SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Author

An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, is considered a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created; the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i.e. the author. If more than one person created the work a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. In the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship; the United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship". Holding the title of "author" over any "literary, musical, certain other intellectual works" gives rights to this person, the owner of the copyright the exclusive right to engage in or authorize any production or distribution of their work.

Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright laws in many jurisdictions – following the lead of the United States, in which the entertainment and publishing industries have strong lobbying power – have been amended since their inception, to extend the length of this fixed period where the work is controlled by the copyright holder. However, copyright is the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time. A notable aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon one's death; the person who inherits the copyright enjoys the same legal benefits. Questions arise as to the application of copyright law.

How does it, for example, apply to the complex issue of fan fiction? If the media agency responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors and other considerations, come into play? Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books? What powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or stopping the fan fiction? This particular sort of case illustrates how complex intellectual property law can be, since such fiction may involved trademark law, likeness rights, fair use rights held by the public, many other interacting complications. Authors may portion out different rights they hold to different parties, at different times, for different purposes or uses, such as the right to adapt a plot into a film, but only with different character names, because the characters have been optioned by another company for a television series or a video game. An author may not have rights when working under contract that they would otherwise have, such as when creating a work for hire, or when writing material using intellectual property owned by others.

In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting. In the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea, he writes, in his essay "Death of the Author", that "it is language which speaks, not the author". The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, not someone possessing legal responsibility for the process of its production; every line of written text is a mere reflection of references from any of a multitude of traditions, or, as Barthes puts it, "the text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centres of culture". With this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, the limits imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed; the explanation and meaning of a work does not have to be sought in the one who produced it, "as if it were always in the end, through the more or less transparent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single person, the author'confiding' in us".

The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a written work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak, rather than author. Michel Foucault argues in his essay "What is an author?" that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that "a private letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author". For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to attribute certain standards upon the text which, for Foucault, are working in conjunction with the idea of "the author function". Foucault's author function is the idea that an author exists only as a funct

Patthar Ke Phool

Patthar Ke Phool is an Indian 1991 Hindi-language action film directed by Anant Balani, produced by G. P. Sippy, written by Salim Khan, edited by Deepak Sehgal, it stars Salman Khan as a police officer opposite debutant Raveena Tandon. The supporting cast includes Kiran Kumar as an underworld gangster and Reema Lagoo as mother of the police officer; the film was one of the highest-grossing Bollywood films of the year. Tandon won a Filmfare Award for Best Female Debut for her performance. Suraj is his wife, Meera. One day, Suraj meets a girl named Kiran. Unknown to everybody, Kiran is the daughter of the king of an underworld gang. Balraj has kept his truth a secret from his own daughter. Vijay, in the meanwhile, gets assigned to the case of Balraj's gang. Joining the same college and Kiran fall in love; as Vijay probes deeper and deeper into the gang, the gang members Goga, become unnerved. Balraj is disturbed by the fact. Vijay too gets an inkling. So, when Vijay learns about the affair between his son and Kiran, he forbids their love.

Suraj has a spat with his father over the matter. As Suraj vents out his feelings to his mother, Meera reveals a secret to him: Suraj is not Vijay's biological son. Meera tells him that his real father, her husband, was an Inspector and a friend of Vijay. Meera was pregnant with Suraj, when Suraj's father was killed while on a case by a goon named Ramsingh Gupti. After the death, Vijay took Meera into his home and married her when people started talking about Meera's character. Upon learning the truth, Suraj decides to apologize to him. However, Goga decides to have Vijay killed and contacts Balraj for the matter. Balraj tells him to leave Vijay alone, as doing something to him would be unwise and as he has decided to surrender to the cops. Goga, ignores the orders as he wants to take over the gang and orders a hit on Vijay. Just as Suraj apologizes to Vijay, the latter is gunned down by Goga's men. Shocked by the events, Suraj decides to bring the criminals to book. Suraj goes on to become an Inspector just like Vijay.

Suraj demands to be assigned to the last case Vijay was working on, as the criminals in that case must have killed him. Suraj is surprised to find Balraj's name in the file and doesn't take much to put two and two together. However, Kiran breaks off not ready to believe the allegation against her father. Here, Goga is planning to eliminate Suraj. Balraj has a spat with him and threatens to turn over, until Goga plays the recording of the day Vijay was killed. After realizing that Goga plans to frame him as Vijay's killer, Balraj calms down. However, Kiran overhears the recording and disillusioned, leaves her father's home. Kiran moves to a ladies hostel after she has severed contacts with both Balraj. Here, Goga ropes in another criminal to eliminate Suraj. Balraj tries to reconcile in vain. Balraj decides to surrender. Both Balraj and Suraj come to save Kiran; as Suraj eliminates all the goons one by one, he is angered to learn the identity of his real father's killer. Suraj kills Ramsingh and Goga, holding Kiran and Balraj at gunpoint.

