabilizer in PVC and related chlorinated polymers. Phosphites have shown effectiveness in controlling a variety of plant diseases, in particular, treatment using either trunk injection or foliar containing phosphorous acid salts is indicated in response to infections by phytophthora and pythium-type plant pathogens, such as dieback/root rot and downy mildew. Anti-microbial products containing salts of phosphorous acid are marketed in Australia as'Yates Anti-Rot'.

Phosphorous acid and its salts, unlike phosphoric acid, are somewhat toxic and should be handled carefully. The IUPAC name is phosphonic acid; this nomenclature is reserved for substituted derivatives, that is, organic group bonded to phosphorus, not an ester. For example, PO2 is "methylphosphonic acid". Holleman, A. F.. Inorganic Chemistry. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-352651-5. Corbridge. D. E. C. Phosphorus: An Outline of its Chemistry and Technology. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-89307-5. Lee, J. D. Concise Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-81-265-1554-7

William Pepperrell House

The William Pepperrell House is a historic house at 94 Pepperrell Road in Kittery Point, Maine. Built about 1682 and enlarged and restyled, it was at the time of its construction the grandest house in what is now the state of Maine, it is notable as the birthplace and home of Sir William Pepperrell a leading businessman of the period whose greatest claim to fame was leading the 1745 Siege of Louisbourg during King George's War. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973; the Pepperrell House is located on the south side of Pepperrell Road, just east of Bellamy Lane, faces south toward Pepperrell Cove on the Piscataqua River. It is a 2-1/2 story wood frame structure, with clapboard siding. Both front and rear facades are four bays wide, with an entrance in one of the central bays; the building corners are pilastered, the entrances have flanking pilasters and are topped by gabled pediments. Above the street-facing entrance is a round-arch window; the house was built about 1682 for William Pepperrell, a fisherman who moved to the area in 1680 and married the daughter of John Bray, a local merchant and shipwright.

Pepperrell joined his father-in-law in business, by 1695 owned most of Kittery Point. By the early 18th century he was one of the wealthiest men in New England, his son named William, was active in the family business, joined the local militia, rising to command the entire militia of the Massachusetts District of Maine. When King George's War broke out in 1744, Pepperrell was chosen to lead a colonial expedition to take the French Fortress Louisbourg on what is now Cape Breton Island. For leading the capture of this strategic fortification, Pepperrell was awarded a baronetcy by King George II. Pepperrell's large landholdings were lost by his grandson, who remained Loyal during the American Revolutionary War and fled to England, resulting in the confiscation of the estate by the state. Lady Pepperrell House, built by the younger William's widow Bray House, adjacent to this house List of the oldest buildings in Maine National Register of Historic Places listings in York County, Maine

Hendersonville, Tennessee

Hendersonville is the largest city in Sumner County, Tennessee, on Old Hickory Lake. The population was 51,372 at 57,576 according to 2018 estimates. Hendersonville is the fourth-largest city in the Nashville metropolitan area after Nashville and Franklin and the 11th largest in Tennessee. Hendersonville is located 18 miles northeast of downtown Nashville; the city was settled around 1784 by Daniel Smith, is named for William Henderson, the city's first postmaster. Hendersonville has been home to numerous musicians of the Nashville area those of country music, most notably Johnny Cash, June Carter Cash, Conway Twitty, Roy Orbison; the city's main road, Johnny Cash Parkway, was named for the former singer. Other notable past and present residents include Conway Twitty, Jean Shepard, Marty Stuart, Kelly Clarkson, Max T. Barnes, Taylor Swift, Young Buck, Chris Henderson. Hendersonville was settled circa 1784 by Daniel Smith. In 1790, William Henderson settled in Sumner County and became the namesake of the town.

It was a trading center for the county, devoted to the production of tobacco and hemp as commodity crops, blood livestock: both horses and cattle. During the Civil War, Monthaven was used as a field hospital. In the late 20th century, this historic home was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1901, when the small city was incorporated, it had 250 residents and was led by L. H. "Dink" Newman. With the completion of the Old Hickory Dam in 1954, Hendersonville started to develop more as the lake attracted sportsmen and people seeking recreation. Since the late 20th century, it has become the most-populous city of Sumner County, one of the most populous suburbs of Nashville, along with Franklin and Murfreesboro; the city contains around 0.7% of the population of Tennessee. Hendersonville is governed by a board of 12 aldermen and a mayor, known as the Board of Mayor and Aldermen; the aldermen are elected by district for staggered terms of four years. The mayor is elected once every four years by the whole city.

In 2007 a risk was identified that the trouble-prone Wolf Creek Dam in the neighboring state of Kentucky might break, which could have resulted in a complete inundation for the lower lying parts of Hendersonville. Since extensive repairs have been performed on the dam, the maximum level of water behind it has been lowered, thus reducing the pressure of water on the structure and resolving the identified flood risk. Hendersonville is located at 36°18′00″N 86°36′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 32.9 square miles, of which 27.3 square miles is land and 5.6 square miles is water parts of the Cumberland River. Hendersonville is served by the freeway Tennessee State Route 386 and its parallel surface road U. S. Route 31E. Hendersonville has a humid subtropical climate; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 51,372 people, 20,111 households, 14,239 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,881.76 persons per square mile, the housing unit density was 736.67 units per square mile.