Balraj not before giving his blessings to Suraj and Kiran. Salman Khan as Suraj Verma Raveena Tandon as Kiran Khanna Vinod Mehra as Inspector Vijay Verma Reema Lagoo as Meera Verma Kiran Kumar as Karim Khan Manohar Singh as Balraj Khanna Dinesh Hingoo Vinod Mehra died before the film was released, his voice was dubbed by Marathi actor Sachin Khedekar and the film was dedicated to his memory at the start of the credits. Kiran Kumar's role as the right-hand man of Manohar Singh in the film was appreciated, he had played an obedient and honest man attached to Manohar Singh, who too was presented in a different way, a loving father. Raveena Tandon won a Filmfare Award for Lux New Face of the Year for her performance in the film. Patthar Ke Phool on IMDb

1993–94 Liverpool F.C. season

The 1993-94 season was the 102nd season in Liverpool F. C.'s existence, their 32nd consecutive year in the top-flight. This articles covers the period from 1 July 1993 to 30 June 1994. Manager Graeme Souness resigned on 29 January 1994 after just under three years in charge following a shock FA Cup exit at the hands of Bristol City, he was succeeded by long serving coach Roy Evans, who guided the Reds to eighth place in the final table; the season began with the arrival of two notable new players, striker Nigel Clough and defender Neil Ruddock. A month into the season, Liverpool signed defender Julian Dicks from West Ham United, with defender David Burrows and midfielder Mike Marsh heading to East London as part of the deal. January saw the departure of striker Ronny Rosenthal to Tottenham Hotspur, it was the last season at Anfield for long-serving goalkeeper Bruce Grobbelaar and midfielder Ronnie Whelan, who had both been at the club for well over a decade and signed for Southampton and Southend United respectively.

Less high-profile departure during and after the season were midfielder Don Hutchison, defender Torben Piechnik and goalkeeper Mike Hooper. Teenage striker Robbie Fowler made his debut early in the season and scored all five goals in a League Cup tie against Fulham in one of his first senior games, by the end of the season had scored 12 goals in the league and 18 in all competitions to oust Nigel Clough as the regular partner of Ian Rush; the famous Spion Kop was demolished at the end of the season to make way for a new all-seater stand as Premier League clubs had to have all-seater stadiums for the 1994-95 season in line with the Taylor Report. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. 1 Game re-arranged from 8 January. He boosted the centre of defence with a £2.5 million move for Tottenham Hotspur's Neil Ruddock. Clough made an excellent start to his Liverpool career, scoring two goals on his debut against Sheffield Wednesday in a 2-0 home win on the opening day of the Premier League season, he was on the scoresheet four days when the Reds beat Queens Park Rangers 3-1 at Loftus Road. Liverpool recorded a three-match winning start to the season on 22 August when they crushed newly promoted Swindon Town 5-0 at the County Ground. Steve McManaman was on target twice, with the other goals coming from Neil Ruddock, Ronnie Whelan and Mike Marsh. There was a setback three days when Liverpool were beaten 2-1 at home by Tottenham, but the month ended on a winning note with a 2-0 home win over Leeds United; the Reds were now second behind Manchester United in the Premier League, manager Graeme Souness was hopeful of saving his job by bringing the league title back to Anfield sooner rather than later.

After an excellent August, the Reds fell to earth in September as all four of their Premier League games ended in defeat at the hands of Blackburn Rovers at Anfield, Coventry City at Highfield Road, Everton at Goodison Park and Chelsea at Stamford Bridge. This dragged the Reds from second to 13th place in the Premier League; the only positive note that month came in the Football League Cup second-round first leg at Craven Cottage, in which the Reds beat Fulham 3-1, with Ian Rush and Nigel Clough getting on the scoresheet along with 18-year-old Robbie Fowler, who scored his first goal for the club. September saw the arrival at Anfield of West Ham United defender Julian Dicks, signed in part exchange for David Burrows and Mike Marsh; the Reds pulled together after a disastrous September, holding Arsenal to a goalless draw at Anfield before overcoming Oldham Athletic at Anfield to win 2-1. The next game saw the Reds draw 1-1 with Manchester City at Maine Road, before the month ended on a high note with a 4-2 home win over Southampton.

Fowler had been spectacular earlier in the month by scoring all five goals against Fulham in the return leg of the League Cup second round at Anfield. Before the month was out, the Reds eliminated Ipswich Town in the third round at Anfield with Ian Rush scoring a hat-trick; the Reds were now seventh in the table, but 13 points behind leaders Manchester United, who had built up an 11-point lead over nearest contenders Norwich City and Arsenal. The Reds saw league action just three times in November, first in a 2-0 home win over West Ham followed by a 3-0 defeat at Newcastle United before the month ended with a 2-1 home win over Aston Villa, in which rising stars Robbie Fowler and Jamie Redknapp were on the scoresheet. Liverpool were now ninth in the league and the pressure was building back up on Graeme Souness. December was a tough month for the Reds, increasing speculation that Graeme Souness was about to leave or be forced out of the manager's seat; the month began badly with a 3-1 defeat at Sheffield Wednesday, though four days the Reds regrouped to beat QPR 3-2 at Anfield.

They were held to a disappoin