The racial makeup of the city was 88.64% White, 6.28% Black or African American, 1.58% Asian, 0.33% Native American, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.21% from other races, 1.89% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origins were 3.62% of the population. Of the 20,111 households, 33.47% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 55.71% were married couples living together, 3.92% had a male householder with no wife present, 11.17% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.20% were non-families. 24.35% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.77% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.04. Of the 51,372 residents, 25.80% were under the age of 18, 61.41% were between the ages of 18 and 64, 12.79% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.5 years. 51.71% of the residents were female and 48.29% were male. The median household income in the city was $62,627 and the median family income was $74,353.

Males had a median income of $54,016 versus $34,996 for females. The per capita income for the city was $30,000. About 6.5% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.0% of those under the age of 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 and over. As of the census of 2000, there were 40,620 people, 15,823 households, 11,566 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,486.4 people per square mile. There were 16,507 housing units at an average density of 604.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.93% White, 4.12% African American, 0.27% Native American, 1.10% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.65% from other races, 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.71% of the population. There were 15,823 households out of which 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.3% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.9% were non-families. 22.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 24.8% from 45 to 64, 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.9 males

USS Redhead (AMS-34)

USS Redhead was a YMS-1-class minesweeper of the YMS-135 subclass built for the United States Navy during World War II. She was the first U. S. Navy ship to be named for the Redhead duck. YMS-443 was laid down 21 October 1943 by the Hiltebrant Dry Dock Co. Kingston, New York. Following shakedown, YMS-443 operated off the U. S. East Coast until the spring when she transited the Panama Canal 10 April, she served at Pearl Harbor and Guam steamed further west for her initial combat duty, at Okinawa. Arriving 26 June 1945, she remained in the Ryukyus, engaged in minesweeping and antisubmarine patrol duties, with one interruption for availability in the Philippines until 6 September 1945. Ordered to Japan, she swept the Kochi Channel and Hiro Wan areas until 12 February 1946 when, with a crew of men eligible for discharge, she departed Kobe for the United States. Arriving at San Francisco, California, 27 March, she headed west again 27 November and operated at Pearl Harbor, Johnston Island, Eniwetok and Woleai for the remainder of the year.

Named Redhead and reclassified AMS-34, 18 February 1947, she continued her postwar clearing operations at Truk, Guam, Ngulu Island, Malakal, Karor Island, Chichi Jima, Yokosuka. Remaining in Japanese waters throughout 1948, 1949, into 1950, Redhead steamed for Korea on 12 July 1950 to help defend South Korea. A unit of Mine Division 31, Redhead served in task force TF 95 and, during the latter part of 1950 and the early months of 1951, operated off both coasts of the Korean Peninsula, sweeping moored mines with "O" type gear, acting as a mine destruction vessel and as a minesweep gear retriever. Redhead received the Presidential Unit Citation for operations against enemy forces in Korea from 11 to 24 October 1950. Operating as part of task unit TU 95.61, Redhead assisted in sweeping and buoying a channel 2,000 yards wide and 14 miles in length, to the outer limits of Wonsan Harbor, during which time heavy concentrations of enemy contact mines were swept. On 12 October, after aiding in the clearance of a channel through two mined contact-type minefields, Redhead encountered a third field of extreme density and conducted rescue operations for the survivors of Pirate and Pledge which had both been sunk by mines.

Straddled continually by enemy shore battery fire for a half-hour, Redhead assisted in silencing at least three of the hostile shore batteries and evaded many mines to carry out rescue activities. She returned to the minesweeping assignment and completed the clearance of an area through "one of the heaviest concentrations of enemy mines encountered in naval history. During the latter part of 1951 and the early months of 1952, Redhead's operations took her to Pukhan Suido. There, in addition to her "O" type gear, she now streamed the acoustic hammerbox and "open and closed jigs" for use in sweeping acoustic and magnetic minefields, while incidental duties included air-sea rescue, night patrols, investigation of suspicious fishing vessels and junks, which were used by the Communists for minelaying. From 7 May until 3 June 1952, Redhead penetrated deep into Wonsan Harbor to clear mines while close to heavy shore guns and permit entry of friendly bombardment vessels. Redhead conducted magnetic and moored check sweeps off Inchon during June and July 1952, patrolled a night picket station off Songjin during August.

Participating in operations off the east coast of Korea, 12 August to 8 September, Redhead dispersed a concentration of enemy sampans by scoring hits on two of the craft in the face of heavy enemy shore battery fire. From 12 to 15 October, she led her formation close to the shore at Kojo, under intense enemy fire, they completed their mission. During 1953 Redhead continued minesweeping and night identification patrol duties off Wonsan, the Yang Do Islands, Cho To, Po Hang, Daengyong Do. Remaining in Korea after the July 1953 truce, Redhead continued to carry out night patrol duties off the eastern coast of Korea into the summer of 1954. On 1 September 1954, she reported to the Yokosuka Ship Repair Facility and was reclassified minehunter AMCU-48, she was again reclassified, to MHC-48, on 7 February 1955. On 28 April 1955 she got underway for San Francisco, arriving 25 May, she proceeded to Seattle, where she joined the Harbor Defense unit, 13th Naval District. Through 1956 and into 1957 she carried out channel investigation in the Strait of Juan De Fuca and Puget Sound.

In October 1957, she shifted to Astoria, where she decommissioned 6 December 1957 and joined the Columbia River Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet, where she remained until struck from the Navy list 1 November 1959. In addition to receiving the Presidential Unit Citation, Redhead earned three battle stars for World War II service and 10 battle stars during the Korean War. USS Redhead for other ships of the same name; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Photo gallery of Redhead at NavSource Naval History